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Presented to the 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 
LIBRARY 

by the 

ONTARIO LEGISLATIVE 
LIBRARY 



1980 



PUBLICATIONS 



OF THE 



NAVY RECORDS SOCIETY 

Vol. LI. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF PHINEAS PETT 



THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF '_, ,^ • 5 ^'^ 



PHINEAS PETI* 










EDITED BY 



W. G. PERRIN 



-i c t 



fi 




"=». 






li^I:---fe> 5 



PRINTED FOR THE NAVY RECORDS SOCIETY 
MDCCCCXVIII 



O 






ONTARIO 



THE COUNCIL 

OF THE 

NAVY RECORDS SOCIETY 

I 9 I 7-1 9 1 8 

PATRON 
THE KING 

PRESIDENT 
THE RIGHT HON. LORD GEORGE HAMILTON, G.C.S.I. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS 

CoRBETT, Sir Julian S,, F.S.A. j Firth, Professor C. H., LL.D., 
CusTANCE, Admiral Sir Regi- i F.B.A. 

NALD N., G.C.B., K.C.M.G., | Gray, Albert, K.C, C.B. 

C.V.O., D.C.L. I 

COUNCILLORS 



Atkinson, C. T. 

Bethell, Admiral Hon. Sir 
A.E., K.C.B., K.C.M.G. 

Brindley, Harold H. 

Callender, Geoffrey A. R. 

Dartmouth, The Earl of, 
K.C.B. 

Desart, The Earl of, K.C.B. 

Dewar, Commander Alfred 
C, R.N. 

Gough - Calthorpe, Vice-Ad- 
miral The Hon. Sir Somer- 
set A., K.C.B., C.V.O. 

Guinness, Captain Hon. 
Rupert E. C, C.B., C.M.G., 
M.P., R.N.V.R., Ad. C. 

Kenyon, Sir Frederic G., 
K.C.B., D.Litt,, F.B.A. 

Leyland, John 

Marsden, R. G. 



Milford Haven, Admiral The 
Marquess of, P.C., G.C.B., 
G.C.V.O., K.C.M.G., LL.D.. 
Ad. C. 

Murray, John, C.V.O. 

Newbolt, Sir Henry 

Ottley. Rear-Admiral Sir 
Charles L., K.C.M.G., C.B., 
M.V.O. 

Parry, Sir C. Hubert, Bt., 
C.V.O. 

Pollen, Arthur H, 

Richmond, Captain Herbert 
W., R.N. 

Robinson,Commander Charles 
N., R.N, 

Sanderson, Lord, G.C.B., 

K.C.M.G., l.S.O. 
Slade, Admiral Sir Edmond 

J. W., K.C. I.E., K.C.V.O. 

Smith, Commodore Aubrey C. 
H., M.V.O., R.N. 

Tanner, J. R., Litt.D. 



SECRETARY 
Lieut.-Colonel W. G. Perrin, O.B.E., R.A.F., Admiralty, S.W. 

HON. TREASURER 
Sir W. Graham Greene, K.C.B., Ministry of Munitions, S.W. 



The Counxil of the Navy Records Society wish it 
to be distinctly understood that they are not answerable 
for any opinions or observations that may appear in the 
Society's publications. For these the responsibility rests 
entirely with the Editors of the several works. 



I 




PREFACE 



The manuscript in which Phineas Pett has 
recorded the story of his Hfe from his birth in 
1570 to the end of September 1638, consisted 
originally of sixty-nine uniform quarto sheets, 
of which the 52nd is now lost, together with the 
bottom of the 14th. The handwriting is that 
of Phineas throughout, but marginal references 
on the first few pages and a note at the end — 
' The life of Commissioner Pettis father whose 
place he did enjoy' — have been added subse- 
quently by Samuel Pepys, no doubt when he 
was making the transcript referred to below. 

The first paragraph is written on a separate 
sheet, which, unlike the rest, has no writing 
on the back, and is followed by a series of sub- 

1612 
traction sums of the form 1570 giving the age 

'"42 
of Phineas for each year from 1612 to 1640. 
From the differences apparent in the figures 
and ink it is clear that these calculations were 
made year by year from the time that Phineas 
was forty-two until he reached the age of seventy. 
A close inspection of the internal construction, 
the handwriting, and of the ink used, leads to 
the conclusion that the body of the manuscript, 



vui PREFACE 

in the form in which it has descended to us, 
was written up, not at short intervals, but in 
sections at comparatively long intervals of time. 
The first and largest of these, written appar- 
ently in 1612, narrates the events down to Sep- 
tember 1610, and stops at the word ' ordered ' 
on line 15 of page 80 below. The remainder * 
of that paragraph continues on a fresh sheet in 
a smaller handwriting and different ink, and 
from that point the ample margin of the 
earlier pages is abandoned and a small one ruled 
off with lead pencil. The top line of this page 
is also ruled, and from this page to the end of 
the writing the use of these pencil lines persists. 
The next break is in July 1611 (page 92), where 
Pett reiterates the statement that he was sent for 
by Prince Henry. Another break in the writing 
seems to occur in September 1613 ; and a very 
perceptible one, with change of ink, occurs in 
1625 at 'All April' (page 134). The final 
section, as indicated by a further change of ink, 
begins in February 1631 : 'The 23rd of February ' 
(page 146). The various anachronisms observable 
in the text show that these sections were written 
up some considerable time after the events occurred. 
Thus, the references to 'Sir* John Pennington in 
1627 and 1628 make it clear that the events of 
those years were not written up before 1634. 

From the great accuracy of the dates given 
(which have been frequently tested from con- 
temporary sources), it is clear that Phineas kept 
a diary in which events were recorded as they 
occurred, and from which the narrative was 
compiled. He appears to have commenced 
this diary on going to Chatham in June 1600, 

^ Probably rewritten when the narrative was taken up 
again. 



PREFACE ix 

when precise dates begin to replace the vague 
' about/ ' toward the end/ &c., of the earlier 
paragraphs. 

The narrative stops abruptly in 1638, appar- 
ently with the sentence unfinished, for there is 
no mark of punctuation after the last word. In 
1640, when the final section seems to have been 
written, Pett was an old man, and it is probable 
that, having been interrupted at this point, the 
fast-gathering troubles of the State diverted 
his mind from the subject, or left him without 
sufficient energy or leisure to pursue it. 

It will be noticed that towards the end the 
composition becomes more slovenly and the 
omission of words more frequent, as though 
the task had become burdensome and the author 
anxious to have done with it. 

Pepys copied the whole of the manuscript 
into the first volume of his Miscellany with the 
following preface : 

' A Journal of Phineas Pett, Esquire, 
Commissioner of the Navy and father to 
Peter Pett, late Commissioner of the same 
at Chatham, viz: from his birth A° 1570 
to the arrival of the Royal Sovereign, by 
him then newly built, at her moorings 
at Chatham; transcribed from the original 
written all with his own hand and lent me 
to that purpose by his grandson Mr. 
Phineas, son to Captain Phineas Pett.' 

The manuscript afterwards came into the pos- 
session of George Jackson, who was Secretary of 
the Navy Board in 1758 and Second Secretary of 
the Admiralty from 1766 to 1782. Sir George 
Duckett (he had changed his surname in 1797) 
died in 1822, and ten years later his library, 



X PREFACE 

including a very valuable collection of naval 
manuscripts, was sold by auction. Fortunately 
the manuscripts were purchased by the British 
Museum after being bought in at the sale; the 
volume (No. IV) in which this manuscript was 
contained becoming Additional MS. 9298. A 
commonplace book (Additional MS. 9295) con- 
taining, among copies of various naval docu- 
ments, an abbreviated version was purchased at 
the same time. 

The copy of the autobiography most gener- 
ally known is the early eighteenth-century tran- 
script in the Harleian Collection (Harl. 6279). 
It is to this copy that writers usually refer, 
possibly because it is mentioned in the paper ^ 
published in ArchcBologia in 1796, although 
the garbled extracts there given are stated to 
have been taken * from another copy ' and seem, 
in fact, to have been taken from the original.' A 
further reason for the preference generally shown 
for the Harleian copy may be its more modern 
and more clerkly handwriting. 

The Harleian transcript is not a good one. 
It contains few omissions, none of great import- 
ance, but mistranscriptions of individual words 
are very numerous and have reduced the text 
to nonsense in several places.^ It may seem 
strange that writers should be content to quote 
passages that were evidently incorrect, without 
looking at another copy, which was easily to be 

* By the Rev. S. Dennc, Archceologia xii. p. 217. 

* Tlic words ' and ourselves to sit with the Officers ' (page 
144) . not m the Harleian copy, are in the printed version. 

* E.g. ' Articles ' for ' Arches,' p. 14 ; ' enemy ' for ' in- 
jury,' p. 26 ; ' tarried ' for ' arrived,' p. 25 ; ' Frank Moore ' 
for * Tranckmore,' p. 33 ; * perceived ' for ' protested,' p. 61 ; 
* care ' for ' ease,' p. 104 ; ' Warwick,' for ' Woolwich ' p. 142, 
&c., &c. 



PREFACE xi 

found ; but whatever the reason may be, the fact 
is that hitherto the original has remained un- 
identified as such. 

The best transcript is that made by Pepys ; 
but even he had difficulty in deciphering some 
of the words, although the handwriting of Pett 
is, on the whole, very clear and consistent. 

In preparing this edition, the Pepysian and 
Harleian copies have been collated and the missing 
parts of the original made good by this means ; 
but as the numerous inversions of form and 
mistakes of reading in these copies have no 
general interest — and are of no authority in 
presence of the original — there is no need to specify 
them in detail. 

Considerable licence has been taken with 
the punctuation of the sentences, which is entirely 
without system in the original, and the spelUng has 
been modernised in accordance with the rule of 
the Society, but the composition has been left 
otherwise untouched. Where some word is neces- 
sary to complete the sense it has been added in 
square brackets [], and the parts now missing 
irom the original, which have been supplied from 
the transcripts, have been printed in italics. The 
legal year in England, prior to 1752, did not 
commence until the 25th March, and Pett usually 
gives his dates by this reckoning, but in one or 
two instances he writes as though the year had 
begun on 1st January and ended on 31st December. 
To avoid misunderstanding, it may be stated that 
the dates in the Introduction, headings, and 
notes are given according to the Julian year, 
commencing on ist January. 

Pett invariably wrote and signed ' Phinees,' 
but it has been thought better to adhere to the 
spelling * Phineas,' which appears from time to 



xii PREFACE 

time in documents from 1605 onwards and has 
been universally adopted by modern writers. 

In the Introduction an attempt has been 
made : first, to trace the rise of the Master Ship- 
wright as an official of the Crown and to consider 
his relation to the profession of shipwrights 
generally ; secondly, to trace the origin of the 
Pett family and its ramifications down to the 
date of Phineas' death ; thirdly, to throw addi- 
tional hght on the events narrated in the manu- 
script from such original sources as are accessible. 
In asking the indulgence of the reader towards 
the evident shortcomings of this attempt, the 
Editor would plead that most of the work has 
had to be carried out under great difficulties 
in scanty moments of leisure. Despite the 
generous assistance of Mr. Vincent Redstone of 
Woodbridge, whose extensive knowledge of Suffolk 
genealogy has been brought to bear on the problem, 
it has not been found possible to trace the Pett 
family to its original location, but it is hoped that 
sufficient has been done to render this task more 
easy to some future investigator. 

In conclusion the Editor has to thank many 
friends for the help readily given, more especially 
Dr. Tanner, who has read the proofs and given 
the Introduction the benefit of his criticism, and 
Mr. G. E. Manwaring, of the London Library, who 
has rendered invaluable help in clearing up many 
obscure points, and he is indebted to Mrs Scott for 
the loan of the MS. treatise on shipbuilding referred 
to in the Introduction. The Editor has also had 
the great advantage of discussing with Mr. L. G. 
Carr Laughton the technical questions raised in 
connexion with the Prince Royal and the 
Sovereign of the Seas. 

December 191 8. \\ . G. P. 




CONTENTS 



Introduction 

The Shipwrights 
The Family of Pett 
Phineas Pett . 



The Autobiography .... 

Appendices 

I. Grant to Phineas Pett . 

II. Petition of Shipwrights . 

III. Charter to Shipwrights' Company (1605) 

IV. Charter to Shipwrights* Company (1612) 
V. New Building the Prince Royal 

VI, Petition to the Admiralty (1631) 
VII. Letter to Buckingham (1623) . 
VIII. Protest against Building the Sovereign 

IX. Ships Built or Rebuilt by Phineas Pett 
X. The Arms of Pett 
Index 



XV 

xlii 
lii 



173 
175 
176 
179 
207 
210 
212 
214 
217 
218 
219 



INTRODUCTION 



I. — The Shipwrights, 

It might be supposed that so ancient a craft as 
that of shipbuilding would have left some trace 
in contemporary records of its activities, the 
methods of its technique, and the personalities 
of those engaged in it. Yet although references 
to ships and shipping are frequent in the records 
of this country from the earliest times, and 
although the shipwright was a distinct class of 
workman at least as early as the tenth century— 
probably much earlier — no record of the methods 
in which he set about the design and construc- 
tion of ships earlier than the end of the sixteenth 
century appears to have survrved. 

It may be presumed that those of our 
earlier kings who possessed a navy royal, and 
did not rely entirely on the support of the Cinque 
Ports and of the merchant shipping, would 
include among their servants some skilled man 
to perform the functions of a master shipwright, 
and if not to design, at any rate to look to the 
upkeep of the king's ships and to watch the 
construction in private yards of those intended 
for the royal service. But if the Clerk of the 
Ships, who first comes into notice in the reign 
of John, had any such subordinate, his existence 



xvi INTRODUCTION 

before the end of the reign of Henry V is not 
known to us. It is, however, possible that, on 
occasion, this duty was performed by the king's 
carpenters, whose principal function seems to 
have been to keep the woodwork of the royal 
castles in repair. In 1337 forty oaks required 
in the construction of a galley, then being built at 
Hull for Edward III under the superintendence of 
William de la Pole, a prominent merchant of that 
town, were supphed by the Prior of Blyth, who 
was directed to hand them over to William de 
Kelm (Kelham), the king's carpenter [carpentario 
nostro).^ The accounts for this galley have not 
survived, and there is no means of ascertaining 
whether William de Kelm had anything to do 
with the actual construction. Another galley 
and a barge were at the same time being built 
at Lynn under Thomas and William de Melche- 
burn. The accounts ' show that the master 
carpenter (magister carpentariorum) of the galley 
was John Kech, who was paid at the rate of six- 
pence • a day and had under him six carpenters at 
fivepence a day, six ' clynckers ' at fourpence, 
six holders at threepence, and four labourers 
(servientes) at twopence halfpenny. The master 
carpenter of the barge was Ralph atte Grene, 
who received the same rate of pay as Kech. 
Neither Kech nor Grene appear as the King's 
servants. 

In 1421 the ' King's servant ' John Hogge- 
kyns, ' master carpenter of the king's ships,' was 
granted by letters patent a pension of fourpence 
a day, ' because in labouring long about them 
he is much shaken and deteriorated in body,' 

• Col. Close Rolls, 27 Jan. 1337. Rymer, Foedera, iv. 703. 

• Exchequer Accis. 19/31. 

• This rate was being paid in 1303. 



\ 



INTRODUCTION xvii 

and this grant was confirmed in December of the 
following year on the accession of Henry VI. 
In 1416-18 Hoggekyns had built the Grace Dieu, 
* if not the largest, probably the best equipped 
ship yet built in England.' ^ 

With the sale of most of the royal navy on 
the death of Henry V, the need for a ' master 
carpenter of the King's Ships ' must have passed 
away, and no trace of any further appointment 
of this character has been found for over a cen- 
tury. The construction of the Regent in i486 was 
entrusted by Henry VII to the Master of the 
Ordnance, and it seems probable that the design 
of the Henri Grace k Dieu, built in 1514, was the 
work of the Clerk of the Ships, Robert Brygandin,^ 
although the superintendence of her building 
was entrusted to William Bond (or Bound), 
who is described in 1519 as 'late clerk of the 
poultry, surveyor, and payer of expenses for 
the construction of the Henri Grace a Dieu and 
the three other galleys.* ^ 

It is not until the later years of Henry VIIFs 
reign that steps appear to have been taken to 
establish in the royal service a permanent body 
of men skilled in the art of shipbuilding. From 
the earliest times of which records exist it had been 
the practice to send out agents to the various 
ports to impress the shipwrights, caulkers, sawyers, 
and other workmen required for the construction 
and repair of ships of the Royal Navy. This 
system was no doubt satisfactory while the 

^ Oppenheim, The Administration of the Royal Navy, 1509- 
1660, p. 14. 

' Thos. Allen, writing to the Earl of Shrewsbury in 15 16, 
refers to * one Brygandin son unto him that made the King's 
great ship. ' Lodge, Illustrations of British History, vol. i. p. 14. 

» Cal. S.P. Dom., May 12, 1519. 

J? 



xviii INTRODUCTION 

merchant ship and the royal ship presented no 
essential points of difference ; the latter were, in- 
deed, often let out to hire for mercantile pur- 
poses. But when the ship-of-war began to carry a 
larger number of guns than the trading ship found 
necessary for her protection— a change that may 
be roughly dated from the end of the fifteenth 
century — the methods of construction began to 
diverge, and the old system of casual impressment 
must have tended to become less and less satis- 
factory ; so that when Henry, after remodelling 
the material of the Navy, turned, at the end of 
his reign, to the improvement of the Adminis- 
tration he no doubt saw the necessity of attract- 
ing permanently to his service men capable of 
directing the art of shipbuilding, as apphed to 
ships of war, in the new channels in which it 
was henceforth destined to run. 

Up to this point, the position of the ship- 
wright — even of the Master Shipwright— was 
not an exalted one. He was classed among ' ser- 
vants ' and * artificers,' and his pay was made the 
subject of legislation expressly designed to keep 
the wages of those classes as low as possible. 
In ' Naval Accounts and Inventories of the 
Reign of Henry VII, 1485-8 and 1495-7,' 
Mr. Oppenheim has edited material which illus- 
trates the various rates paid to shipwrights, and 
has pointed out that these rates of pay 'had 
remained practically unaltered since the days of 
Henry V.* An Act of Parliament of 1495 ^ laid 
down the following scale of payments : — 

* ' An Act for Servants' Wages,' 11 Henry VII, c. 22. 



INTRODUCTION xix 



From Candlemas to Michaelmas. 

With meat Without 

and drink, meat and drink, 
a day a day 

Master Ship Carpenter with 

charge of work and men 

under him . . -5^. yd. 

Other Ship Carpenter called 

a Hewer 
An able Clincher 
Holder 

Master Caulker . 
A mean Caulker 
Caulker labouring by the 

tide, for as long as he may 

labour above water and 

beneath water, shall not 

exceed for every tide . 4^. 

From Michaelmas to Candlemas, 



. 4d, 


6d. 


. . 3d. 


5d. 


. 2d. 


Ad, 


. 4d. 


6d. 


. 3d. 


5d. 



Master Shipwright 

Hewer 

Able Clincher . 

Holder 

Master Caulker . 

A mean Caulker 



4d, 6d. 

3d, 5d. 

2^d, /\^d. 

Ad. 3d. 

2id, 4ld, 



This Act was repealed in 1496, but the same 
scale was fixed in 1514 by an Act ^ that was not 
repealed until 1562. 

It will be observed that the highest rate under 
these Acts is sevenpence a day, although in 
several instances in the accounts* referred to 

* An Act concerning Artificers and Labourers, 6 Henry VIII 
c. 3. » Op, cit., pp. 22, 153, 179, 232-3. 



XX INTRODUCTION 

above a Master Shipwright was paid eightpence 
a day. 

When Henry VIII instituted^ the practice 
of granting by letters patent an annuity for 
life to certain shipwrights performing the duties 
of the office known later as * the Master Ship- 
wright,' he fixed the daily rate upon the basis 
set forth above, but it must be borne in mind 
that (as will be shown later) this did not repre- 
sent the total emoluments of that official, who 
was in effect raised, both as to emoluments and 
status, above the class in which he had formerly 
been placed. 

The first of the succession of officials thus 
established by Henry appears to have been James 
Baker, who by letters patent ^ dated the 20th 
May 1538 was granted, as from Michaelmas 
1537, an annuity for life of fourpence a day, the 
lowest rate of a Master Shipwright, or Master 
Ship Carpenter as he was alternatively called 
by the Acts referred to. The entry in the Roll 
is of some interest ; unlike the later grants, 
this grant is not based upon past services, but 
solely upon services which are to be rendered in 
the future,^ and the authority for the letters 
patent is not the usual writ of privy seal, but the 
direct motion of the King : ' per ipsum Regem.' 
In December 1544 new letters patent were issued,* 
in which Baker is described as a ' Shipwright ' 
and the annuity (annuitatem sive annualem red- 
ditum) fixed at eightpence a day. In January 

• Henry V had merely given a pension for past service 
to a shipwright incapable of further labours. 

• Patent Roll 680. 

• ' Ac in consideratione veri et fidelis servicii quod dilectus 
serviens noster Jacobus Baker durante vita sua impendere 
intendit.' • Pat. Roll 704. 



INTRODUCTION xx! 

of the same year, Peter Pett, ' Shipwright/ had 
by letters patent been granted a wage and fee 
{vadium et feodum) of sixpence a day for life, as 
from Michaelmas 1543, ' in consideration of his 
good and faithful service done and to be done ' ; 
from which it appears that Peter Pett was already 
in the royal service. It is probable that the 
increase in Baker's annuity was intended to 
mark his superior position in relation to Pett. 

The official title of ' master shipwright ' does 
not appear as yet in use, for when Baker and 
other shipwrights were, in the next year, sent by 
the Council, at the request of the Lord Admiral, 
to Portsmouth to examine into the decay of 
one of the ships there, they were simply described 
as * Masters James Baker and others skilful in 
ships/ ^ In addition to Baker and Pett, these 
included John Smyth, Robert Holborn, and 
Richard Bull. On the 23rd April 1548 these 
three latter, under the designation of ' Ship- 
wrights,' together with Richard Osborn, anchor- 
smith, * had by bill signed by the King's Majesty 
each of them 4^. per diem in consideration of 
their long and good service and that they 
should instruct others in their feats.' ^ Smyth 
and Holborn were hardly in the same category 
as Baker and Peter Pett. They seem to have 
been skilled mechanics rather than constructors 
or designers, and are not mentioned as having 
* built ' a ship, though this is perhaps due to the 
scantiness of the surviving records ; but the fact 
that the formality of letters patent was dis- 
pensed with in connexion with this grant is sig- 
nificant. Bull was, however, in May 1550 granted 
I2d, a day from Midsummer 1549 t)y letters 

1 Acts 0] the P.C., New Series, i. 233. 
» Ibid,, ii. p. 186. 



kxii INTRODUCTION 

patent in the usual terms/ and since Peter Pett 
was not granted this higher rate until April 1558,* 
in the last year of Mary's reign, it would seem as 
though Buirs services were rated by Edward VI 
more highly than Pett's. James Baker does not 
seem to have long survived Henry VIII. Prob- 
ably he died in 1549, and Bull received Baker's 
annuity, since it is not likely that an additional 
annuity would be created for Bull at that time, 
and there is no mention of any reversion in 
Bull's patent. 

Little is known of Bull • or of another master 
shipwright * William Stephins ' * who is men- 
tioned in 1553 and 1558. The latter may have 
been the ancestor of the Stevens ^ who built 
the Warspite in 1596, and contested the place 
of Master Shipwright with Phineas. 

In 1572 Mathew Baker, son of James, suc- 
ceeded to Bull's annuity. The letters patent ^ by 
which the grant was made are different in form 
from those above referred to, for Baker is first 
granted the office of Master Shipwright ' with all 
profits and emoluments pertaining to it, which he is 

* Pat. Roll 833. I cannot trace in the rolls any similar 
grant to Holborn or Smyth. 

« Pat. Roll, 921. 

» He may be the Richard Bull who was called before 
the Council in 1555. Acts oj the P.C., v. 189. 

* Stephins was engaged on the repair of the Lion barge 
in 1553, and was paid 20/. as ' the Queen's Majesty's Ship- 
wright ' for making the Leader barge in 1558. Acts of the 
P.C., iv. .362, and vi. 426. 

■ The difference in the spelling is no argument against 
this, as ' ph ' and ' v ' are used indifferently in the documents 
in this surname, Stevens' name being spelt * Stevyns ' 
and ' Stevins ' and ' Stephens ' in the rolls. 

* Pat. Roll 1091. 

' Officium Naupegiarii sive unius magistrorum factorum 
Navium et Cimbarum nostrarum. 



INTRODUCTION xxiii 

to hold in as ample a mode and form as ' a certain 
Richard Bull, deceased/ or any other, had held 
such office, and then, for the exercise of this 
office, he is granted the usual annuity of I2d. a 
day for life, as from Lady Day 1572. 

In January 1584 Baker attended personally 
at the Exchequer and of his free will surrendered 
this grant in exchange for one in similar form ^ 
made out to himself and John Addey ^ with 
reversion to the longer liver. The reasons why 
Baker thus formally adopted Addey as his suc- 
cessor do not appear. However, Baker outlived 
him, dying in 1613, whereas Addey died in 1606 
at Deptford, where he was then the Master 
Shipwright. 

In July 1582 Peter Pett had appeared at 
the Exchequer and surrendered his patent of 
1558, receiving in exchange a joint patent,' in 
similar terms, for himself and his eldest son, 
William, who was already in the royal service 
as a shipwright,* with reversion to the longer 
liver. WilHam, however, died in 1587, two years 
before his father, so that the annuity never 
reverted to him. In his will he describes him- 
self as one of her Majesty's Master Shipwrights, 

1 Pat. Roll 1249. The entry in Pat. Roll 1091 is vacated 
with an endorsement in the margin, signed by Mathew Baker 
and William Borough to the effect that the surrender was 
voluntary and in consideration of the grant to Baker and 
Addey. 

« Sometimes spelt Adye, Adie, or Ady. 

» Pat. Roll 1210. No office is mentioned ; all that is 
conveyed is the * annuity or annual fee of i2d. sterhng a 

day.' 

* Nee non in consideratione boni et fidelis servicii per 
praefatum Willelmum Pett Shipwright antehac impensi ac 
imposterum impendendi in fabricatione navium nostrarum 
heredum et successorum nostrorum ac in assistencia sua in 
causis nostris marinis. 



xxiv INTRODUCTION 

and from the reference to him in the patent 
above referred to it seems probable that he held 
the office in 1584. 

In 1587 Richard Chapman received a grant * 
of the office of ' Naupegiarius/ which was to 
be held on similar terms {modo et forma) to those 
in which Peter Pett and Mathew Baker or any 
other held like office, but the annuity granted 
with it was 2od. a day, and not the usual i2d. 
Apparently this was an additional post created 
especially for Chapman, and the 2od. indicates 
the rise that had by that time taken place in 
the shipwrights* rates of pay. 

In July 1^90 Joseph Pett was granted I2d, 
a day as from Midsummer. ^ Presumably this 
was the annuity that had reverted to the Ex- 
chequer on the death of his father in 1589, his 
brother William, who had held the reversion of 
it, being already dead ; but the patent contains 
no reference to this, the grant being based upon 
'his good and faithful service done and to be 
done in building our ships.' Unlike those issued 
to Mathew Baker and Chapman, this patent 
contains no reference to office and is in the earlier 
form. Phineas (see p. 4) dates Joseph's succession 
to his father's place as Master Shipwright in 
1592, but this is evidently incorrect. 

In April 1592 Chapman died ^ at Deptford, 
and William Bright, one of the Assistant Master 

* Pat. Roll 1300. In a MS. account of the ' ordinary 
wages and exchequer fees of his Majesty's Master Ship- 
wrights ' (Add. MS. 9299 f. 48) it is stated that this had 
been given in recompense for building the Ark Royal, but as 
this ship appears to have been originally built for Ralegh 
this can hardly have been the reason. The patent only 
speaks of ' good and faithful service done and to be done.' 

2 Pat. Roll 1342. 

^ Drake's edition of Hasted, History of Kent, p. 41. 



INTRODUCTION xxv 

Shipwrights, succeeded to his post and annuity 
of 2od.^ In July 1603 Edward Stevens, who was 
a private shipbuilder of some importance, ^ ob- 
tained a grant by letters patent ^ in terms that 
differ from those hitherto noticed. In considera- 
tion of service to be rendered in the future {post- 
had), he is granted an office of Master Ship- 
wright for life — which office he is to have and 
exercise directly one becomes vacant, in as ample 
a manner as Mathew Baker, William Bright and 
Joseph Pett or any other had held it— together 
with an annuity of 2od. a day for his services. 
Finally the patent concludes by declaring that 
no one else shall be admitted to such an office 
until after Stevens has been duly appointed 
and installed. This was the patent that gave 
Phineas such 'great discouragement ' (p. 20). It 
is drawn up in due form, and it is difficult to 
understand on what grounds it can legally have 
been set aside. The patent * granted to Phineas 
in 1604 did not revoke it, it was not recalled, and 
it would appear that it was in virtue of this same 
patent that Stevens was finally admitted as 
Master Shipwright in 1613. However, Phineas, 
by the all-powerful influence of the Lord High 
Adnairal, managed to get it set aside in his favour 
on the death of his brother Joseph in 1605, * by 
reason the fee was mistaken wherein his Majesty 
was abused and charged with an innovation.' ^ 
The ' innovation ' was evidently the grant of a 

^ Add. MS. 9299. I have not been able to find his patent. 

* He built the War spite in 1596 and the Malice Scourge for 
the Earl of Cumberland, and in 1598 and 1600 received, in 
conjunction with others, the usual ' rewards ' for building 
merchant ships {Cal. S,P. Dom., 30 July 1596, 24 Sept. 1598, 
15 Jan. 1600). 3 Pat. Roll. 1620. 

* Appendix I, p. 173. = Infra, p. 27. 



xxvi INTRODUCTION 

* general reversion/ It would have been inter- 
esting to see the arguments laid before the Council 
by Stevens when, as Phineas tells us, he con- 
tested the decision, but unfortunately all the 
Council Registers from 1603 to 1613 perished in 
the fire at Whitehall in 161 8. There is little 
w^onder that Stevens (who was an older man and 
had, one would imagine, superior claims) bore a 
grudge against Pett. Stevens appears to have 
been appointed as Master Shipwright in the 
vacancy caused by the death of Baker in 1613. In 
i6i4he was Master Shipwright at Portsmouth, and 
was in 162 1 serving with Phineas as his ' fellow ' 
Master Shipwright at Chatham, where he died, 
being succeeded by Henry Goddard in 1626. 

On 26th April 1604 Phineas, by the assist- 
ance of the Lord High Admiral, obtained the 
grant by letters patent of two chances of the 
reversion of an annuity of I2d. a day, either that 
of Baker- Addey or that of his brother Joseph. His 
brother w^as the first to die, and at the end of the 
following year Phineas succeeded to the annuity 
that had been in the hands of the Petts since 1544. 

It is of interest to note that the patent was 
not of itself sufficient to enable the patentee to 
enter into the office of Master Shipwright ; the 
Lord High Admiral's warrant was also necessary. 
A specimen of such a warrant has been preserved 
in the State Papers ^ in the case of Goddard, who 
succeeded Stevens in 1626, having held a rever- 
sion by patent since 1620, and runs as follow^s : — 

Whereas we have received certain knowledge 
of the death of Edward Stevens late one of his 

* S.P. Dom. Chas. I, xxxv. 104. AUhough counter- 
signed by Coke, this warrant is not signed by the Lord High 
Admiral, so presumably it is a duplicate. 



INTRODUCTION xxvii 

Majesty's Master Shipwrights and the necessity 
and importance of his Majesty's Service requireth 
another man to be presently entered in his place. 
And forasmuch as the bearer hereof Henry Goddard 
is authorised by his Majesty's letters patents to 
execute the next place of a Master Shipwright 
that should become void by death or otherwise. 
And in regard we have had good experience of the 
sufficiency and honesty of the said Henry Goddard 
and that the said place of one of his Majesty's 
Master Shipwrights is granted to him by his Majesty's 
letters patents under the great seal of England. 
These are therefore to will and require you to cause 
the said Henry Goddard to be entered one of his 
Majesty's Master Shipwrights with such allowances 
as is usual. 

Hereof we require you not to fail. And for 
your so doing this shall be your warrant. 

Dated the i6 of September 1626. 

J. Coke. 

To our very loving friend Peter Buck, Esq., Clerk 
of his Majesty's Check at Chatham or his deputy. 

The Lord High Admirars records have long 
since disappeared, and in the State Papers for 
the period with which we are concerned very 
few documents remain of the bulk of naval 
records that must once have existed. This one 
is therefore of considerable interest on account 
of the light which it throws upon the very inde- 
pendent position of the Lord High Admiral in 
relation to the Crown : it may be doubted whether 
any other great officer of State was in a position of 
such authority that he could presume to ratify 
a grant that had already passed the Great Seal. 

At the time when Phineas became a Master 
Shipwright, the ordinary wages of the post, paid 
by the Treasurer of the Navy, were 25. a day ; 
to this was added the Exchequer fee or annuity 



xxviii INT ROD UCTION 

of I2d. (or in the case of Bright 2od.) a day. 
Besides these Mathew Baker received a pension 
from the Exchequer of £40 a year granted by 
writ of Privy Seal, said to be ' in recompense 
of his service after the building of the Mer- 
honour ' ; a concession that at a later period ^ was 
extended to Phkieas. Thus, at that period, the 
total yearly emoluments of Mathew Baker were 
£94, 155. ; of Bright ;f66, 185.4^. ; andof Phineas 
Pett £54, 15s. ; while the East India Company 
paid Burrell, their Master Shipwright, £200. After 
making allowance for the difference in the value 
of money at the beginning of the seventeenth 
century and its present (or rather pre-war) value,' 
it is clear that these were inadequate emoluments 
for so important a post, and it is not surprising 
that many of the Master Shipwrights kept private 
shipbuilding yards, ^ while all added to their in- 
come at the expense of the Crown in ways that 
were very irregular and constantly gave rise to 
scandal. Probably none was more adept in this 
art than Phineas himself. 

In addition to the Master Shipwrights receiv- 
ing an additional allowance from the Exchequer 
under letters patent, who seem to have been known 
as the * principal * Master Shipwrights, there were 
others who, although they were never fortunate 
enough to succeed to an Exchequer annuity, 
performed the duties of the post, to which, ap- 

* II July 1614. He does not mention this in the manu- 
script. 

" Probably these amounts should be multipHed by 6. 

■ Thus in November 1591, whilst holding office as Master 
Shipwright, Chapman, who owned a private yard at Dept- 
ford, was paid the bounty of 5s. a ton for building the Dainty of 
London of 200 tons, ' as an encouragement to him and others to 
build like ships,' and Phineas was paid the hke bounty for 
building the Resistance. (Cal, S.P. Dom.) 



INTRODUCTION xxix 

parently, they were admitted by warrant from 
the Lord High Admiral before their reversions 
under letters patent fell due. In this category 
were William Pett and Addey. 

The relationship between the royal ship- 
wrights and the commercial shipbuilders was at 
all times very close. Not only did the former 
engage freely in commercial business, but they 
joined the latter in attempting to regulate the 
shipbuilding industry of the country. An un- 
dated petition of both classes of shipwrights 
for incorporation occurs among the State Papers 
of 1578.1 No answer seems to have been given 
to it, but as there is a ' brief ' of a patent for 
shipwrights dated 1592 mentioned in the calendar 
of Salisbury MSS.,^ it is clear that the proposal 
subsequently received consideration, although the 
matter did not come to fruition until thirteen 
years later. 

All record of the steps that preceded the grant 
of the Charter of 1605 ^ appears to be lost. It is 
not probable that the aged Nottingham would 
have moved in the matter without strong pressure 
from below, and we can only surmise that the 
officers of the company thereby incorporated were 
the prime movers in the agitation which led to its 
being granted. 

It will be observed that the petition of 1578 is 
based upon the alleged need for regulating the 
pay, discipline, and training of the ordinary ship- 
wrights, now increasing rapidly in number with 
the increase of the mercantile marine. The 
arguments for granting the Charter of 1605, 
as set forth in the preamble, are two : first, that 

^ Appendix II, p. 175. 

' Salisbury MSS. {Hist. MSS.), i. 276. 

^ Appendix III, p. 176. 



XXX INTRODUCTION 

all ships, both royal and merchant, were built 
neither strongly nor well ; secondly, that many 
of the shipwrights were not sufficiently skilful. 
The remedy proposed for this state of affairs was 
the formation of a corporation or trade union, 
of which all persons engaged in shipbuilding in 
England and Wales were to be compelled to 
become members. The government of the cor- 
poration — ^and therefore of the whole ship- 
building industry of the country — was placed in 
the hands of a Master, four Wardens, and twelve 
Assistants. Baker, as the most noted ship- 
builder of the period, was rightly made the 
Master ; the wardenships w^re divided between 
the remaining two master-shipwiights and two 
of the most prominent private shipbuilders ; the 
twelve assistantships were divided as follows : 
Phineas Pett, Addey, and Apslyn, from the royal 
dockyards ; four shipbuilders of the neighbour- 
hood of London ; and one each from Woodbridge, 
Ipswich, Bristol, Southampton, and Yarmouth. 
The omission of any representative from Hull or 
Newcastle is noteworthy. 

No record remains to show what effect this 
charter had ; probably very little, if one may 
judge from the absence of any record of com- 
plaints against it, although the documentary 
remains of the first ten years of James Fs reign 
are so very scanty that no great reliance can be 
placed upon this argument. 

In 1612 another charter * was sealed. The 
necessity for this was based on the ground of the 
insufficiency of the powers granted by the former 
charter, and no pains were spared to remedy 
this, so far as words could do so. The Charter 
of 1605 extends over five and a half membranes 

* Appendix IV, p. 179. 



INTRODUCTION xxxi 

of the Patent Roll, each membrane about 30 
inches long and containing 90 lines of writing. 
The Charter of 161 2 was a portentous document ; 
its enrolment extends from membrane 16(2) 
to membrane 37 and contains about 15,600 words. 
No possible loophole was left for any verbal 
quibble or evasion on the part of those who might 
desire to escape from its jurisdiction ; the ' all 
and every person and persons being shipwrights 
or carpenters using the art or mystery of ship- 
building and making ships ' of the earlier charter 
— sufficiently explicit, one would have thought — 
becomes ' all and every person and persons being 
shipwrights, caulkers or ship-carpenters, or in any 
sort using, exercising, practising, or professing 
the art, trade, skill or mystery of building, making, 
trimming, dressing, graving, launching, winding, 
drawing, stocking, or repairing of ships, carvels, 
hoys, pinnaces, crayers, ketches, lighters, boats, 
barges, wherries, or any other vessel or vessels 
whatsoever used for navigation, fishing, or trans- 
portation,' and to this is added another long 
clause covering accessories made of wood, from 
masts downward. The other clauses of the 
earlier charter are also expanded with the like 
object, and there are several new ones. Deputies 
were to be appointed in ' every convenient and 
needful place ' to see that the ordinances of the 
Corporation were properly carried out, and to 
collect dues ; members might be admitted who 
were not shipwrights ; the admission of apprentices 
was regulated ; dues were to be received on 
account of all ships built ; the secrets of the art 
were to be kept from foreigners ; power was 
given to punish those who forsook their work or 
became mutinous ; the Corporation was granted 
the reversion of the post of Surveyor of Tonnage 



xxxii INTRODUCTION 

of new-built ships, and was to examine each new 
ship to see that it was properly built ' with two 
orlops at convenient distances, strong to carry 
ordnance aloft and alow, with her forcastle and 
half deck close for fight ' ; provision was to be 
made for the poor ; and finally, no doubt on 
account of the extended powers granted, the 
ancient liberties of the Cinque Ports were ex- 
pressly reserved to them. 

The provision for the armament of the merchant 
ships is of especial interest when it is remembered 
that in this year the Royal Navy reached the low 
water mark of neglect and inefficiency, while 
piracy in British waters reached a high water 
mark of efficiency that promised the speedy 
extinction of the peaceful trader. 

But if the general trend of the new charter 
was the enlargement and consolidation of the 
powers of the Corporation, there is one significant 
change that led in the opposite direction : the 
'Shipwrights of England ' became the 'Ship- 
wrights of Redrith ^ in the County of Surrey,' 
a step so retrograde that it is difficult to imagine 
what possible argument could have been adduced 
to justify such a change : some reason, no doubt, 
there was, but owing to the loss of the records 
it has not been possible to discover it.^ It will 
be observed that, although the master under 
the new charter was a government official, the 
wardens, reduced to three in number, were all 
private shipbuilders, and only three of the sixteen 
assistants were in the service of the State. 

In the year following the grant of the enlarged 
charter, the legal position of the Corporation was 

i * Rotherhithe, where their Hall was situated. 

» Probably it was due to the growing resistance of the 
City Company of Free Shipwrights. 



INTRODUCTION xxxiii 

further strengthened by the issue of an Order 
in Council authorising the Master and Wardens 
to apprehend all persons using the art of 
shipbuilding contrary to the Charter, and all 
apprentices or journeymen departing unlawfully 
from their masters ; ^ and by an order of the 
Lord High Admiral directing the apprehension 
of all persons who refused to conform to the 
regulations, and their imprisonment until they 
complied — ' they being chiefly poor men and unable 
to pay a fine.' * 

The fact that it was necessary to recapitulate 
two of the penal clauses of the charter throws 
light on the uncertain scope — possibly the 
illegality — of the powers intended to be con- 
ferred by it. The active life of the Corporation 
was one long struggle to enforce its powers and 
secure its rights, not only against private in- 
dividuals or rival bodies, but even against the 
Officers of the Crown, who might well have been 
expected to respect the provisions of its charter. 
For the resistance to the Corporation did not 
come from * poor men ' alone. The other 
associated bodies of shipwrights that were in 
being resented interference in their own localities. 
The most important of these was the London 
Civic Company, known as the Company or 
Brotherhood of Free Shipwrights of London, 
which had been in existence as a ' trade craft ' 
or * guild ' from an early date. It is mentioned 
among the Civic Companies in 1428, ^ and was in 
1456 erected into a * fraternity in the worship 

1 Cal. S.P. Dom., 12 July 1613. 

* Ihid.i 30 Oct. 1613. 

^ See Sharpe, Short Account of the WorshipfuV Company of 
Shipwrights. This author has made the mistake of assuming 
that the Charter of 1605 was granted to the City Company. 



xxxiv INTRODUCTION 

of St. Simon and St. Jude/ and in 1483 regula- 
tions were made by it relating to apprenticeship 
and use of good material and workmanship. 

This company held a very obscure position 
among the minor companies ^ of the City, and 
during the period in which its activities concern 
us it seems to have been in a very low financial 
condition. This, however, did not deter it from 
contesting the jurisdiction of the Corporation 
(or * foreign ' shipwrights, as it termed them, 
despite the fact that, owing to the growth of 
London, it had itself long left the boundaries 
of the City's Liberties, and now had its head- 
quarters near Ratcliff Cross), and the City, not un- 
naturally jealous of its own special privileges, 
supported the opposition. 

At first the efforts of the free shipwrights of 
the City to dispute the authority of the Corpora- 
tion were unsuccessful. An attempt made in 
1632 ended in the submission of the two citizens 
who had been put up to contest the matter, and 
their ' promise to be obedient to the Shipwrights 
of Rotherhithe, saving the freedom of the City 
of London ' ; ^ a submission brought about by the 
fact that they were members of both companies, 
although they had endeavoured to deny that they 
were members of the Incorporated Company of 
Rotherhithe.' 

A further attempt in 1637, however, by two 
other free shipwrights, backed again by the City 
Corporation, was more successful. The case was 

* It is not even mentioned in Stowe's list of sixty com- 
panies attending the Lord Mayor's Banquet in 1531. 

• Cal S.P. Dotn., 4 Feb. 1632. 

■ Ibid., 17 June 1631. I am indebted to Mr. E. A. 
Ebblewhite for drawing my attention to the significance of 
this fact. 



INTRODUCTION xxxv 

referred to Sir Henry Marten, the Judge of the 
Admiralty, who reported to the Admiralty that 
' these London Shipwrights, being supported by 
the countenance of the City, will by no means agree 
to come under the King's Charter and govern- 
ment, and to that purpose are resolved to oppose 
themselves by further proceedings at law/ ^ The 
case was referred back to him by the Admiralty 
with the remark that * You have long been 
acquainted with the said business and know of 
what importance it is to have the shipwrights 
kept under government, which was the ground of 
the grant made to the Company at Rotherhithe/ ^ 
Marten finally advised the Admiralty not to 
grant their request, ' it being a business so much 
importing the general good of the kingdom that 
all shipwrights should live under a uniform 
government, as now regulated by the King's 
charter,' ^ and the two recalcitrants were com- 
mitted to the Marshalsea, where they made their 
submission. Nevertheless, in Oct. 1638 the matter 
was again brought up, coming before the newly 
appointed Lord High Admiral upon a petition 
from the City Company, and by an Order 
in Council of March 1639 that Company was 
exempted from the jurisdiction of the ' New 
Corporation of the Suburbs,' although, in view 
of the fact that 'the said Corporation of ship- 
wrights is of so great importance for the defence 
of the Kingdom and is dispersed not in the 
suburbs only but over the whole Kingdom of 
England,' it was declared ' that this exception 
. . . ought to be no encouragement to any other 
Society or Trade or particular persons to with- 
draw their obedience to the said new Corporation 

^ Cal. S,P. Dom., 30 June 1637. 

» IHd., 10 July 1637. » Ihid., 26 July 1637. 



xxxvi INTRODUCTION 

or to make suit for the like exemption, which in 
no sort will be granted.' ^ 

The City had won ; fine words, whether in 
a Royal Charter or an Order in Council, were of 
little use without the consistent support of the 
authorities, and this the unfortunate Corporation 
never received. The attempt of the Ipswich 
Shipwrights in 1621 to secure its dissolution failed, 
but upon the motion of their member against 
the * Patent of the Ship-carpenters who impose 
exceedingly upon builders of ships,' the House of 
Commons ordered that the Corporation should 
not demand or receive any more money by virtue 
of their patent until it had been brought to the 
Committee of Grievances and further order been 
taken therein by the House. ^ 

Less drastic attacks on the privileges of the 
Company frequently succeeded. The exemption 
from ' land service ' was ignored by the Earl 
Marshal and the Lord Admiral in 1628. In 1631 
the King's Bench indirectly curtailed its powers by 
prohibiting the Lord High Admiral from proceed- 
mg in matters relating to freight, wages, and the 
building of ships ; and two years later prohibited 
the Company from using its powers of arresting 
ships, thereby preventing the Company from 
getting ' their suits decided in a speedy way in 
the Court of Admiralty ' and compelling them to 
' contend with the master, who, proving poor and 
litigious, all that the (Company) can get, after 
long suit, is but the imprisonment of his body.' ' 
The East Country merchants also opposed its 
trading privileges, and in 1634 the Company 
found it necessary to appeal to the Admiralty 

1 Council Register, No. 50. 

2 Commons Journal, i. 563. 

» Cal. S. P. Dom, January 21, 1633. 



INTRODUCTION xxxvii 

for assistance in carrying out its powers in 
regard to the search and survey of ships, and 
the regulation of apprentices. In 1635, when 
Peter Pett was Master, the difficulties of collect- 
ing the dues of the shipwrights and the * tonnage 
and poundage ' granted for the support of the 
Corporation and its poor, became more acute 
than ever. After much argument and reference 
to Sir Henry Marten, the Master, Wardens and 
Assistants were told, in 1638, ' to cause their 
charters to be published and put in execution,' 
while the * Vice- Admirals, Mayors and other 
Officers ' were charged to assist them. In 1641 
the right of freedom from impressment and from 
attendance on juries was again in question, and 
although the decision of the Lord Admiral was 
then favourable the troubles of the Company still 
continued, for in January 1642 they were petition- 
ing the Commons for relief. 

In March 1645 an Ordinance to protect the 
Shipwrights from impressment for land service 
' on account of the importance of their trade and 
the decrease of qualified workmen,' was presented 
to the Lords by Warwick, the Lord High Admiral, 
and was approved by them and passed on to the 
Commons for concurrence, but it does not appear 
to have been read.^ 

In August of the following year, Warwick 
again reported from the Committee of the Admir- 
alty to the Lords a ' Report and Ordinance con- 
cerning the better building of ships and granting 
privileges to the Shipwrights and Caulkers to be 
freed from Land Service,' elsewhere described as 
an ' Ordinance for the better regulation of the 
Mystery and Corporation of Shipwrights.' This 

» Lords' Journal, vii. 286. Hist. MSS., Sixth Report, 
P-5I. 



xxxviii INTRODUCTION 

was agreed to and sent to the Commons, who 
read it a first time and ordered it to be read a 
second time ' on Thursday next come Sevennight/ 
and then dropped it. 

In the meantime the Clerk and other officials 
of the Company, whose pay was much in arrear, 
were petitioning the House to take such action 
wdth the Company as would force it to meet their 
claims, while the Master and Wardens were 
complaining of individual refusals to pay assess- 
ments due to the Company.^ This state of affairs 
was still in evidence in 1648, when Edward Keling, 
the Clerk, and the existing and late Beadles of 
the Company, petitioned the Lords for relief, 
and asked * that the pubhc instruments entrusted 
to KeHng may be disposed of and he be indemni- 
fied for them/ The statement of the Wardens 
annexed thereto ^ explains the situation as follows : 
The Wardens had 

consented to pay the established duties of the Corporation 
as directed by Order of the House, but Peter Pett and 
other principal members, and great dealers in that 
mystery, withhold and refuse to pay the duties for support 
of the Corporation, and so the Wardens have not the 
means to pay the salaries of their ofificers, or their house 
rent, to relieve the poor, to make their due surveys 
upon ships, or to pursue an ordinance for settlement 
of their government which passed the House of Peers 
eighteen months ago, and now remains in the House of 
Commons. 

In June 1650 the difficulties of the Company 
were evidently still unreHeved, for a petition 
from them, together with their Charter, was re- 
ferred by the Council of State to the Committee 

* Lords' Journals, viii. 232, 286 ; x. 403. 

* Hist, MSS., Seventh Report, p. 40. 



INT ROD UCTION xxxix 

of the Admiralty, who were to advise with the 
Admiralty Judges on the matter. The result of 
this does not appear, but it seems probable that the 
Corporation shortly after ceased to exercise its func- 
tions, for a petition to the Navy Commissioners 
in 1672 (which shows the same old difficulties 
still unremedied) refers to ' the discontinuance of 
the exercise of this Charter in the late troublesome 
times.' ^ 

During the earlier years of its activity the 
Corporation played a part of some importance 
in the administration of the Navy. It surveyed 
and reported upon the workmanship and tonnage 
of ships built in the royal yards, and gave advice 
concerning their defects — thus acting to some 
extent as a check upon the master shipwrights — 
and notices of the sale of unserviceable ships were 
given out at Shipwrights' Hall as well as on the 
Exchange. In one instance * it was called upon 
to submit a scheme ' for the mould of a ship like 
to prove swiftest of sail and every way best 
fashioned for a ship of war,' but this attempt to 
erect it into a board of design seems to have failed 
completely. 

In 1683 the Corporation attempted to set its 
affairs on a more satisfactory basis by obtaining 
a new charter, surrendering the charter of 161 2 
in October 1684 ^ and obtaining in January 1686 
a warrant from James II. to renew it with ad- 
ditions. This was opposed by its old enemies, 
and nothing seems to have come of it, although 
the matter was under discussion until 1688, and 
the Masters of Trinity House in 1687, in a report 

» Cal S.P. Dom., 25 July 1672. 

* By the Commissioners for inquiring into the State of 
the Navy. Cal. S.P. Dom., 22 Feb. 1627. 
^ Bodleian, Rawlinson MSS. A 177. 



xl INTRODUCTION 

to Pepys, had recommended that there shotild be 
but one Company of Shipwrights, and that aU of 
that trade in England should be under their rule 
and government. The Corporation appears then 
to have become practically extinct, for in a report 
by the Navy Office, in 1690, on the method of 
measuring ships reference is made to the * measure- 
ment and calculations . . . formerly taken and 
made by the Corporation of shipwrights (when 
there was such a company).' ^ 

In 1691 2 and 1704 the remnants of the Cor- 
poration made a final attempt at reconstruction, 
backed by the Admiralty, Navy Board, and Trinity 
House. A petition to this end came before the 
House of Commons in January 1705, and is re- 
corded in the Journal ^ of the House in the 
following terms : 

A Petition of the Master Shipwrights (who signed 
the same) in behalf of themselves and others, Master 
Shipwrights of England, was presented to the House 
and read : setting forth that the petitioners' predecessors 
were incorporated by charter in 1605, and were thereby 
empowered to rectify the disorders and abuses of the Ship- 
wrights' Trade, and to furnish the Crown and Merchants 
with able workmen, and to bind and enrol their appren- 
tices ; but the breed of able workmen is almost lost, and 
for want of sufficient power to execute the good intent of 
their charter, the petitioners have not been in a regular 
method many years past to rectify the disorders amongst 
the shipwrights and to improve their trade ; yet a 
Proposal of some additional heads to effect the same 
has been approved, and reported by the Commissioners 
of the Admiralty, Commissioners of the Navy, Corpora- 
tion of Trinity House ; and also his Royal Highness,* 

» Cal. S.P. Dom., 21 Aug. 1690. 

* See Sutherland, Britain's Glory, or Shiphuilding Unvail'd, 
p. 70. ' Vol. xiv. p. 482. 

* Prince George of Denmark, then Lord High Admiral. 



INTRODUCTION xli 

the 7th Nov. 1704, declares his opinion that it will be 
much for the public service to have the shipwrights 
incorporated by Charter, as desired by them ; but in the 
said proposal there are some necessary clauses which 
cannot be made practicable and effectual without an 
Act of Parliament : and praying that leave be given to 
bring in a Bill, of regulating clauses, to be inserted in a 
new charter for the better breeding of Shipwrights and 
for the more firm and well building of ships and other 
vessels. 

The motion to refer it to a Committee was 
lost, and thus went out the last spark of life of 
a Corporation that had struggled in vain for a 
hundred years to carry out the intentions of its 
founders. 



xlii INTRODUCTION 



2. — TAe Family of Pett. 

When Thomas Hey wood, in his description of the 
Sovereign of the Seas written in 1637, referred to 
the author of this manuscript as ' Captain Phineas 
Pett, overseer of the work, and one of the principal 
officers of his Majesty's navy, whose ancestors, 
as father, grandfather, and great-grandfather, 
for the space of two hundred years and upwards, 
have continued in the same name officers and 
architects in the Royal Navy,' he was, it may be 
presumed; recording the local tradition of the 
Pett family. That this tradition was strong and 
persistent is clear from the fact that Mansell, 
writing to Thomas Aylesbury ^ in 1620 to propose 
Peter Pett as builder of the new pinnaces, re- 
commended him on the ground that * his family 
have had the employment since Henry the 
Seventh's time,' while forty years later, Fuller, 
in his * Worthies of England,' also referred to 
it in these words : ' I am credibly informed that 
that Mystery of Shipwrights for some descents 
hath been preserved successfully in Families, of 
whom the Petts about Chatham are of singular 
regard.' 

This tradition, so far as it relates to the 
descent of the * mystery ' from generation to 
generation, was no doubt well founded, but there 
is no evidence that office under the Crown was 
held by any of Phineas Pett's ancestors earlier 
than his father, Peter. 

The name * Pett ' is said by a modern writer 

* Bodleian. Clarendon State Papers, No. 166. 



INTRODUCTION xliii 

on the history of EngHsh surnames to be a Kentish 
variant of the name 'Pitt.' This would imply a 
Kentish origin of the family, and this supposition 
might seem to be strengthened by the fact that 
the name, as a place-name, only occurs in Kent 
and on the eastern border of Sussex.^ 

The fact is, however, that 'pet' is simply a 
Middle-English variant of the familiar word 
' pit,' kin to the old Frisian ' pet,' and is found 
in use throughout the east coast counties from 
Sussex to Yorkshire, but more frequently in the 
South than in the North. In the 13th and 14th 
centuries this surname occurs in the form * atte 
Pet ' or ' del Pet ' ; i.e. ' at the pit ' or ' of the 
pit,' ^ which indicates clearly that the bearers 
had, on the introduction of the hereditary surname 
from the 12th century onward, taken the name 
' Pet ' — or had it thrust upon them — ^because 
they were known as living near to a pit, and 
were thereby distinguished from other Walters 
or Adams dwelling on the heath or by the wood 
etc. etc. A study of the local distribution of 
this name in the 14th century shows that the pit 
in question, though it may occasionally have 
been a well, a sawpit, or a pitfall for wild beasts, 
was more usually a place where, owing to the 
absence of stone from the district, clay or loam 
had been dug in forming the walls of the rude 
cottages in which all but the upper strata of 
society then dwelt. Thus one great centre of the 

* E.g, Pett Place near Charing ■ Pett near Stockbury ; 
Pett Street near Wye and Pett village near Winchelsea. 

* E.g. Geoffrey del Pet, 1270, see Rye, Cal. of Feet of Fines 
for Suffolk. * Walter de le Pet ' (of Wattisfield), see Powell, A 
Suffolk Hundred in the year 1283 « * Adam atte Pet ' (of 
Stonham Aspul), * William del Pet' (of Wattisfield), see 
Hervey, Suffolk in 1327 ; * Peter atte Pette of Shorn ' (Kent) 
in Close Roll 1344. 



xUv INTRODUCTION 

Petts in Suffolk in the 13th and 14th centuries, 
the district between Thetford and Eye, is a 
heavy clayland from which stone is absent.^ 
By the end of the i6th century this name, in the 
form ' Pet,' ' Pett,' and ' Pette ' was common 
in Kent, Essex, Suffolk, and South Norfolk. 

In 1583, Peter Pett, then Master Shipwright 
at Deptford, obtained a grant of arms from 
Herald's College. The original has unfortunately 
disappeared, but from the reference to it in Le 
Neve's ' Pedigree of the Knights ' ^ it appears 
that he claimed descent from ' Thomas Pett of 
Skipton in Cumberland ' through John Pett his 
grandfather and Peter Pett his father, who had 
been a shipbuilder at Harwich. The fact that 
there is no Skipton in Cumberland shows that 
this record is hardly reliable as regards the place 
of origin of the family. Neither of the existing 
Skiptons,^ which are both in Yorkshire, remote 
from the sea, is likely to have given birth to a 
family of shipbuilders ; and there is no indication 
that any relations of the Petts were at any time 
resident in Yorkshire or Cumberland. Moreover, 
the name was practically unknown at this period 
in the North.** In an attempt to elucidate this 
matter. Major Bertram Raves put forward in 
the ' Mariner's Mirror ' ^ the suggestion * that 
Thomas Pett was of Hopton,^ in Suffolk, and that 

^ Mr. Redstone informs me that to this day large blocks 
of loam and clay are squared off in the pits of Rickinghall 
to form house walls. ' Printed by the Harleian Society. 

^ Skipton in Craven in the W. Riding and Skipton upon 
Swale in the N. Riding. 

* I have only discovered one early instance of the name 
in Yorkshire, * Ralph Pet ' who lived in the ' Honor and Forest 
of Pickering ' in 1314, and this, it may be observed, was on 
the sea coast. * April 1912, p. 124. 

• S.E. of Thetford : not the Hopton in East Suffolk. 



INTRODUCTION xlv 

Hopton was fudged into Skipton by the Tudor 
Heralds in the grant of arms to Peter Pett. . . . 
Petts about or near to Hopton at the time were 
yeomen or husbandmen. . . . The pedigree may, 
therefore, have seemed to need treatment.' He 
then goes on to show that Petts were estabhshed 
in the neighbouring villages of Hepwortli^ Wattis- 
field, Harling, and Walsham-le-Willows ; the 
Petts at Wattisfield having been in the neigh- 
bourhood since the 14th century.^ One significant 
fact is the letter which Peter Pett, the half-brother 
of Phineas, wrote to Sir Bassingbourn Gawdy ^ 
of Harling, in 1598, in which he apologises for 
his delay in visiting him and sends his remem- 
brances to Lady Gawdy and others : it is clear 
from this letter that Peter was well known in the 
neighbourhood, and was, it may be presumed, 
related to the Thomas Pett living there at that 
time. 

But it seems very doubtful whether Skipton 
really was a wilful substitution for, or a mis- 
transcription of, an original ' Hopton,' for there 
is no evidence that anyone of the name ever 
lived at Hopton, and it seems possible that some 
earlier Pett may have migrated to Yorkshire 
and his descendant John have returned to East 
Anglia.3 

Of Thomas Pett nothing is known ; and of 
John his son nothing can be stated with certainty. 

* They were already there in the 13th ; see note on 
p. xliii. 

2 Gawdy MSS. {Hist. MSS.) 405 ; what appears to be 
Pett's draft of this letter is to be found in Egerlon MS. 2713. 

« It is also possible that Thomas of Skipton did not 
bear the surname ' Pett.' According to Bardsley, Curiosities 
of Puritan Nomenclature, p. 3, ' Among the middle and lower 
classes these (descriptive surnames) did not become hereditary 
till so late as 1450 or 1500.' 



xlvi INTRODUCTION 

In 1497 William Pette of Dunwich left by will * 
' to my brother John Pette, my new boat and 
all my working tools ' ; a legacy that impHes 
that the brothers were shipwrights. It is not 
improbable that this was the John Pett who was 
engaged in caulking the Regent in 1499. From 
the entry in the Roll * it is clear that John was 
a master workman or shipbuilder ; for the sum 
paid him, 38/. is. ^d., is a fairly large amount 
for that period, and covered miscellaneous stores 
besides the caulking of the ' overlop ' or deck, 
and the sides of the ship 'against wind and 
water.' Unfortunately his account, ' billam suam 
inde factam/ is no longer in existence. This 
work was possibly carried out at Portsmouth, 
where the Regent had been fitted for the Ex- 
pedition to Scotland in 1497,' and where she was 
again undergoing repair in 1501,* but there 
would have been nothing unusual at that period, 
when the resources of the Portsmouth district 
were hardly sufficient, in entrusting such work 
to a shipbuilder from the eastern counties. In 
1485 a master shipwright had been sent from 
London to Bursledon to superintend the removal 
of the mast of the Grace Dieu and her entry 
into dock,^ and shipwrights were frequently im- 

* Ipswich Probate Court Bk. III. f. 202. 

* Ac xxxviijZi. xvj^. tarn super novas iact' (? jacturas) 
et le calkynge de le Overlope navis regis vocatae le Regent 
quam pro le calkynge anti ventum et aquam ejusdem navis 
ac aliis necessariis pro eadem nave fiendis et providendis per 
manus Johannis Pett ut prius per billam suam inde factam 
plenius apparet datam xiij die Novembris A° xv^ Regis 
Henrici vij">°-. P.R.O. E. 405 (80). 

* Naval Accounts and Inventories of Henry VII., N.R.S., 
Vol. viii. 

« P.R.O. Augmentation Office Misc. Bk., 317, f. 236. 
» N.R.S., vol. viii. pp. liv, 222. 



INTRODUCTION xlvii 

pressed from East Anglia for work in Portsmouth 
and Southampton. The work may, however, have 
been carried out at Harwich, where the King's 
ships sometimes rode.^ 

With Peter, the son of John, we come at 
length upon sure ground. The will he made in 
March 1554 is upon record, and shows that he 
was possessed of a dwelling-house and ship- 
building yard at Harwich, which he bequeathed 
to his son Peter, the father of Phineas. Possibly 
he was the Peter Pett noted by Mr. Oppenheim ^ 
as among the shipwrights pressed from Essex 
and Suffolk working at Portsmouth in 1523 : 
there can be no doubt that he was the Peter Pett 
of Harwich who, with other shipwrights, signed a 
decree of appraisement of a ship in 1540.^ 

His son Peter Pett, who died in 1589 when 
Master Shipwright at Deptford, entered the royal 
service some time before 1544, as already noted. 

There is no record of the names of the earlier 
ships built by him, but it is known that in 1573 
he built the Swiftsure and Achates, and in 1586 
the Moon and Rainbow ; all at Deptford. At 
the time of his death in 1589 he was engaged 
upon the Defiance and Advantage, which were 
completed by Joseph Pett, his second and eldest 
surviving son, who, as already remarked, succeeded 
to his place as Master Shipwright, his eldest son 
William Pett of Limehouse, also a Master Ship- 
wright, who built the Greyhound in 1586, having 

* In 1487, Thomas Rogers, clerk of the King^s ships, 
was paid xxvis. viij^. for his expenses in going to Harwich, 
and victualling the King's ships there. See Material Illustra- 
tive of the Reign of Henry VII, vol. ii. p. 143. 

* Administration, p. 74. 

» P.R.O., H.C.A. 7 (i), ' probos viros Petmm Pette et 
Johannem Moptye villae Harewici {and two others) fabros 
lignarios, anglice shipwrights.' 



xlviii INTRODUCTION 

died in 1587. Peter Pett was twice married, and 
had four sons and one daughter by his first wife, 
whose name is not known ; and six daughters 
and three sons (of whom Phineas was the eldest) 
by his second wife, Ehzabeth Thornton. These 
will be found set forth in the subjoined tables, 
which will serve to illustrate the relationship 
between them and the other members of the 
family referred to in the manuscript. 

Peter Pett, towards the end of his life, had 
achieved a great reputation as a shipbuilder and 
was, as is evident from his will, a man of con- 
siderable means. He died possessed of a house 
at Harwich, where he had also built almshouses ; 
a house at Deptford ; land at Prating, near 
Colchester ; the lease of a house at Chatham ; 
and ' ground ' — presumably a shipbuilding yard — 
at Wapping. In addition to this property, he 
left 20/. to the children of his son Richard ; * 
61. 13s. 4d. to the child of his daughter Lydia ; 
100/. each to Phineas and his brothers Noah and 
Peter ; and 100 marks to each of his four daughters 
by his second wife and to an unborn child that 
probably did not live. The payments to the 
children of his second wife were to be made on 
their attaining the age of twenty-four, but from 
the statements of Phineas on pages 12 and 13 it 
would appear that part of the money was em- 
bezzled by the Rev. Mr. Nunn and part retained 
by Phineas' brother Joseph. 

Peter Pett, of Wapping, the third son of the 
above, carried on business as a shipbuilder in the 
private yard at Wapping which had been left to 

» Richard Pett of London, gent, (elsewhere described as 
' unus valettorum regis ') in 1593 sold his share of the 
property at Deptford to his brother Peter Pett, of Wapping. 
This property had been bought by his father in 1566. 



INTRODUCTION xlix 

him by his father. He does not appear to have 
held any office under the Crown, but seems to 
have been well known to the Lord High Admiral, 
for in his letter above referred to he puts off his 
visit to Gawdy on the ground that he has to be 
'next Sunday with the Earl of Nottingham at 
the Court at Richmond/ In 1599 he published 
a poem entitled ' Time's Journey to seeke his 
Daughter Truth ; and Truth's Letter to Fame of 
England's Excellencie,* which he dedicated to 
Nottingham. He was also the author of a sonnet 
in three stanzas of seven' lines entitled *A11 
Creatures praise God.' ^ 

It is not necessary for our present purpose 
to pursue the fortunes of this family further, but 
the reader who is desirous of obtaining informa- 
tion as to the later descendants of Peter Pett of 
Harwich will find it in an excellent paper in 
vol. X. of the ' Ancestor,' by Mr. Farnham Burke 
and Mr. Oswald Barron, entitled 'The Builders 
of the Navy : a Genealogy of the Family of Pett.' « 

* Printed by the Parker Society in Select Poetry, vol. il. 
p. 386. 

» The following errors may be noted : p. 149, the name 
* Marcy ' should be ' March ' ; p. 151, the William Pett who 
petitioned the Admiralty in 1631, was not the son of Joseph 
but a much older man, apparently belonging to another branch 
of the family ; p. 157, the dates of the death of Phineas' second 
wife and of his third marriage are antedated by a year ; 
p. 158, the date * July ' was an error of the Harl. transcriber ; 
the dates of birth and death of Phineas, junior, are incorrect j 
p. 172, Joseph Pett of Chatham was not the son of Phineas, 
but of Joseph of Limehouse, and he was born in 1592 not 
1608. 



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lii INTRODUCTION 



3. — Phineas Pett. 

From the care that had been taken to provide 
for his education, and from the fact that it was 
only at the * instant persuasion ' of his 
Education, mother that he was * contented ' to be 
apprenticed as a shipwright, it may be 
inferred that Phineas had been destined for 
the Church or the Law, and that Peter Pett did 
not propose that his son should follow in his 
own footsteps. The peculiarity ^ of the name 
chosen for him (which no doubt refers, not to 
the disobedient son of Eli, but to ' Phinehas, 
the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest,' 
who received ' the covenant of an everlasting 
priesthood ') ^ gives rise to the surmise that his 
parents had intended him for the Church, but 
whatever the intention may have been, it was 
certainly abandoned on the death of his father. 

Phineas does not seem to have profited greatly 
from his studies at Cambridge. He was hardly a 
master of English ; possibly he had a good know- 
ledge of Latin, for the influence of the Latin 
idiom is to be seen in almost all his periods ; but 
the fact that he had subsequently to practise 
' cyphering ' in the evenings does not imply 
any great acquirements in mathematics, even of 
the very elementary forms which at that period 
were sufficient for the solution of the few problems 
arising in connection with the design of ships. 

* * The rage for Bible names dates from the decade 1560- 
1570, which decade marks the rise of Puritanism.' — Bardsley, 
Curiosities oj Puritan Nomenclature, p. 39. 

? Numbers xxvi. 11-13. 



INTRODUCTION liii 

Nevertheless, he received the degree of Bachelor 
of Arts in 1592 and that of Master in 1595. 

If the statement that he spent the two years 
of his apprenticeship to Chapman ' to very little 
purpose * is to be accepted literally, it would 
seem that the misfortunes that subsequently 
befell him must have aroused latent energies and 
filled him with determination to master the 
details of his future profession when he returned 
to England in 1594. His voyage to the Levant 
and subsequent employment as an ordinary 
workman under his brother Joseph no doubt 
gave him a practical acquaintance with ships 
that enabled him to profit greatly by the in- 
struction of Mathew Baker, although apparently 
this only extended over the winter of 1595-6. 
Pett's confession that it was from Baker that 
he received his ' greatest lights,' written, as it 
must have been, after he had found Baker an 
* envious enemy ' and an ' old adversary to my 
name and family,' indicates how great that assist- 
ance was. This is borne out by a letter ^ which 
he wrote to Baker in April 1603, in order to 
deprecate the old man's wrath, w^hich had been 
aroused when Phineas, then Assistant Master Ship- 
wright at Chatham, commenced work on the 
Answer. The letter was partially destroyed by 
the fire which damaged the Cottonian Library in 
1731, but fortunately Pepys had copied it in his 
Miscellanea .2 

Sir, — My duty remembered unto you. It is so that 
I received a message from you by Richard Meritt, the 
purveyor, concerning the Answer, who gave me to under- 
stand from you that you were informed I meant to break 

■ :;:! ^ Cott. MSS., Otho E. vii. fol. 155. 

* Misc. X. 353. There are errors in this transcript, which 
3 been corrected, so far as possible, from the original. 



liv INTRODUCTION 

up the ship and to lengthen, and that I should no further 
proceed till I received further order from you. Indeed 
the ship was heaved up by general consent, both of my 
Lord, some of the Principal Officers, and two of the 
Master Shipwrights which were here present at the 
time she was begun to be hauled up, no determination 
being resolved upon what should be done unto her ; for 
which cause (other haste of businesses also being some 
hindrance) she hath lain still ever since, till now that it 
pleased Sir Henr}^ Palmer to command she should be 
blocked and searched within board only, and so let 
alone, partly because our men wanting stuff to perfect 
other businesses had little else to do, as also to the intent 
she might be made ready to be the better viewed and sur- 
veyed lying upright, being somewhat also easier for the 
ship. This is now done, but I ensure you there was no 
intent or other purpose to proceed in anything upon her 
any further till the Master Shipwrights, especially yourself 
who built her, had first surveyed her, and under your 
hands set down what should be done unto her ; and 
therefore, good Mr. Baker, do not give so much credit to 
those that out of their malice do advertise you untruth con- 
cerning either this or any other matter, for it is supposed 
by whom this hath been done, and he is generally thought 
to be no other than an Ambodexter ^ or rather a flat 
sheet,^ being so far off from either procuring credit to 
himself by due execution of his place and discharge of 
his duty, that like Aesop's Dog he doth malice any other 
that is willing to give him precedent of better course 
than all men can sufficiently in this place report himself 
to follow. And for myself it is so sure ^ from me to under- 
stand anything that you should think any ways prejudi- 
cial unto you, or to any of your works, that you shall 
always rather find me dutiful as a servant to follow your 
directions and instructions in any of these businesses, than 
arrogant as a prescriber or corrector of anything done 

* Double-dealer ; probably he refers to Bright. 

• MS. ' fiattsheate.' Pepys has transcribed this ' flat 
cheat.' 

' Sic in transcript, probably^' far.' 



INTRODUCTION Iv 

by you, whose ever memorable works I set before me 
as a notable precedent and pattern to direct me in any 
work that I do at any time undertake, and you yourself 
can say, setting private jars aside, which I hope are all 
now at a final end, but that I ever both reverenced you 
for your years and admired you for your Art, in the which 
I know (to speak without flattery) no Artist in Chris- 
tendom of our profession able in any respect to come 
near you. Therefore, good Mr. Baker, carry but that lov- 
ing mind towards me as you shall find my loving duty to 
you to deserve, who you shall find always as ready to do 
you any service, either in this place or any other, as any 
servant of yours whatsoever, among whose rank I 
account myself one of the unworthiest, for although I 
served no years in your service, yet I must ever acknow- 
ledge whatever I have of any art (if I have any) it 
came only from you. Thus hoping this shall suffice to 
give you satisfaction in this behalf, 1 humbly take my 
leave, ever resting ready to do you service. 
Chatham this lo April, 1603. 

Your Servant, 

Phineas Pett. 

To the worshipful and my loving friend Mr. Mathew 
Baker, one of his Majesty's Master Shipwrights, give 
this at Woolwich or elsewhere. 

This expression of opinion upon Baker's 
capacity was evidently quite genuine, for many 
years after, v^hen the old man was dead and 
there was nothing to be feared from his enmity, 
Phineas wrote of him as * the most famous artist 
of his time.* ^ 

Phineas did not rely on his professional 
skill alone to gain him preferment. When in 
his brother Joseph's employment, he 
ment.^' ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ earnings in clothing him- 
self 'in very good fashion, always 
endeavouring to keep company with men of good 

» Cal. S,P. Dom., 26 Feb. 1626. 



Ivi INTRODUCTION 

rank, far better than myself/ By means of a 
friend thus gained, he obtained an introduction 
to the Lord Admiral, which was ' the very first 
beginning ' of his rising. No doubt Nottingham 
had known his father, and it is certain that he 
was well acquainted with his brother Peter ; 
it is probably to this that the ' extraordinary 
respect ' and the later favours of the Admiral 
were due. These favours brought upon him 
the ' malicious envy ' of the Master Shipwrights, 
who were no doubt aggrieved at seeing employ- 
ment that might have provided them or their 
friends with ' pickings,' handed to a newcomer. 

The post of a purveyor of timber was not 
without its perquisites, and Pett's thankfulness 
that * nothing could be proved against him ' 
when the accounts of his doings in Suffolk and 
Norfolk were scrutinised, indicates that his labours 
had not been without some profit to himself ; 
indeed his association with Trevor, who became 
an able disciple of the arch-thief Mansell, leads 
one to suspect that Fulke Greville's action in 
' wrongfully ' cutting off twenty pounds was 
not the high-handed injustice that Phineas would 
have one beheve. It is true that Mr. Oppenheim ^ 
dates the ' administrative degeneracy ' of the 
Navy Office from Greville's treasurership, but it 
is probable that this arose from Greville's incapa- 
city to exercise the strict control which had 
characterised his predecessor Hawkyns, and not 
from want of integrity. Three years later Phineas 
affirms that Greville continued his * heavy enemy ' 
because the Treasurer could not win him ' to 
such conditions as he laboured me in ' against 
the Surveyor, a state of affairs that seems to 
indicate a half-hearted attempt at reform on 
* Monson Tracts, ii. 140. 



INTRODUCTION Ivii 

Greville's part, rather than any underhand con- 
spiracy. 

In an anonymous account of the quarrel at 
Chatham in 1602 preserved in Pepys* Miscellanea/ 
written evidently by George Collins, ' the principal 
informer and stirrer in this business,' ^ it is stated 
that the writer told Sir Henry Palmer that Pett 

had sold away the Repulse's foretopmast, and that 
through his negligence the Crane was bilged in the Dock, 
which cost the Queen looZ. 

whereupon Palmer called him a rogue, and asked 
him if he never stole anything, and then sttuck 
him with a cudgel ; 

and no wonder ! though Sir Henry took his part so much, 
for in six weeks after he had great masts sawed out into 
boards at the Queen's charge, a long boat full, and towed 
down to Whitechapel by Boatswain Vale, or his man, 
at a ketch's stern. 

At the term after, 1 served Phineas Pett upon a 
battery, and Sir John and Sir Henry procured my Lord 
Admiral's warrant to send me to the Marshalsea. But 
that I paid well for it in Mr. Pope's house I had gone 
thither ; and so was forced to agree with Phineas and 
to enter into bond never to follow suit against him, 
neither for the King nor yet for myself.' 

The writer then goes on to give instances of 
Pett's misappropriations of materials and labour ; 
four tons of elm timber sawn into boards ; fifty 

1 MiscelL, vol. x. pp. 257-262 : A large and particular 
complaint against Phineas Pett relating to abuses in the Navy 
about the end of the Queen's and beginning of King James's 
Reign. Cf. Dr. Tanner's Introduction in Hollond's Discourses 
of the Navy (N.R.S., vol. vii.). What is probably the same 
account is calendared by the Hist. MSS. Commission (Coke 

MSS, vol. i. p. 36) as '^^^^j^^^^ JJjaUegations by George 

Colyson of abstraction of sea stores, and other frauds by 
Phineas Pett.' * Infra, p. 18. 



Iviii INTRODUCTION 

deals from the storehouse ; fifty small spars ; 
two four-inch planks to make a bridge into his 
meadow ; labour for two or three days ; a sluice 
made in the meadow at a cost of 3/. or 4/. ; two 
or three tons of oak timber sawn into posts to 
hang clothes on and painted at the Queen's cost. 
Although the writer has an obvious grievance 
against Pett, there seems no reason to doubt the 
substantial accuracy of the charges made. 

One of the gravest indictments subsequently 
brought by the Commission of Inquiry of 1608- 
1609 against Phineas was that relating 
Resistance, to the ship which he had laid down in 
and the David Duck's private yard at Gilling- 
voyageto j^g^m in 1604, when both he and Duck 
^^°* were shipwrights at Chatham. From 
the account of it presented by Phineas ^ it might 
be supposed that the charge related merely to 
the sale of ordnance and ammunition to the 
Spaniards, but the malpractices alleged went 
much further than that ; and, although Pett was 
cleared by the King, an examination of the evidence 
produced before the Commission leads to the 
conclusion that ' those scandalous and false in- 
formations * might have led to very unpleasant 
results if the King had not been biased in his 
favour. The story, as made out from the existing 
documents,' is briefly as follows : 

The ship — a small one of about i6o tons — 
had been built largely of timber delivered * for 
the King's use at Chatham ' and with articles 
* borrowed out of the store,* under warrant of 

* Injra, p. 70. 

* Cott. MSS., Julius F. Ill — ^the depositions of Pett 
and various witnesses ; S.P.D. James I, xxxi. 51 — memo- 
randum drawn up from the above ; S.P.D. James I, xli. — 
report of the Conmiission, drawn up by Sir Robert Cotton, 
with analytical draft and notes attached. 



INTRODUCTION lix 

the Principal Officers, two of whom, Mansell 
and Trevor, subsequently had shares in her. 
She was rigged ' with the rigging of the Foresight, 
which for bare 12 L only he bought out of her ' 
at much less than the value, by the favour of the 
Surveyor (Trevor) and the Treasurer (Mansell), 
so that ' she was sailed with the King's sails 
and rigged with the King's tackhng/ When 
she set sail for Spain in 1605 ' under colour of a 
transporter of my Lord Admiral's provisions,* 
she was furnished out of the King's store with 
cables, anchors, flags, pitch, and other stores and 
provisions, including 600 cwt. of biscuit. She 
also drew 120 bolts of canvas for the use of the 
fleet, part of which was sold by Pett's brother, 
and for the whole of which Phineas acknowledged 
himself responsible. Although taken up as a 
transport and paid wages and tonnage (on a 
false rating of 300 tons, about twice her capacity) 
she was entered in the Customs as a merchant- 
man bound for San Lucar, and carried 60 tons of 
lead for a merchant of London named Alabaster, 
for which 60L was received as freight. At Lisbon 
Pett sold a demi-culverin of brass, captured at 
Cadiz in 1596, with ammunition and a quantity 
of bread, biscuit, and peas belonging to the fleet, 
for which he received 300/., which he sent, ' by 
the way of exchange,' to Trevor and Mansell, 
then at Valladolid ^ with Nottingham, who had 
gone there to ratify the peace recently concluded 
between the two countries. Altogether, the 
voyage of this ship cost the King ' 800/. or 1000/., 
as appeareth by the accounts, for little or no 
service done at all.' 

As regards the money sent to Valladolid, it 
is probable that this was used in paying some 
of the expenses of the embassy, and that this 

* The capital of Spain from 1601 to 1606. 



^ 



Ix INTRODUCTION 

proceeding had the sanction of Nottingham; but 
Pett's answers before the Commission to some 
of the other charges, as given in his signed 
deposition of 12th May 1608, seem rather weak. 
He stated that the * riggings * of the Foresight 
were ' found to be so ill that they stood him in 
little or no stead/ that the accounts for the 
provisions were delivered to Sir John Trevor 
and no copies had been kept, and, by a convenient 
lapse of memory, he could not say what persons 
or stuff were landed at the Groyne * nor what 
burden the ship was accounted for to the King.' 
When asked by Captain Morgan to set him down 
on the east side of the Groyne, he was alleged 
to have said that ' he could not adventure the 
ship by his directions for that she was no part 
of the fleet,' in reply to which allegation he 
swore that to the best of his recollection no such 
words were ever used. It appears from the 
evidence that Sir Richard Leveson had refused 
to allow the ship as one of the fleet, but he had 
died shortly after the return to England, and 
after his death Mansell and Trevor, ' assuming 
full power into their own hands,' had reversed 
the decision. One reason given by Pett for 
visiting ports other than that to which the fleet 
had gone is of interest ; he told the Commission 
that he had been informed by Trevor and Mansell 
that the biscuit would not be needed for the 
fleet * by reason of the short voyage my Lord 
Admiral had into Spain,' and he was to go to 
Lisbon or San Lucar to sell it, ' and that they 
reported as from my Lord Admiral that because 
this deponent was a shipwright he might in the 
harbours where he should put in take view of 
the Spanish ships and galleys and of the manner 
of their building.' 



INTRODUCTION Ixi 

With a ship so cheaply built and rigged, and 
employed on such favourable terms, it could not 
have been difficult to make a handsome profit, 
and it is Httle wonder that Pett calls her a 'lucky 
ship ' when he tells of her sale in 1612. 

The corruption in the administration of the 
Navy, which had begun to appear in the last 
Commis- years of EHzabeth's reign, had by 1608 
sion of reached such a height that James was at 
Inquiry, length forced to take some steps in regard 
to it. The knowledge that Spain was actively 
engaged in setting her navy in order no doubt 
quickened the King into action and provided a 
motive powerful enough to sweep aside for the 
time the obstruction of the senile Nottingham 
and his jackal Mansell. At first it had been 
intended that Nottingham should head the Com- 
mission, and letters patent^ were passed on 
1st April 1608, in which his name appears first, 
Northampton coming second, but for some reason 
this was altered, and on the 30th April a com- 
mission under the great seal was issued to Henry 
Howard, Earl of Northampton, then Lord Privy 
Seal and Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, 
Charles Howard, Earl of Nottingham, the Lord 
High Admiral, and thirteen others,* of whom Sir 
Robert Cotton, the famous antiquary, was the 

1 Pat, Roll, 1771. 

• The names were as follows : Henry, Earl of North- 
ampton ; Charles, Earl of Nottingham ; Lord Zouch ; 
Lord Wotton, Comptroller of the Household ; Sir Julius 
Caesar, Chancellor of the Exchequer ; Sir Thomas Parry, 
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster ; Sir Edward Phillips 
and Sir John Doderidge, Serjeants-at-Law ; Sir Henry Hobart, 
Attorney-General ; Sir Francis Bacon, Solicitor-General ; 
Sir William Waade, Lieutenant of the Tower ; Sir Charles 
Parkins ; Sir Robert Cotton ; Sir Thomas Crompton ; and 
John Corbet t, a Clerk of the Privy Council. Pat. Roll, 1770. 



Ixii INTRODUCTION 

most active. Northampton, who was Notting- 
ham's cousin, seems to have been the leader of 
the reform party, and although he is persistently 
vilified by Pett, there is little doubt that he was 
actuated by a more or less sincere desire (sharpened, 
possibly, by mutual antagonism between the 
offices of Lord Warden and Lord High Admiral) 
to reform the many existing abuses. What all 
these abuses were would take too long in telling, 
but they were sufficient to justify, and more than 
justify, the vigorous language of the patent, which 
speaks of the 

* very great and intolerable abuses, deceits, frauds, cor- 
ruptions, negligences, misdemeanours and offences ' that 
' have been and daily are perpetrated, committed, and 
done against the continual admonitions and direction 
of you our High Admiral by other the officers of and 
concerning our Navy Royal, and by the Clerks of the 
Prick and Check, and divers other inferior officers, 
ministers, soldiers, mariners, and others serving, work- 
ing, or labouring in and about our said Navy.' 

The patent then proceeds to give instructions for 
the examination of all officials who have been 
connected with the Navy since 1598 and the 
investigation of their accounts, 

minding that the said intolerable abuses, frauds, mis- 
demeanours, and offences shall forthwith be enquired 
of, the offenders therein condignly punished and also 
to provide a speedy reform of the same for the time to 
come.' 

Possibly, at the time, James really intended 
to reform the administration. Nottingham kept 
out of the way, and his subordinates had an 
unpleasant time while they were examined upon 
their misdeeds; but in the end , James' fear of 



INTRODUCTION Ixiii 

Spain having passed away, he, with his usual weak- 
ness, let the offenders oft with a lecture. 

The Commission commenced to sit in May 
1608 and sat for a little over a year, ending with 
the proceedings before the King recorded on pp. 
68-69 below. During this period 161 witnesses 
were examined, and their signed depositions 
taken. These are preserved among the manu- 
scripts of Sir Robert Cotton,^ who acted as the 
secretary. They were analysed by Cotton, who 
drew up a lengthy report 2 in which various 
abuses are set forth and proposals made for their 
remedy ; the latter, as might be expected, were 
duly ignored by the King. Among the offenders 
cited by name, Pett appears as one of the chief, 
and although the present occasion is not con- 
venient for a general examination of the report 
and evidence, some mention must be made of 
the matters in which Pett is directly charged 
with wrong-doing. 

The first point made against him is that while 
he was keeper of the timber store at Chatham 
he had failed to reject bad timber and plank 
brought in by one of the purveyors. His answer 
to this was ' that Sir Henry Palmer had been 
so quick with him for some of these exceptions 
as he would complain no more though the 
purveyors brought in faggot sticks.' He is next 
charged with certain malpractices in connexion 
with the Resistance, and other charges on this 
account are brought against him further on ; 
these have already been referred to. In a general 

1 CoU. MSS., Julius F. iii. 

* S.P. Dom. James I, xli. The ' book of reformation ' 
referred to at p. 37. Northampton also made a report direct 
to the King, which deals, however, only in generaUties. — Royal 
MSS. 18 A, xxxiv. 



Ixiv INTRODUCTION 

charge against the Master Shipwrights that, for 
reasons of private gain, ships were repaired 
* when they were not worth the labour nor the 
charges bestowed on them,' the case of the Victory 
is cited as an example : 

Thus did the Victory for transportation, docking 
and breaking up stand the king in four or five hundred 
pounds, and yet no one part of her at this day serviceable 
to any use about the building of a new as was pretended 
for a colour. To conclude, though we set her at a rate 
of 200/., yet it had been better absolutely for the King 
to have given her away to the poor than to have been 
put to the charge of bringing her from Chatham to 
Woolwich, no other use having been made of her than 
to furnish Phineas Pett (that was the only author of 
her preservation) with fuel for the diet of those Carpenters 
which he victualled. 

In complaining that estimates for repair were 
made blindfold, with the result that money was 
spent upon old ships more than suflBcient to have 
built new ones, the illustration is again drawn 
from Pett's proceedings : 

An instance of this art may be drawn from the King's 
ship now called the Anne Royal, whose estimate being 
first set down by the Master Shipwrights at 3576/., which 
sum would have built another (by the judgment of those 
that made the estimate) newly from the stocks of equal 
burthen, doth upon her finishing by Phineas Pett (a 
favourite of the chief officers) amount to full 7600/. upon 
that false ground which before hath been spoken of. 

A little further on, in dealing with frauds 
connected with the receipt of stores, Pett is 
again made the principal example : 

When timber and other materials come to be received 
into the stores, of the Clerk of the Check combining 
closely with the deliverers to increase the quantity of 



INTRODUCTION Ixv 

that which is delivered some time to a third part above 
true measure, which increase is shared between both, 
and lots are cast upon the robe of the Redeemer. 

Sir Foulke Greville, espying plainly this collusion be- 
tween parties to the wrong of our great Master, sought 
to prevent this play of fast and loose by adding Phineas 
Pett to the Clerk of the Check at Chatham as an assistance 
to take care that there might be no increase of quantities, 
but all things accounted for in their true proportion in 
weight and number as they were indeed, without con- 
spiracy. But such was the falsehood of the party, as 
having found the thief, he ran with him, thrusting himself 
into [the] pack with the Clerk and the deliverer ; and 
thus adding himself as an assistant indeed, not to plain 
dealers as Sir Foulke Greville meant, but to filchers and 
abusers, as Pett himself meant, which appears upon 
examination. 

In a further charge relating to the issue of 
material for ships building or under repair, it 
is pointed out that the Surveyor had taken 
away the keys of the storehouses from the Clerk 
of the Check, their proper custodian, ' and put 
them into the hand of Pett his chief favourite, 
who could not only take just what he liked, 
* but likewise hath power to expend upon the 
ships (or under that pretence) whatsoever he 
thinketh good vnthout contradiction, and full 
scope withal to embezzle what he list.' He is 
also mentioned in connexion with the construction 
and decay of the ' pale ' which should defend the 
storeyard from pilferers * on the outside towards 
the Thames,' and with the employment of j^ouths 
and boys * that fill up numbers but work little.' 
Finally he is charged with * wasteful and lavish 
expense ' in repairing the ironwork of the Anne 
Royal at a cost of 800/., or more than double the 
amount necessary for the purpose. In the only 
charge to which Pett himself refers, namely, 



Ixvi INTRODUCTION 

that of altering his lodgings, he is not mentioned 
by name, but it is clear that all the resident 
officials had added rooms to their houses at the 
expense and to the detriment of the storehouses 
which adjoined. 

There seems little doubt that these charges 
were well founded, and that Pett was acting in 
collusion with his * very good friends' Mansell 
and Trevor to defraud the State. It is, however, 
probable that the other officers were little better, 
and were only restrained by the lack of those 
opportunities the possession of which thev envied 
Pett. 

It is clear from the remarks in the Report of 
the Commission of Inquiry already quoted and 
from Pett's narrative ^ that the original 
Roya^'^'^ intention was to rebuild the Victory, 
which had been removed from Chatham 
to Woolwich in the autumn of 1606 for this 
purpose. The official records do not throw any 
light upon the circumstances in which this in- 
tention came to be abandoned, and indeed the 
Treasurer's official accounts for 1609 and 1610 
preserve the fiction that the Victory was rebuilt. ^ 
From the story related by Phineas, it appears 
that the Victory had been given by James to 
Prince Henry, and that Pett was entrusted with 
the task of rebuilding her because he was one of 
the Prince's retainers. He then conceived the 
idea of constructing a ship larger than any that 
his predecessors had built, and made a model 
embodying his design, which so pleased the Lord 

» Pp. Ixiv and 29 et seq. 

* Pipe Off. Dec. Accts. 2247. ' New Building the Victory 
in dry dock at Woolwich ; ' ibid. 2248, * Shipkeepers attend- 
ing the Victory, now named the Prince Royal ' ; * New 
Building the Victory now named the Prince Royal.' 



INTRODUCTION Ixvii 

High Admiral that the King was brought to see 
it, with the result that it was decided to build a 
new great ship on the lines suggested by Pett. 
This procedure of constructing a model to scale 
from the design, for the approval of the authorities, 
before starting to build the ship, is probably 
the first instance of the adoption of a course 
that later became customary in all cases where 
a new ship represented an advance in size, or 
method of construction, or embodied features not 
to be found in her predecessors. Her keel was 
not laid until the 20th October 1608, nearly a 
year after the model had been submitted to the 
King's inspection. In the meantime the Com- 
mission of Inquiry had been appointed, and the 
construction had not proceeded far before 
questions were raised as to the correctness of 
the design, the suitability of the material, and 
the competence of Pett as designer and builder. 

On the 15th December, Baker was examined 
on the subject before the Commission. The 
questions put to him related to the estimated 
cost of the Prince Royal and the material used ; 
the cost of the rebuilding of the Ark Royal ; 
and the experience of Pett as a builder. Baker 
estimated the probable cost of the Prince at 
£7000, nearly twice what he had been paid for 
the Merhonour.^ This estimate, although appar- 
ently in excess of one given by Pett, proved 
very far short of the mark, since the total cost 
finally came to nearly £20,000, no less than £iz^9 
being spent on decoration and carving alone. 
As regards the material. Baker stated that the 

* The relative dimensions were : Prince Royal — length 
of keel 115 ft. ; breadth 43 ft. ; depth 18 ft. Merhonour-- 
length of keel no ft. ; breadth 37 ft. ; depth 17 ft. Baker 
built the Merhomur by contract for £3600. 



Ixviii INTRODUCTION 

timber was very badly chosen, It appears that 
old and unsuitable trees were selected on account 
of the profit to be made by their larger * tops,* 
which seem to have been one of the many per- 
quisites of the officers. In preparing the timber 
there was, so Baker said, 

so much waste as the charge will be well near half so 
much more as it needed to be to the King ; besides the 
ship will be of many years less continuance serviceable 
than otherwise she would have been if the timber and 
plank had been well chosen, and framed in the wood. 

In regard to Pett's competence : 

Being asked, also by virtue of his oath, whether 
Phineas Pett be a workman sufficient to be put alone in 
trust upon a ship of so great charge and burthen, he 
answereth that he never saw any work of his doing 
whereby he should so think him sufficient for that 
W'ork, but rather thinketh the contrary. Further, being 
demanded what ship he knoweth or have heard the 
said Pett hath built or repaired, he saith he never knew 
any new ship of his building, but one of 120 tons or 
thereabouts which he built by Chatham for himself,^ as 
far as he knoweth, and another ship of the burthen of 
223 tons he repaired,^ and a pinnace ^ for his Majesty, 
which he saith was so done that after he had repaired 
them they w^ere worse in condition than they were when 
he took them in hand, for that they were so unservice- 
able that they would bear no sail, by which default of 
his they were returned from the seas into Chatham to 
be new furred * to make them bear sail, so that with 

^ The Resistance. 

• The A nswer. He does not include the A nne Royal, which 
had just been finished. 

" The Moon. 

• ' There are two kinds of furring, the one is after a ship 
is built, to lay on another plank upon the side of her (which 
is called plank upon plank). The other, which is more 
eminent, and more properly furring, is to rip off the first 



INTRODUCTION Ixix 

his first repairing and furring of them he doubts not but 
it will appear by the accompts that his workmanship 
with stuff was more chargeable than a new ship of their 
burthen might have been new built for, which are 
enough to persuade any man that he cannot be suffi- 
cient to perform the building of so great a ship when he 
hath performed the reparation of a small ship so ill, as 
of a good ship he made a bad. 

Further, being asked what his opinion was concern- 
ing the choice of the stuff, he saith it was not chosen 
for the good of the King but for their own turns, and 
that very little of it fit to be put into any ship, and 
much less into a great ship, because it will be of no 
continuance, and that he never knew Pett to make any 
frame in the wood either for ship or boat, who cannot 
do it, being never brought up to it ; and as for his brother 
Peter Pett, who was appointed purveyor, he holdeth him 
a man most simple for such a purpose, and also saith that, 
though they be both unsufficient for the making of such 
a frame, yet the badness of the stuff is not altogether to 
be imputed to them, but to those who dispose of the 
business according to their own humour. 

Five days later, Bright came up for examina- 
tion and was required to give ansv^ers to seventeen 
questions, apparently the same as those put to 
Baker. Six of them he did not answer, but 

planks and to put other timbers upon the first, and so to 
put on the planks upon these timbers. The occasion of it 
is to make a ship bear a better sail, for when a ship is too 
narrow, and the bearing either not laid out enough, or too 
low, then they must make her broader, and lay her bearing 
higher. They commonly fur some two or three strakes under 
water and as much above, according as the ship requires, 
more or less. I think in all the world there are not so many 
ships furred as are in England, and it is a pity that there 
is no order taken, either for the punishing of those who 
build such ships, or the utter preventing of it, for it is an 
infinite loss to the owners, and an utter spoiling and disgrace 
to all ships that are so handled.' — Main waring, Seaman's 
Dictionary, s.v. Fur, 



Ixx INTRODUCTION 

referred the Commissioners to the answers given 
to them by Baker. His repUes to the others 
were generally in corroboration of what Baker 
had said, but as regards Pett's capability he 
expressed no direct opinion, contenting himself 
with pointing out that 

the old Officers, in former times, in such great works did 
place two Master Shipwrights in the building of one great 
ship, as my father Mr. Bright was joined with Mr. Pett 
in the building of the Elizabeth Jonas, as also in the 
building of the Bear with Mr. Baker. Their reason was 
that two Master Shipwrights' opinions was little enough 
for the charge so great in scope as she at Woolwich will 
be, but now it is carried by the favour of some of the 
Officers to whom it pleaseth them ; but howsoever it is, 
the charge is great for a young man to do which never 
made great ship before of that burthen. 

After this the matter remained in abeyance 
until the end of March, when Northampton en- 
listed the services of George Waymouth, 
George^ who appears to have possessed a great 
Way- reputation among his contemporaries for 
mouth. i^.g theoretical knowledge of shipbuilding. 
In 1602 Waymouth had set out, under the auspices 
of the East India Company, to attempt the North- 
West Passage in the Discovery, with another small 
vessel, the Godspeed, but had been compelled, 
through the mutiny of his crew, to abandon the 
attempt, after entering the strait subsequently 
known as Hudson's Strait. In 1605 he made a 
short voyage of discovery in the Archangel along 
the American coast. Of actual experience in 
shipbuilding he seems at that time to have had 
none whatever, and a perusal of his chapter on 
that subject in the manuscript volume ' The 
Jewell of Artes,' ^ which he presented to James 

» Add'. MS. 19889. 



INTRODUCTION Ixxi 

in 1604, would not inspire any great confidence 
in his theoretical knowledge, but fortunately other 
means of judging the extent to which this know- 
ledge was subsequently increased have lately pre- 
sented themselves. 

The chapter in * The Jewell of Artes ' consists 
entirely of criticism, together with a few crude 
drawings not explained in the text. These criti- 
cisms are not without point, as may be seen from 
the following extracts. He says : 

Although the form and fashion of these our English 
ships have always been, and yet are accompted to be made 
by the best proportion, and fittest both for service and 
burden, yet if art and diligence were to the full performed 
in their buildings as they might, there should not remain 
in them so many dangerous impediments as there do at 
this day, which maketh me verily suppose that the one 
of them, if not both, is not in such measure in our ship- 
wrights as with all my heart I do wish. 

A little further on, in speaking of the dis- 
crepancies to be found in ships supposed to be 
built from the same design, he says : 

Yet could I never see two ships builded of like propor- 
tion by the best and most skilful shipwrights in this 
realm . . . the chiefest cause of their error is because they 
trust rather to their judgment than to their art, and to 
their eye than to their scale and compass. 

He then, feeling, no doubt, that his want of 
technical experience in shipbuilding gave him 
small right to pose as a critic of the professional 
builders, deprecates their censure in the following 
words : 

All which defects in building and many other I have 
with no less careful endeavour than with the often peril 
and hazard of mine own life diligently applied myself to 
search and find out, even to the uttermost of my skill and 



Ixxii INTRODUCTION 

understanding ; and although by mine own experience I 
can in this point speak as much as most seamen (I might 
say as any), having been employed in this service ever 
since I was able to do any, and served therein well near 
four prenticeships, and having in this time borne all the 
offices belonging to this trade, even from the lowest unto 
the highest, yet had I rather that any other should have 
taken upon them the searching and finding out of these 
impediments and the laying of them open, than myself ; 
but seeing that no man that ever I heard of hath hitherto, 
as yet, undertaken the same, the thing being of much 
importance, as it is, and the dangers so great, though 
perhaps I shall be hardly censured for the same of the 
shipwrights, whose want of art or diligence I therein 
accuse, yet do I think it the part of every good subject 
rather to seek to do good to the whole state than to fear 
the displeasure of any one occupation. 

In an undated paper, a copy of which is pre- 
served in the Harleian MSS.,^ he further criticises 
the shipwrights to the following effect : 

The Shipwrights of England and of Christendom 
build ships only by uncertain traditional precepts and 
observations and chiefly by the deceiving aim of their 
eye, where for want of skill to work by such proportions 
as in Art is required and is ever certain, I have found 
these defects. 

(i) No shipwright is able to make two ships alike in 
proportion nor qualities ; to build a ship to any desired 
burden certain ; nor to propose to himself how much 
water his ship shall draw until there be trial made 
thereof. 

(2) Ships yet built go not upright in the sea, whereby 
they often lose the use of their lower tier of ordnance. 

(3) They are often forced to be furred ; which is a 
great charge and weakening to the ships ; this is for 
want of skill to work their desired proportions. 

(4) They labour and beat in the sea more than they 

» Harl. MS. 309, f. 68. 



INTRODUCTION Ixxiii 

may be made to do ; which causeth often leaks to spring 
and weakeneth them that they cannot last so long as 
they might. 

(5) They go not so near the wind as they might be 
made to do, the wind being the greatest advantage in 
fight. 

(6) They draw more water in proportion to their 
burdens than they might be made to do. 

(7) They be made of less burdens than they may be 
made of in proportion to the length, breadth and depth. 
This defect the Hollanders have in part mended and 
are able to carry freight for one third part less than our 
Merchants. 

(8) They cannot bear sail nor steer readily to make the 
best advantage of the wind, for want whereof, and of 
art in proportioning the Moulds, they sail not so fast as 
they may be made to do. 

My study these twenty years in the Mathematics hath 
been chiefly directed to the mending of these defects. 
I have during this time applied myself to know the 
several ways of building and the secrets of the best ship- 
wrights in England and Christendom, and have likewise 
observed the several workings of ships in the sea in all 
the voyages I have been. By these helps I have demon- 
stratively gained the science of making of ships perfect 
in Art, which of necessity must be made wrought by a 
differing way from all the Shipwrights in the world. 

He goes on to say that ships built after his 
plan v^ould cost less and be of more burden, 
and gives reasons why the ships of the Low 
Countries carried freight at cheaper rates than 
English ships. This, he says, was because they 
were longer in proportion to their breadth, 
broader and longer in the bottom, and therefore 
of less draught, and not built so high above 
water, with the result that they required less 
sail and tackling and could manage with a smaller 
crew. 
These criticisms of the English shipwrights a r 



Jxxiv INTRODUCTION 

no doubt well founded, but the step from critic to 
artist is a long one, and Waymouth never took 
it. Nevertheless he was a more competent critic 
than Pett would have us believe. An anonymous 
seventeenth - century MS., entitled, *A most 
excellent briefe and easie Treatize,' containing, 
among other matters, ' A most excellent manner 
for the Buildinge of Shippes,' exists in the Scott 
collection, and this, by the kindness of the owner, 
has been placed at the disposal of the editor, 
who, after a careful examination, has no doubt 
that it is the work of Waymouth, written after 
he had built the ship which Pett calls a ' bable 
and drowne divell,' and of which a midship 
section is given. Unfortunately, except in this 
one instance, the treatise is purely theoretical and 
throws no light on the problems of the Prince 
Royal, or the methods of the royal shipwrights, 
but as a theoretical treatise it is far in advance 
of the 'Jewell of Artes,' and indeed of anything 
that the English shipwTights of that century pro- 
duced, and is sufficient to explain why Waymouth's 
opinions were accorded so much respect. 

After Waymouth 's futile visit to Woolwich, 
the King seems to have been much perplexed, 

and since there was no independent 
Noui^-^^ expert, for they had all taken sides, he 
iiam, handed the matter over to a committee 

and's^uffoik. composed of the Lord High Admiral and 

two of the great officers of State. In 
theory, no doubt, the selection of the Admiral to 
superintend such an inquiry was the natural course 
to be followed, but in this case he was sitting in 
judgment on one of his own proteges, and could 
hardly condemn him without indirectly condemn- 
ing himself and justifying Northampton. The 
result in such circumstances— and with such a 



INTRODUCTION Ixxv 

man— was a foregone conclusion, for the other 
two members, having no professional experience 
of the matter, would naturally follow his direction. 
The technical arguments of Baker and Stevens 
would be lost on Worcester and Suffolk, even 
if Nottingham could appreciate them, which may 
be doubted ; and — judging by his writings, and 
allowing for their ignorance of the mathematical 
side of the questions at issue — it is not surprising 
that Waymouth bored them beyond endurance, 
with the result that in the end ' they found the 
business in every part and point so excellent.' 

Northampton's anger at the result was not 
unnatural, and the King found that there was no 
other course open to him but to hold an inquiry 
in person. This was fixed for the 8th May, and 
during the first week of that month Baker, 
Waymouth, and their associates took the dimen- 
sions of the ship at Woolwich and set out their 
objections in the following document : ^ 

Imperfections found upon view of the new work 
begun at Woolwich. 

First her mould is altogether unperfect, furred* 
in divers places ; she hath too much floor ; ^ the lower 
sweep * and the upper are too long, and the middle 
sweep too short. 

Her depth is too great and her side too upright, so 
that of necessity she must be tender sided and not 
able to bear sail. 

Her breadth lieth too high, and so she will draw too 

» S.P. Dam., James I, xlv. 33. 

* See note on p.lxviii. In this case pieces were laid upon 
the outsides of the timbers to make the mould broader. 

* See note on p. 37. 

* The sweeps are the circular arcs of the mould ; see the 
mould of the Sovereign en p. xcvi. 



Ixxvi INTRODUCTION 

much water, and thereby dangerous and unfit for our 
shoal seas. 

Her harpings ^ are too round and lie too low, which 
maketh a cling at the after end of it, and makes the 
tow flare off ^ so much that the work is not only mis- 
shapen but the ship dangerous to beat in the sea either 
at an anchor or under sail. 

Her workmanship is very ill done, and thereby the 
ship made weak, as first the limber' holes are cut so 
deep in the midship floor timbers that they are less 
thickness upon the keel than toward the rung head ; 
whereas they ought to be thicker and stronger in the 
midst, to bear the weight on ground. 

The futtocks * have not scarph ^ enough with the 
floor timbers, but at the lower end of them are divers 
short clogs of timber put in which serve to no purpose 
for strength but to fill up the room. Every mean owner 
in the Thames will assuredly tie the carpenter to allow 
a great scarph and to have his timber come whole within 
a foot of his kelson. 

Some of the timbers abaft and afore are left so deep 
by the kelson that the footwales • and outside not being 
well tren ailed together vnW be a great weakness to the 
ship, and the rather for that the rung,' being cut out 
of right and old grown timber, cannot be brought to a 
lesser scantling, they will break in sunder at the cross 
grain. 

The provision of timber was not fitting such a charge- 

* * The Harpings of a Ship is the breadth of her at the 
bow : also some call the ends of the bends, which are fastened 
into the stem, the Harpings.' — Mainwaring, Seaman's Dic- 
tionary. • Overhang. 

» Holes cut through the timbers over the keel to allow 
the bilge water to run to the pump. 

* See note on p. 60. 

' I.e. the overlap of the joint was not sufficient. 

* The inside planking upon the floor timbers, sometimes 
called ' seeling ' or ' ceiling.' 

' The rungheads at the ends of the floor timbers, where 
these begin to curve upward into the lower (or runghead) 
sweep. 



INTRODUCTION Ixxvii 

able work for that much of the same is overgrown and 
many pieces of them cross grained, as cut to a round- 
ness out of straight timber, which cannot be strong enough 
to bear a ship on ground of so great weight as this is ; 
as may be seen both in the ship and yard. 

To shew his weakness in art and the imperfection 
of the mould, Pett himself, after workmen had seen her, 
hauled down his futtocks^ 2 foot as soon as the lords 
were gone, and cut off some of the heads of them, whereby 
they have made her more imperfect than she was and 
put all things out of order that she can hardly be ever 
amended. 

Mathew Baker. W. Bright. 

Nycholas Clay. Edward Stevenes. 

John Greaves. Richard Meryett. 

George Waymouth. 

All these being Shipwrights (saving Capt. Waymouth) 
have taken their oath, and answered before us, both upon 
their conscience to God, their duty to the King and their 
love to their country that this declaration is true. And 
Cap"*. Waymouth also afhrmeth that all which the said 
Shipwrights have declared to be imperfections are so to 
be accounted. But the error of the limber holes he did 
not look into, supposing that no man affecting the name 
of a workman would err in so gross an absurdity. 

HNorthampton. Ch. Parkins. 

E. ZoucH. Ro. Cotton. 

John Corbett. 

Cap". Waymouth further saith, touching the imperfection 
of the mould, that the Hollowing Moulds ^ are not good 
neither before nor abaft, for in the Hollowing Moulds 
afterward he hath taken away too much timber from 
the hooks, whereby it hath much weakened the ship, 
that when she cometh to lie on ground she will complain 
in that place, which will be a great impediment to the ship. 

* I.e. shortened the futtock sweep. 
» The moulds fore and aft in which the lower sweeps 
become concave instead of convex exteriorly. 



Ixxviii INTRODUCTION 

And concludeth that she being so deep and her moulds 
so unperfect, with these gross errors and absurdities 
she can never be made strong and fit for service, 
and least of all for our seas. 

Edward Stevenes. George Waymouth. 

Mathew Baker. 

W. Bright. 

Nycholas Clay. 

John Greaves. 

Richard Meryett. 
hnorthampton. 

E. ZoUCH. 

CH. Parkins. 

Ro. Cotton. John Corbett. 

This indictment cannot be lightly set aside. 
Baker was the most prominent shipbuilder of 
that day, and Bright and Meryett (or, as the name 
is more usually written, Meritt) were Govern- 
ment shipbuilders of long experience, while Clay, 
Greaves, and Stevens were private builders of 
considerable standing in their profession. Un- 
fortunately we have hardly any authentic details 
of the ship ; certainly not sufficient to enable us 
to form any independent opinion upon the ques- 
ticii of her design. We have, from the careful 
survey ^ taken in 1632, the following dimensions : 

Feet. Ins. 

Length of keel 115 o 

Breadth 

Mean breadth 

Depth (presumably from the breadth to 

top of keel) .... 
Depth from the seeling .... 
Tonnage (old measurement) . 
Tonnage (new measurement) . 

and from the arguments during the inquiry it 
appears that the breadth of the floor was 11 feet 

» Add». MS. 18037. 



43 





36 





18 





16 3 
ii86-8o 


1330 





INTRODUCTION Ixxix 

8 inches. This is all we know of the shape of 
the hull below water, and the pictures of the ship 
that can be considered authentic representations ^ 
do not add to this knowledge. 

It would seem that Pett had made one or two 
slight alterations in the accepted rules, as followed 
by his predecessors, in the design of the hull. 
For example, his floor was slightly wider than 
the amount allowed by Baker in his scheme 
for plotting the midship section, given in the 
' Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry,' ^ 
according to which it should have worked out at 
10 feet 3 inches; but as Waymouth had, as we 
have already seen, been advocating a broader 
floor, a change that subsequently took effect, 
it is difficult to understand why he, at any rate, 
should have objected to this. To a later age, 
which has seen much greater ships of deeper 
draught navigate ' our shoal seas ' in safety, the 
objection to the deep draught of water may seem 
somewhat uncalled for, but it must be remembered 
that at that date the King's ships, when not on 
service, lay in the Medway above Upnor, and 
an undated MS.* written about 1640 shows that 
difficulty was experienced in finding safe moorings 
for the Sovereign and the Prince in this position. 
On the whole, it seems probable that the objections 
on the score of design were not well founded. 
We never hear of the ship having been crank 
or unseaworthy on this account, and there is no 
such disgraceful episode as that connected with 

* At Hinchinbrook, Hampton Court, and Windsor Castle. 
See R. C. Anderson, ' The Prince Royal and other Ships of 
James I,' in Mariner's Mirror, vol. iii. (1913), in which these 
pictures are reproduced. 

* Pepysian MS. 2820. 

■ Add'. MS. 9299, f. 206. 



Ixxx INTRODUCTION 

the Unicorn, built by Edward Boate in 1633, 
to be brought up against her. 

On the charge of insufficiency of material, 
however, the evidence is against Pett. There 
can be little doubt but that much of the timber 
was unsuitable ; . some was green and unseasoned ; 
some too old and in incipient decay ; while the 
curved timbers, which should have been cut 
from trees crooked by natural growth, had been 
cut from straight trees, with the result that 
the grain did not run round, but across, the 
curves, to the detriment of their strength. In 
December 1621 the Navy Commissioners ex- 
pressed their feelings on the subject to Buckingham 
in a letter, of which the following draft is preserved 
in the Coke MSS. : ^ 

Her weakness is so great that all we can do unto 
her at this time with above 500/. charge will but make 
her ride afloat and be able to go to sea upon our own 
coast rather for show than for service, and that to make 
her a strong and perfect ship will require at least 6,000/. 
charge and time till monies and fit provisions may be had. 
This we write to your Honour with grief and some just 
indignation, seeing a ship which so lately cost His Majesty 
near 20,000/. and was boasted to be of force to fight for 
a kingdom, so suddenly perish, and that no other reasons 
are given thereof but her first building of old red and 
decaying timber and that fallen in the sap, and her 
double planking with green and unseasoned stuff, wherein 
the improvidence of the officers and imfaithfulness of the 
workmen cannot be excused, such faults tending to the 
dishonouring and disarming of the state cannot with duty 
be either coloured or concealed. 

Perhaps this was stated a little too strongly, 
for in 1623, after a refiit costing under 1000/., 

» Coke MSS. {Hist. MSS.), I. 114. See also pp. 124, 125, 
infra. 



INTRODUCTION Ixxxi 

she made the voyage to Spain and back in safety. 
Nevertheless, as pointed out by Mr. Oppenheim, 
she ' was never subjected to any serious work/ 
and in 1641 she was entirely rebuilt at Woolwich 
by Peter Pett at an estimated cost of 16,019/., ^^ 
which must be added 2160/. for launching and 
transporting her to Chatham.* 

Having been forced by the circumstances to 
take the matter into his own hand, James seems 
^^^ to have conducted the inquiry with 

Inquiry moderation and skill, and if he had re- 
before mained content with weighing the evi- 

w^iwrch ^^^^^' ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ attempted to decide 
' some of the technical points in dispute 
himself, his decision might have received universal 
acceptance. 

An inspection of the list of witnesses on either 
side shows that the weight of authority was 
against Pett : the seamen appearing against him 
were of much greater importance than those for 
him, and, with the exception of Burrell, who 
subsequently * reported against the ship, the 
same may be said of the shipwrights. In con- 
sidering the result of the inquiry we cannot do 
better than follow James' division into the three 
points of art, sufficiency of materials, and charge. 
As regards art, it is obvious that Pett was tread- 
ing the path of progress experimentally with his 
new design ; the criticisms indicate that he had 
introduced modifications into the methods followed 
by Baker and the older shipwrights {e.g, in the 
width of the floor and the shape of the bows), 
while the subsequent furring of the mould and 
the alterations to the futtocks show that he was 
uncertain where he was going, and modified his 

^ Add. MSS. 9294 f. 409 and 9300. 
* I.e. in 1621. 



Ixxxii INTRODUCTION 

plans during the building. For the settlement of 
the much disputed point of the fiat of the floor, 
which seems to have been the determination of 
the actual point at which the lower sweep com- 
menced (obtained, presumably, by finding the 
geometrical centre of that sweep and dropping 
a perpendicular from it on to the floor), James 
chose Briggs, who was an eminent mathematician, 
and Chaloner, who, notwithstanding that he was a 
court official, was of some eminence as a scientist. 
Their verdict in favour of Pett must therefore be 
accepted as final. 

On the whole, it seems that as regards ' art ' 
Pett was in the right ; but as regards the second 
point, 'material,' sufficient has been already 
said to show that his opponents were justified 
in their criticism. As regards the third point, 
* charge,' i.e. costs, facts showed subsequently 
that the claim that * the charge of the building 
of this ship should not exceed other ships that 
had been built in her Majesty's times . . . allow- 
ing proportion for proportion, the garnishing not 
exceeding theirs,' was entirely unfounded ; for 
even allowing for the lavish decoration, the cost of 
building was much greater proportionately than 
that of any of those ships. The exuberance of 
the decoration may be seen from the entries in 
the Declared Accounts, printed in the Appendix, 
which are of additional interest from the informa- 
tion they give as to constructive details. It will 
be observed that these agree with such details 
as can be made out in the Hampton Court and 
Hinchinbrook pictures." 

* Appendix V, p. 207. 

" It need scarcely be pointed out that the illustrations in 
Charnock's Marine Architecture do not remotely resemble 
the real ship. 



INTRODUCTION Ixxxiii 

The Commission of Inquiry of 1618 found the 
management of the Navy in much the same state 

as it was in 1608, with the same abuses 
The Com- ^^^{\\ unremedied. But although in its 
^'16^8. Report it did not pillory Pett as the 

earlier Commission had done, it seems, 
by the reforms which it instituted, to have made 
him very uncomfortable. The actual shipbuilding 
was concentrated at Deptford, and Phineas was 
employed at Chatham in the work of improving 
and enlarging that yard. Wm. Burrell, who had 
been one of Pett's chief supporters in the Prince 
Royal Inquiry, was made one of the Commis- 
sioners, and although he remained the chief ship- 
builder of the East India Company,^ the whole of 
the new construction, which amounted to two ships 
yearly for the next five years, was placed in his 
hands, all the ships being built under contracts 
made between Burrell and the Commissioners. 
Naturally this arrangement, however efficient it 
might be from the national point of view, did not 
coincide with Pett's interests, and in his usual 
hyperbolical style he describes Burrell and Norreys 
(the Surveyor) as his * greatest enemies,' and attri- 
butes the necessary reforms of the Commissioners 
to a plot to ' ruin ' himself. 

The story of the Expedition to Algiers, which 
was as much a diplomatic move in support of the 

Elector Palatine as an attempt to suppress 
J^®. the Algerine pirates, has been amply dealt 

ExpeStion.with by historians,* but there remains 

something to be said about Pett's con- 

* Burrell quarrelled with the Company in 1626 and was 
dismissed their service. He died in 1630. 

* See especially Playfair, The Scourge of Christendom ; 
Corbett, England in the Mediterranean, vol. i., chap. viii. ; 
and Oppenheim, Monson Tracts, vol. iii. p. 94 et seq. 



Ixxxiv INTRO D UCTION 

nection with it, and his financial troubles that 
arose from it. It will be noted that he does not 
utter a word as to what happened between the 
time of his joining Mansell's fleet at Malaga in the 
Mercury on the 8th February and his return to the 
Downs on the 19th September. This silence was, 
no doubt, intentional, and arose from his un- 
wilhngness to put on record anything that might 
give offence to his friend Mansell or to higher 
authorities. 

Part of the fleet was fitted out at the expense 
of the London merchants, Vho entered into a 
contract with Phineas for the construction of two 
pinnaces, of 120 and 80 tons respectively, sub- 
sequently named the Mercury and the Spy. 
It was the habit of the Master Shipwrights to 
exceed their instructions in building ships for the 
Navy ; partly, perhaps, from a desire to do greater 
things than they were asked to do, and to out- 
rival their colleagues, but largely because the 
greater the ship the greater the profit to them- 
selves. When Pett attempted to play this trick 
upon the merchants (increasing one pinnace from 
120 tons to 300, and the other from 80 tons to 200), 
' upon some hopes of thanks and reward,' he 
got bitten badly, for the merchants, disdaining 
the precedents of the royal dockyards, insisted 
upon holding to their contract, and left Pett to 
make the best of a bad bargain. His appeal to 
the Council for redress was referred to the Com- 
mittee of Merchants, who in their reply ^ of 2nd 
December 1622 pointed out that their 'chief de- 
sires and endeavours have been and ever shall 
be to do right unto all, and (as fast as money can 
be gotten in) to give satisfaction where any just 
demands can be made unto us.' They added that 
* S.P. Dom., James I, cxxxiv. 60. 



INTRODUCTION Ixxxv 

' at our last meeting Captain Pett sent his brother 
and son unto us, with whom we have conferred 
and have agreed that Captain Pett shall bring in 
his accompt, and if it appear that he hath not 
received as much or more than any way can be 
due unto him, either for making the two pinnaces 
or his entertainment, we will make present pay- 
ment of the remainder, as we have formerly 
offered before your Lordships.' 

The matter drifted on until 1624, and two 
further remonstrances, from the Admiralty, brought 
forth a reply from the merchants that they were 

sorry to observe your Lordships' displeasure contained 
against us upon the suggestions of those whom nothing 
but their own demands can satisfy. . . . Your Lord- 
ships may please to be advertised that we contracted 
with him to build two pinnaces for twelve hundred and 
seventy pounds, and have paid to his workmen and lent 
to himself divers great sums of money over and above 
our contract and his wages, ^ by reason whereof we con- 
ceive he is more indebted to us than his wages demanded 
amounts unto, in a great sum of money, and also we lent 
him two hundred pounds upon his own bond yet un- 
satisfied. Notwithstanding, as formerly we have certified 
your Lordships, and sundry times offered to Capt. Pett, 
that we were ready to accompt with him that satisfac- 
tion might be given if ought were due to either psLVty, 
and we are still ready to perform the same, yet because 
he rejects this motion and that we are desirous your 
Lordships may be fully satisfied of our honest intentions 
and proceedings and may be no further troubled herein, 
we are therefore emboldened to become suitors to your 
Lordships that the Commissioners of the Navy, or whom 
else your Lordships shall please to appoint, may have 
the examination of the account depending, and if upon 
their report anything be found due we will take present 
order for payment thereof. 

^ J.e, his wages as captain of the Mercury, 



■J' 



Ixxxvi INTRODUCTION 

Apparently Pett never received the balance 
of the money, but his troubles did not end there. 
He was indebted to his brother Peter 
Pet?^^^^ for materials for these ships to the 
value of 325/. While his brother lived 
Phineas does not seem to have troubled about 
repayment, although, according to EUzabeth Pett, 
his sister-in-law, Peter had been * often arrested 
on this account,' and Phineas himself had, as 
he tells us, been arrested and imprisoned in 1628 
at the suit of * one Freeman,' by whom the tim.ber 
seems to have been originally supplied.^ 

After Peter's death,^ his v/idow endeavoured 
to recover the debt from Phineas, but could not 
enforce judgment on account of the latter* s 
position as the King's servant. She therefore 
petitioned the Admiralty in January 1633 for 
'leave to have the benefit of law against him.' 
Pett was ordered to satisfy her or show cause why 
the law should not take its course. Pett explained 
his loss on the transaction, and asserted that, 
' notwithstanding this great loss and main other ^ 
befallen me, yet according to my poor abilities I 
have endeavoured to make satisfaction for the 
debt due to my brother,* and he promised to pay it 
off in instalments. Elizabeth, who had herself 
been * taken in execution ' for the debt, pressed 
for a larger amount down, because she was * almost 
utterly undone through want of the said sum so 
long time, being the greater part of her mainten- 
ance.' 

In May Phineas wrote to Nicholas protesting 

» Infra, pp. 139, 141. 

■ About 1631. In January 1^4 he is stated to have 
been dead three years. \ 

* He refers especially to his los^ on the Destiny. For this 
use of ' main ' in the sense of ' considerable,' cf. ' a very main 
loss.'— iV.£.Z>, .' 



INT ROD UCTION Ixxxvii 

that he could not help defaulting in his payments 
because his son fell dangerously sick, and he could 
not get his arrears due from the Exchequer, 
and asserting his intention to settle the matter 
' before the end of this term.' In June Nicholas 
told him that the course of justice could not be 
stayed any longer, and Pett again promised that 
the instalment due should be paid. In October, 
Pett was still in default, and he was ordered by 
the Admiralty to give immediate satisfaction or 
show cause within a week why proceedings should 
not be taken. He managed still to hold out, 
and on Sunday the 8th of December he was 
arrested as he was going to St. Dunstan's Church 
* to hear a brother of his preach.' The officers let 
him go when they heard that he was the King's 
servant, and subsequently excused their action 
on the ground that Mrs. Pett's daughter had 
assured them that Phineas ' lay skulking in 
obscure places and then . . . lay at a chandler's 
shop in Tower Street, being ... an old sea 
captain and ready to go to sea presently.' Upon 
this Pett petitioned the Admiralty, complaining 
that he had offered part of the debt, which was 
' utterly rejected, and her implacable spirit will 
receive no other satisfaction but present payment 
of the whole debt,' and he asked the Lords to 
summon Mrs. Pett and her abettors before them 
for daring to arrest him without leave, ' so that he 
can go about his business without fear of arrest 
and that she may be enforced to accept her debt 
at such reasonable times as he is able to pay.' 
The remainder of the story is not to be found 
in the State Papers, but Pett tells us ^ that the 

* Infra, p. 154. The above account has been collected 
from the S.P. Dom., James I, ccxv. p. 98 ; ccxxviii. f. 14, 
84a ; ccxxi. 45 ; ccxxxii. 27 ; ccxxxiii. 10 ; ccxxxviii. 89 j 
ccxlii. 3, 36 ; ccxlvii. 84 ; cell. 18 ; cclix. 10. 



Ixxxviii INTRODUCTION 

matter was fought out at law, to his ' great 
charge/ so that presumably he was ultimately 
compelled to pay the money. 

A little before the time when EUzabeth first 
began to press him for the payment of the debt 

due to her late husband, Phineas was 
Dcstinv being pursued by an anchor-smith named 

Tayte, who asked the Admiralty for 
permission to proceed against him for a debt of 
250/. due on account of ironwork supplied for the 
construction of the Destiny, which Pett built 
for Sir Walter Ralegh in 1617. Phineas does not 
mention this in the manuscript, but as it gave 
rise to the interesting letter to Nicholas and 
petition to the Admiralty printed in the Appendix ^ 
it seems worthy of passing reference. On the 
return of Ralegh from his disastrous expedition, 
the Destiny was confiscated by the Crown, her 
name being changed to Convertive. Pett was 
therefore unable to recover against the ship the 
700/. which was due to him, and presumably 
had no power to recover it from Ralegh's estate ; 
possibly, however, this was another case in which 
he had exceeded the contract and had no legal 
remedy against the owner for the difference. 

In relating the voyage to Spain with the 
squadron sent to bring home Prince Charles 

after his foolish adventure with Bucking- 
Vo^a e ^^"^ ^^ ^^^ Spanish Court, Pett has not 
to^Spaln. been so reticent as he was in the case of 

the voyage to Algiers, and he has given 
a fuller account of the incidents of the return 
voyage than will be found elsewhere. The cir- 
cumstances in which he went mark the peculiarly 
favoured position which he held in relation to 
the King and the Lord High AdiUiral. The letter 
* Appendix VI. p. 210. 



INTRODUCTION Ixxxix 

written to Buckingham printed in the Appendix ^ 
further illustrates this special relationship. His 
complaint therein that the cook-room of the Prince 
had been moved against his consent is evidently 
directed against the Commissioners, who, in their 
report of 1618, had urged that cook-rooms should 
be placed in the forecastle because, when placed 
amidships, the smoke made * the okam spew out,* 
and they took up valuable space required for 
storage, and by bad distribution of weights made 
the ship ' apt to sway in the back.' It does 
not seem unreasonable that the Navy Com- 
missioners should have objected ^ to the absence 
of one of the principal master shipwrights from 
his duties for such a purpose as the voyage in 
question, although Phineas, with his usual animus 
against those who differed from him, accuses them 
of plots and malicious practices. 

The scandal in regard to the sale of old cordage 
as * brown paper stuff ' was judicially investi- 
gated before the Judge of the Admiralty, 
Brown ^^^^ ^j^^ report of the proceedings is pre- 
stus^ served among the State Papers.^ From 
this report it appears that Palmer, Pett, 
and others had sold this material (much of which, 
so it was alleged, might have been used for oakum, 
gun wads, or twice-laid rope) without the consent 
of the other Principal Officers. Some of the 
money received for it had been applied to legiti- 
mate purposes, but it is clear that part had been 
kept back in the hope that no questions would 
be asked, and that after a time the holders might 
appropriate it for themseWes. The assertion of 
Pett * that it was ' claimed as a perquisite to our 
places ' is not borne out by his own evidence. 

» App. VII, p. 212. • Infra, p. 126. 

» 5.P. Dom., Chas. I., celt. 74. * Infra, p. 153. 



xc INTRODUCTION 

According to his deposition, made on 7th August 
1633, the Keeper of the Storehouse at Chatham 
had reported to him that the storehouse was so 
cumbered with ' unnecessary and unserviceable 
cordage and old ends and deca3'Xd junks ' that 
there was no room for serviceable material. For 
this reason, he and Terne, Clerk of the Survey, 
then acting as deputy to Aylesbury, sold ' a 
quantity of old ends and deca3^cd junk for brown 
paper stuff,' but Pett alleged that he told the 
* Master then attendant ' and other officers that 
nothing that was fit for use or service was to be 
handed over to the purchasers. Pett could not 
remember the total amount received for this 
stuff,^ but stated that he had ' received of the 
said Sir Henry Palmer (upon promise made by 
this deponent to deliver up bills to the Treasurer 
of his Majesty's Navy for so much money due 
to him, this deponent, from his Majesty) four 
score and six pounds sterling and hath since 
made an assignment to the said Treasurer to 
defalk so much out of this deponent's entertain- 
ment payable to him.' He further stated that 
the sales were * by their own authorit}^ being 
principal officers of his Majesty's Navy,' and 
claimed that ' any two of the said principal 
officers personally attending at Chatham have 
sufficient power and authorit}^ for themselves, 
without acquainting the rest, there being divers 
precedents of the like done by others hereto- 
fore.' 

On 22nd February 1634, Pett, Palmer, Fleming, 
Terne, and Lawrence were sequestered from their 
places for having sold the material without suffi- 
cient authority, but on ist March Charles entirely 
pardoned Pett, while only allowing the others the 
» It was 252/. 6s. 9^. 



INTRODUCTION xci 

favour of continuing in their places until they 
had answered in writing.* 

The idea of building a royal ship that should 
be larger and more ornate than any of her pre- 
decessors seems to have originated in 
The the mind of the King, who acquainted 

Sovereign p^tt with his intention towards the end 
Seas.^ c>f June 1634. Phineas thereupon pre- 
pared a model, which was ready by the 
middle of October and was carried to Court on the 
19th of that month. In the meantime the Masters 
of Trinity House heard of the project and lodged 
the amusing protest printed in the Appendix.^ 
Apparently this model was not approved, for on 
7th March of the following year Pett received 
instructions from the Admiralty to build a ' new 
great ship ' of 1500 tons, and was told to prepare 
a * model ' for it.^ This second model does not 
appear to have been constructed, but as Penning- 
ton's draft, giving the dimensions proposed by 
him for the ship, is endorsed by the King as a 
* model,' perhaps a tabular statement of that 
nature was all that was intended. In April a 
committee, consisting of Pennington, Mansell, Pett, 
and John Wells,* examined Pett's plans and drew 
up the following schedule of proposed dimensions,^ 
which was approved by the King but afterwards 
modified : 

According to your Ma*' command we have examined 
the particulars of the plot and the dimensions presented 

* S.P. Dom., Chas. I, cclx. 108, ccxxviii. f. 122. 

* Appendix VIII., p. 214. 

» S.P. Dom., Chas. I, cclxiv. ft". 67^1, d>ya. 

* Storekeeper at Deptford. He seems to have had some 
knowledge of design, for in 1626 and 1627 he had been asso- 
ciated with Pett, Stevens, Lydiard, and Gunter, the mathe- 
matician, in drawing up new rules for ship measurement, 

.J S.P. Dom., Chas. I, cclxxxvi. 44. 



XCll 



INTRODUCTION 



to your Ma*' by Capt. Pett, and by comparing the rules 
of Art and experience together we have agreed to the 
Proportion underwritten, which we most humbly submit 
to your Ma*' further pleasure. 



Length of the keel 

Breadth within the plank 

Depth in the hold from the breadth to the upper 

edge of the keel 
Keel and dead rising 
Draught of water from the breadth to the lower 

edge of the keel .... 
The swimming line from the bottom of the 

keel ...... 

The flat of the floor .... 

Rake of the stem .... 

Rake of the post ..... 

Height of the Tuck at the fashion piece . 

Breadth of the Transome 

Height of the way forward 

Distance of the ports .... 

Ports upon the lower tier, square . 
Ports upon the second tier, square . 
Ports upon the third tier, round or square 
Distance of the ports from the swimming line 

with four months victuals at . 
With six months victuals at 
The first deck from plank to plank 
The second deck 
The third deck .... 



Ft. Ins. 

127 o 

46 3 



18 

2 



18 
13 



21 3 



3^ o 

8 o 

16 

28 

14 

10 



All the decks flush fore and aft, and the^half deck, 
quarter deck and forecastle according to the plot. 

Ton and 

Tonnage 

. 1466 

. 1661 



This ship by the depth in hold will be . 
By the draught in water .... 
By the mean breadth, which is the truest of 
all 1836 



INTRODUCTION xciii 

Your Ma*'' will be pleased to be informed that after 
mature debate we have likewise agreed upon the rules to 
be proportioned to each sweep of the midship bend, and 
where the bend is to be placed, and likewise of the rules 
to be held in her narrowing and rising lines, which we all 
pray may be only imparted to your Ma*''. 

Robert Mansell. J. Pennington. J. Wells. 
Phineas Pett. 

This is endorsed in the King's handwriting : 
' Dimensions resolved on for the Great Ship, 7 
of April 1635.' It is of interest to note, as 
evidencing the jealous way in which the funda- 
mentals of the design were kept secret, that the 
Committee proposed to impart the details of the 
midship bend ^ and of the narrowing and rising 
lines,^ which together formed the key to the 
actual form of the hull, to the King alone. 

Ten days later Pennington appears to have 
put in a proposal that slightly modified this 
design, increasing the draught of water by nine 
inches, the beam by four inches, the fiat of the 
floor by one foot, and the tonnage by 56 or 48 tons, 
but decreasing the keel length by one foot. His 
scheme of dimensions, which is endorsed in the 
King's handwriting as * Dimensions of Pennington's 
Model for the Great Ship, 17 April 1635,'' 
seems, from the fact that the tonnage is quoted 
in the contemporary lists * as 1522 tons, to have 

* The transverse section at the greatest breadth. 

* The curves passing through the ends of the floor timbers, 
as referred to the plan and elevation respectively. 

» S.P. Dom., Chas. I, cclxxxvi. 105. 

* Add. MSS. 9300 f. 64 ; 9336 f. 53- S.P. Dom., Chas. I, 
ccclxviii. 121. In this list,' which is dated September 1637, 
the ship is not named. The keel length is given as 127 ft., 
depth from breadth to top of keel as 19 ft. 4 ins., and breadth 
as 46 ft. 6 ins. 



xciv 



INTRODUCTION 



been the one finally adopted, though with slight 
modification. It runs as follows : 



Length by the keel 

Breadth at the beam 

Breadth at the Transome 

Breadth of the Floor 

Breadth from the water 

Draught of water .... 

Ports from the water 

Ports asunder 9ft., some more 

Ports from the deck 

Distance between the decks from plank to plank 

Rake of the Stem .... 

Rake of the Post .... 

Height of the Tuck 

Depth in hold from the seeling to the lower 

edge of the beam 
Sw^eep at the runghead . 
Sweep at the right of the mould 
Sweep between the water line and the breadth 
Sweep above the breadth 
Burden in tons and tonnage by the old rule 

New rule 



The outstanding interest of this * model ' lies 
in the fact that it is the only instance in which the 
sweeps of the mould are given. Before we can 
proceed to construct from it the midship section, 
we are met with the difficulty that the depth 
from greatest breadth to keel is not given, but 
in the first model this was equal to the draught, 
viz. 18 feet 9 inches, and since this was increased 
by 9 inches, we may fairly assume that the 
' depth ' in Pennington's model would be about 
19 feet 6 inches, and in fact we have this dimension 
given in a contemporary list as 19 feet 4 inches. 
If, taking this figure, we now attempt to plot the 
section, it will be found that the sweeps will not 



Ft. Insi 


126 





46 


6 


28 





14 





2 





19 


6 


5 





9 





2 





7 


6 


37 


6 


9 





17 





17 





II 





31 





10 





14 





15 


22 


1884 



INTRODUCTION xcv 

reconcile, the radius of the futtock sweep, 31 feet, 
being too great by about 6 feet. The mistake 
appears to He in the height of the ' breadth from 
the water ' (i.e. the height of the greatest breadth 
above the * swimming hne '), given as 2 feet. 
In the first model this was 2 feet 6 inches, and, 
as it is not probable that it would be less in the 
deeper ship, we may take this to have been 3 
feet, and not 2 feet. On this assumption we can 
proceed to construct the curve of the midship 
section as in the drawing annexed. In this 
drawing we have : 

Ft. Ins* 

AB = the half breadth . . . . 23 3 
AC = the depth from greatest breadth 

to top of keel . . . . 19 4 
AD = the half flat of the floor . .70 
DE = the radius of the runghead sweep . 11 o 
FG = the radius of the sweep between 
greatest breadth and the water- 
line 10 o 

FH = the radius of the ' sweep above 

the breadth ' . . . . 14 o 

We can now plot the curve of the section; 
Drawing the arc FI with radius GF to a depth of 
3 feet perpendicularly below CF, we obtain the 
point I, and producing IG backwards to K, a 
point 31 feet distant from I, we have the centre 
of the futtock sweep, or ' sweep at the right of 
the mould,* which is given as 31 feet in radius.' 
With this radius from K we draw the arc IL 
cutting a line drawn from K through E at L: 
On drawing the runghead sweep from D with 
radius of 11 feet from centre E, it is found that 
this arc meets the other precisely at L, and these 
two arcs ' reconcile,' i.e: are tangent to each other 



XCVl 



INTRODUCTION 



•^-^--^ 




Scale op Feet. 



INTRODUCTION xcvii 

at L, for the centres of both arcs he in the same 
straight line KEL. 

The curve of the ' topsides ' presents more 
difficulty, because we are only given the radius 
of the ' sweep above the breadth/ but if we 
assume that the distance CM, or total height 
of the midship section above the greatest breadth, 
is equal to AC (and this seems to have been the 
customary proportion), and that the reverse curve 
NO was struck with the same radius as FN, 
namely 14 feet, we get a curve for the half mid- 
ship section ADLIFNO which cannot be far 
from the original design, and in the lower portion 
must approximate to it very closely indeed. 

There are no data from which the plan or 
elevation can be constructed, but it may be 
noted that the Ust in the State Papers already 
quoted gives the length of keel as 127 feet, although 
the tonnage remains as fixed by Pennington, so 
that, presumably, the rakes of the stem- and 
stern-posts were also modified so as not to in- 
crease the displacement, or rather the empirical 
measurement of it. Some time during this year 
Peter Pett was petitioning the King for license 
to print and publish ' the plot or draught of the 
great ship,' a concession which he had apparently 
been promised,^ but there is no record of the 
answer returned to his petition, nor is there any 
trace of the drawing, which may have been the 
original of the well-known engraving by Payne. 
In 1663 Christopher Pett gave Pepys a copy of 
the ' plate of the Soverayne with the table to 
it,' ' but whether this was Peter Pett's ' plot ' or 
Payne's engraving with additional details cannot 
now be ascertained. 

^ S.P, Dom., Chas. I, cccvi. 8^^ 
* Diary, Ja.n. 31, 1663. 



xcviii INTROD UCTION 

Pett estimated the cost of building the ship 
at 13,860/., and was to be required to ' put in 
assurance ' to finish her for 16,000/. ; but, before 
she was complete, wages alone had amounted 
to more than this sum, while the total cost, 
exclusive of ordnance, reached the extraordinary 
amount of 40,833/. In May Pett set out for 
the north to fell and prepare the 2500 trees 
required for her in Chopwell and Brancepeth 
Woods. The cost of carriage of the timber to 
the water, estimated at 1190/. at least, fell upon 
the counties of Durham and Northumberland, 
and Bishop Morton of Durham, who had been 
made responsible for the provision of this service, 
had to apply to the Council for assistance in 
proportioning out the assessment. The count}^ 
of Northumberland objected to the burden to 
be placed upon it, and it was suggested that 
Cumberland, Westmoreland, and the North Riding 
of Yorkshire should bear part. B}^ the beginning 
of September the timber had begun to arrive at 
Woolwich, and Pett expected to have the ship 
finished in eighteen months. 

On the 19th September Phineas found it 
necessary to protest to the King against the 
interference of the other officers, who had * from 
the beginning opposed the King's purpose in 
building this ship,' ^ and especially against 
being made to take material of which he did not 
approve, and against the attempt to charge the 
ship with the cost of houses then being built at 
Woolwich. He pointed out that he could not 
keep the cost within the estimate if such practices, 
which seem to have been customary, were per- 
mitted. The Na\^ Officers complained to the 
Admiralty of Pett's action, and he was called 
' S.P. Dom.. Chas. I ccxcviii. 20. 



INTRODUCTION xcix 

before the Admiralty, when he denied that he 
had complained to the King about any of them.* 
Possibly the great disproportion between the esti- 
mated and the ultimate cost of the ship was to 
some extent due to the fact that his protest was 
not successful, though it is difficult to believe that 
his original estimate can have been even approxi- 
mately accurate. He had also under-estimated 
by six months the time required to build her. 

The manuscript ends abruptly with Pett's 
visit to the Lord High Admiral on the ist October 
1638, and, curiously enough, the refer- 
J^®^ ences to him in the State Papers — 

Years. hitherto frequent — cease at the same 
date, with a letter from Northumberland 
to Pennington mentioning this visit. Except for 
one reference in connexion with a gratuity to 
be given to Henry Goddard in April 1645, his 
name is never again mentioned therein. Yet 
he remained in the service and carried on his 
duties at Chatham until his death. 

On 28th June 1642 the King sent him a warrant 
informing him of the appointment of Pennington 
as Lord High Admiral in place of Northumberland, 
and directing him to send the standard and all 
necessaries for the fleet as Sir John should direct.^ 
It will be remembered that Pennington hesitated 
and waited before going to the Fleet, with the 
result that Warwick, who had been nominated 
by Parhament to take command, went on board 
the flagship on the 2nd Jul}^ and the Fleet went 
over to the ParHamentary side. On the 20th 
August Colonels Sir John Seaton and Edwyn 
Saudis, acting on instructions from the Com- 
mittee of Public Safety, went to Chatham Dock- 

1 S.P. Dom., Chas. I, ccxcix. 2, 12. 
■' Hist. MSS. Report, v. 33. 



c INTRODUCTION 

yard, ' which was surrendered to them b}^ Captain 
Pett when he saw their warrant/ ^ This was on 
Saturday evening, and on the Monday they 
completed their work by placing a guard on 
board the Sovereign. 

Pett was rewarded for his ready obedience 
by being included among the Commissioners 
of the Navy appointed by Ordinance on the 
15th September,* and he was to receive the same 
allowance as he already held, although the other 
captains (except Batten) and John Hollond were 
only given 100/. a year. From this time until 
his death in August 1647, i^ his seventy-seventh 
year, he seems to have remained quietly at 
Chatham, perhaps too old to take any very active 
part in current affairs, for he has certainly left 
no mark upon them. His death seems to have 
occurred unnoticed ; the exact date is unknown,' 
and there is no recoid of his will — if he made 
one. The last entry concerning him in the 
official records * relates to the payment of his 
salary up to 29th September 1647, when he had 
passed away, but no reference is made to that fact. 
It is curious that Sir Henry Vane, the Treasurer 

1 Hist. MSS. Report, v. 46. 

' Firth, Acts and Ordinances of the Interregnum, i. 27. 

* He was buried in Chatham Church on August 21. 

* Pipe Office Dec. Accts. 2286. 

' Phineas Pett, Esq., another of the said Commissioners and 
one of the principal officers of the Navy, for his salary at 200/. 
per annum, Sd. per diem for one clerk and 61. per annum 
for paper, pens etc., due to him for the same time ended as the 
former [i.e. the year ended September 29, 1647] 217/. 3s. 4^. 

* Thomas Smith, Esq., now one of the Commissioners of 
the Navy in the room and place of (blank) for the entertain- 
ment of himself at 200/. per annum and two clerks at i6d. 
per diem and 61. per annum for paper money due to him for 
34 days begun the 28th of August 1647 ^tnd ended the 30th of 
September following 22/. gs. 4d.' 



INTRODUCTION ci 

of the Navy in 1647, who had corresponded with 
Pett, and must have known of his death, has 
left a blank in place of his name in the entry in 
these accounts relating to the salary of Thomas 
Smith,^ who succeeded to Pett's post at Chatham 
on the 28th August. 

No authentic portrait of Phineas is known to 
exist. He tells us that in 1612 his * picture was 
begun to be drawn by a Dutchman working then 
with Mr. Rock/ one of the ship-painters, but 
does not say if it was ever finished. The picture 
in the National Portrait Gallery, which shows the 
stern view of the Sovereign, at one time supposed 
to be a portrait of Phineas, is now acknowledged 
to be that of his son Peter. Another picture, in 
the possession of the Earl of Yarborough, has been 
exhibited in the past as a portrait of Phineas, 
but there can be no doubt that it really represents 
Sir Phineas (son of Peter of Deptford and grandson 
of Peter of Wapping), who was a Commissioner of 
the Navy fromx 1685 to 1689. The ship included 
in this picture is probably the Britannia, built by 
Sir Phineas in 1682. 

In forming any just appreciation of the 
character and abilities of Phineas Pett, regard 
must be had to the circumstances of 
Pett's^^ the age in which he lived. It was a 
Character, time of great political and religious 
unrest, and expressions of religious devo- 
tion which might now be thought extravagant were 
then normal, and were apparently not thought 
incongruous with dishonesty in money matters. 
The chronic maladministration of the Navy, 

* Smith, who had been Northumberland's secretary, had 
been appointed Secretary of the Admiralty by Ordinance of 
the same date as the one by which Pett had been re-appointed 
a Commissioner of the Navy in 1642. 



cii . INTRODUCTION 

and the arrears in payment of the relatively 
small salaries allotted to responsible posts, may 
to some extent justify methods of acquiring addi- 
tional emoluments that nowadays are judged 
more severely. 

Pett's kindness towards his unfortunate 
brothers and sisters shows a good heart, and 
there must have been something attractive in 
his character to secure him the steady support 
of Nottingham, James I, and Charles I, which 
went so far as to shield him against the conse- 
quences of his misdeeds. 

The favoured position which he held, and 
the privilege he enjoyed of direct intercourse 
with the supreme heads of the Nav}^ behind the 
backs of his immediate superiors, brought Pett 
into conflict with the latter on many occasions. 
It is not necessary to accept the explanation of 
Phineas that these incidents were the results 
of conspiracies directed against him. To oppose 
him was a deadly sin ; thus, Burrell, who was ' a 
worthy gentleman and good friend ' when he 
stood on Pett's side in the Prince Royal inquiry, 
became Pett's 'greatest enemy,' engaged in the 
* mahcious practice ' of ' tending to overthrow 
me and root my name out of the earth ' because 
he w^as appointed one of the Commissioners of 
Inquiry in 1618. 

Pett was evidently interested in the various 
efforts made in the early seventeenth century to 
explore and colonise the coasts of North America. 
He frequently refers to his friendship with Button, 
and states that he assisted in the selection of the 
Resolution for the voyage of 1612. He was, more- 
over, a kinsjman of Hawkridge and an acquaint- 
ance of Foxe ; while Gibbons was the master of 
his ship the Resistance. The disparaging remark 



INTRODUCTION ciii 

on Waymouth*s ' mistaking his course (as he did 
in the North- West Passage) '^ shows that he was 
acquainted with the story of the voyage of 1602, 
but the most competent modern authorities do 
not agree with this opinion of Pett (and of his 
contemporary Foxe), and hold that Waymouth 
did in fact enter the straits subsequently called 
after Hudson and sail along them for a consider- 
able distance.* Pett was also a member of the 
Virginia Company, though he does not mention 
this fact. His name appears in the second and 
third Charters of the Company (1609 ^^^^ 1612), 
and in 1611 he subscribed the sum of 37/. los. 
This was the lowest subscription allowable for 
members, but it was a comparatively large sum 
for those days. 

Evidently Phineas, in spite of his large and 
gro\\dng family, was at this time fairly prosperous, 
and had an income considerably greater than the 
5zji. 15s. which represented his official salary and 
allowance. No doubt this income was augmented 
by the trading ventures in the Resistance and by 
shipbuilding for private owners and by various 
official ' perquisites.* In 1614 it was increased by 
40/., granted him by the King under writ of Piivy 
Seal, but in 1617 and the following years his bad 
speculations in regard to the Destiny, the pinnace 
built for Lord Zouch, the Mercury, and the Spy, 
made serious inroads into his capital and burdened 
him with a load of debt which seems to have 
weighed upon him for many years and given him 
much trouble. James came to his assistance in 
1620 by presenting him with a patent for a 
baronetcy which brought him about 650/., and 

* Infra, p. 71. 

2 See Christy, Voyages of Foxe and James (Hakl. Soc.) 
and Asher, Henry Hudson the Navigator iHakl. Soc). 



civ INTRODUCTION 

Charles gave him another in 1628 which only 
fetched 200/. His appointment as a Commissioner 
of the Navy in 1631 increased his official income to 
200/., exclusive of the 40/. payable on the writ of 
Privy Seal. With this substantial addition to his 
salary he was in a position to gradually improve 
his finances, and after 1634 we hear no more of the 
actions for debt. 

From the story of his life as now unfolded it is 
clear that Phineas Pett was a man of considerable 
ability and industry, kindly to his friends, but 
impetuous and quick-tempered ; * well-in * with 
the authorities, and apt to take advantage of that 
fact when he disagreed with his equals or superiors. 
It is probable that he was slightly in advance of 
his contemporaries in the profession of ship- 
building, but not to the extent commonly sup- 
posed. Here his autobiography has stood him 
in good stead, for it has attached to his name a 
personality that makes his existence seem more 
real and of more moment to a later age in which 
his professional contemporaries have become 
shadowy names. It is difficult to say what was 
his real motive in writing it, but it was probably 
commenced as an explanation of his position in 
regard to the Prince Royal dispute of 1608, and 
afterwards continued partly for recreation ; partly, 
perhaps, for the edification of his children. Pepys 
appears to have thought much of it, for he took 
the trouble to copy it into his collection of mis- 
cellanea ; but it is certainly wanting in the candour 
and honesty of the celebrated Diary, and seems 
to have been written in order to convey a favour- 
able impression to the reader, and explain away 
doubtful deeds, rather than as a real revelation 
of self. 




AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF 
PHINEAS PETT 

I, Phineas^ Pett, being the son of Mr. Peter 
Pett of Deptford Strond ^ in the County of Kent, 
one of her Majesty's Master Shipwrights, was 
born in my father's dwelHng house in the same 
town one All Saints' day in the morning, being 
the first day of November in the year of our Lord 
1570, and was baptized the 8th of the same month 
and year aforesaid ih the parish church of Deptford 
Strond aforesaid. 

I was brought up in my father's house at 
Deptford Strond until I was almost nine years of 
age, and then put out to a free school at Rochester 

^ MS. * Phinees ' (the form also adopted in his signature), 
the Greek form of the Hebrew name Mouth of Brass, given as 

* Phinehas ' by the translators of the Bible. 

* MS. * Deepforde Stronde.' The etymology of this well- 
known name does not appear to have been satisfactorily 
determined. Antiquaries have been content to explain it as 
the ' Strand ' or shore of the deep ford over the Ravens- 
bourne River, which enters the Thames at Deptford Creek. As 
a matter of fact, Deptford Strond lay on the shore of the 
Thames some distance to the west of the Ravensboume. It 
seems more probable that Deptford Town, at the head of the 
creek near the bridge by which the Dover Road crosses, was 
the original settlement, and took its name from the deep creek 
(fiord) , which was navigable for ships of 500 tons up to that 
bridge, and that Deptford Stronde was settled later from the 

* Town ' and took the addition ' Stronde ' in contradistinction. 
The dockyard was on the site now occupied by the Foreign 
Cattle Market. 



2 EDUCATION 15, 

in Kent, to one Mr. Webb, with whom I boarded 
about one year, and afterward lay at Chatham 
Hill in my father's lodging in the Queen's House, 
from whence I went every day to school to Roches- 
ter and came home at night for three years space. 
Afterwards, by reason of my small profiting at this 
school, my father removed me from thence to 
Greenwich to a private school kept by one Mr. 
Adams, where I so well profited that in three years 
I was made fit for Cambridge. 

In the year 1586 at Shrovetide, against bache- 
lor's commencement, I was sent to the University 
of Cambridge, and by the means of one Mr. Howell,^ 
a Minister in Essex, I was placed in Emanuel 
College with a reverend tutor. President of the 
house, called Mr. Charles Chadwick, where I was 
allowed 20/. per annum during my father's life, 
besides books, apparel, and other necessaries. 

In the year 1589, about the 6th day of Septem- 
ber, it pleased God ^ to call to his mercy my 
reverend loving father, whose loss proved after- 
ward my utter undoing almost, had not God 
been more merciful unto me ; for leaving all 
things to my mother's directions, her fatal match- 
ing with a most wicked husband, one Mr. Thomas 
Nunn,^ a Minister, brought a general ruin both 
to herself and whole family. 

Some two months after my father's decease or 
thereabouts, my eldest sister Rachel was married 
to one Mr. Newman, Minister of Canewdon in 
Essex, a man of most dissolute life, with whom 
she not long enjoyed, for God, of his great mercy, 

^ Probably Thomas Howell, Rector of Paglesham. 

" Throughout the MS. the name of the Deity is spelt with- 
out a capital letter : the use of capitals in this connection 
appears to be comparatively modem. 

* ' Num ' in MS., in which it occurs twice. 



J^TsW APPRENTICED 3 

took her and delivered her from a most miserable 
and slavish life wherein she lived with him ; by 
whom he had two children, but both died. 

By reason of my mother's cross matching, 
my means of maintenance being wholly taken 
from me, and having no hopes of exhibition from 
any friend, I was forced after four years continu- 
ance in Cambridge, my graces for Bachelor of 
Art being passed both in house and town, to 
abandon the University presently after Christmas 
in anno 1590. 

At Candlemas after, I, by the instant persuasion 
of my mother, was contented to put myself to 
be an apprentice to become a shipwright (my 
father's profession) and was bound a covenant 
servant ^ to one Mr. Richard Chapman of Dept- 
ford Strond in Kent, one of her Majesty's Master 
Shipwrights, and one whom my father had bred 
of a child to that profession, my allowance from 
him to find myself tools and apparel being bare 
but 46 shillings and 8 pence per annum. This man 
I served almost two years altogether at Chatham 
in the Queen's Majesty's Works, and then he died ; 
where I spent all that time, God he knoweth, to 
very little purpose. 

After my foresaid master his death, I laboured 
to have served Mr. Mathew Baker, one of her 
Majesty's Master Shipwrights also ; but by the 
working of one Mr. Peter Buck,^ then Clerk of 
the Check at Chatham, and some other back 
friends, I was crossed in my service and so put to 

1 I.e. apprentice. 

2 Benjamin Gonson, junior, and Buck were appointed 
jointly Clerk of the Ships, with reversion to the longer liver, 
by letters patent of 10 July 1596. Gonson died in 1600 and 
Buck succeeded him. Buck was knighted in 1604 and died 
in 1625. 



4 VOYAGE TO LEVANT 159^ 

my shifts, and left to the wide world without 
either comfort or friend, but only God. 

At this time my eldest brother by my father's 
side, Mr. Joseph Pett, succeeded in my father's 
place, one of her Majesty's Master Shipwrights, 
which preferment no doubt God brought him to 
the better to enable him to have given his help to 
us ; but we found it clean contrary, for he was not 
only careless of us all and left us to our fortunes, 
but became also so unkind a brother to two of 
us, my own brother Noah and myself, that he was 
forced to leave his native country and seek com- 
fort in Ireland with an uncle of ours, own brother 
to my mother, called George Thornton, an ancient 
and well experienced sea captain ; where he shortly 
after was drowned in the river of Cork ; and myself 
was constrained to ship myself to sea upon a 
desperate voyage in a man of war,^ not greatly 
caring what became of me. 

I was shipped on this voyage a little before 
Christmas in anno 1592, in a ship called the 
GalHon Constance of London, of burden of 200 
tons or thereabouts, belonging to a gentleman of 
Suffolk, one Captain Edward Glenham,^ for the 
carpenter's mate, the master carpenter being one 
Edward Goodale, born in Deptford. To my 
setting out to sea, I found not any of my kindred 
so kind as to help me, either with money or 
clothes, or any other comfort ; only another 
brother I had by my father's side, Peter Pett, 
dwelling then at Wapping, that vouchsafed me 

^ A private man-of-war, called later in the 17th century 
a 'privateer.' 

■ Or Glemham. This was the second voyage. Neither 
appears to have been a financial success. An account of this 
voyage under the title. News from the Levane Seas . . . was 
published in 1594. 



;^''^4 




VISIT TO IRELAND 



lodging and meat and drink till the ship was ready- 
to set sail ; one William King, a yeoman in Essex 
and a stranger to me, lent me 3/. in ready money 
to help to furnish my necessaries, which afterward 
I repaid him again. 

In this voyage I endured much misery for 
want of victuals and apparel ; and after twenty 
months spent in the Levant Seas, coasts of Barbary 
and Spain, with many hazards both of loss of life 
and time, without taking any purchase^ of any 
value, we, extreme poorly, returned for" Ireland 
into the river of Cork ; and there taking leave 
both of ship and voyage, I travelled to Dublin ^ 
to visit my uncle Captain Thornton and my 
brother Noah, being then master with him in the 
Popinjay of the Queen's Majesty's ; and presently 
after bent my course for England, taking passage 
at the town of Waterford. 

With some difficulty I got to London, some 
three days before Christmas in anno 1594, having 
neither money nor apparel, and took up my 
lodging at my brother Peter's house in Wapping, 
before spoken of, who, although I was returned 
very poor, yet vouchsafed me kind entertain- 
ment. The next day I presented myself to my 
brother Joseph, who very coyly receiving me, 
out of his bounty lent me 40s. to apparel myself, 
which I bestowed as frugally as I could in Birchin 
Lane in London, contenting myself as well as I 
could with mean attire, till such time as it should 
please God to provide better for me. 

At that time it so fell out that there were 
certain of her Majesty's ships appointed to be 

^ Prize. 

" MS. * Divelinge,' apparently a phonetic attempt at the 
old name of DubHn, * Duibhlinn,' pronounced Divlin, Pepys 
in his marginal note writes ' travelled to Dublin.' 



6 EMPLOYED ON TRIUMPH 1594. 

made ready for the voyage of Sir Francis Drake 
and Sir John Hawkyns, amongst which the 
Defiance ^ was to be brought into Woolwich Dock 
to be sheathed ; which work being commended 
to my brother Joseph's charge, he was contented 
to admit me amongst many others to be one, 
where I was contented to take any pains to get 
something to apparel myself, which by God*s 
blessing I performed before Easter next after, 
and that in very good fashion, always endeavour- 
ing to keep company with men of good rank far 
better than myself. 

In the latter end of this year 1594 about the 
beginning of Lent, I lost my dear brother Noah, 
who was drowned in Cork river with eight more of 
his company, and lieth buried in Cork church in 
Ireland. 

About Bartholomew tide in anno 1595, the 
Triumph of her Majesty's was had into Woolwich 
Dock to be new builded by Mr. Mathew Baker, 
under whom I was entertained there as an ordinary 
workman and had allowed me a boy, which was 
John Wood, being the first servant that I ever 
kept ; but presently after Mr. Baker was ap- 
pointed to leave that business, and had order to 
go in hand with the building of a great new ship 
at Deptford, called afterward the Repulse,^ and 
was admiral of my Lord's of Essex squadron 
in the Cadiz journey. The Triumph^ was then 
appointed to my brother Joseph's charge, with 
whom I a while continued, but, finding him 
altogether unwilling to prefer* me in his work 

* This was destined to be the last voyage of Drake and 
Hawkyns. The Defiance was Drake's ship. 

• Or Due (Dieu) Repulse. 

" Built in 1561, this was a rebuilding. 
« Advance. 



j^x^^^'o ^ EMPLOYED ON REPULSE 7 

as next under him, with some passage of discontent 
betwixt us, I left him, and had ready entertain- 
ment by Mr. Baker in his new business at Dept- 
ford, yet no otherwise than an ordinary workman ; 
with whom I continued from the beginning of the 
foresaid ship, till she was wholly finished, launched, 
and set sail of her voyage from Woolwich, which 
was about the latter end of April 1596. 

All that winter, in the evenings, commonly I 
spent my time to good purposes, as in cyphering, 
drawing, and practising to attain the knowledge 
of my profession, and I then found Mr. Baker 
sometime forward to give me instructions, from 
whose help I must acknowledge I received my 
greatest lights. At this time also the Lord 
Admiral ^ lay most of the winter at his house ' at 
Deptford, by reason whereof I got some acquaint- 
ance amongst his men, and was much importimed 
to have attended his Lordship in that journey,' 
which no doubt might have proved very much both 
profitable and beneficial unto me, besides it would 
have brought me in acquaintance and favour with 
my Lord Admiral, but some other reasons re- 
strained me from all these likelihoods and kept me 
at home, to my no small hindrance as it fell out. 

After I was discharged from the Repulse, 
my brother Joseph entertained me at Woolwich 
upon the Triumph, upon which ship I wrought till 
her launching and the discharge of the men from 
her, and afterwards was employed at my brother's, 
at Limehouse, upon a small model for the Lord 

* Howard of Effingham. 

* On the north side of Deptford Green, overlooking the 
Thames, afterwards the Gun Tavern. See Dew's History of 
Deptford, p. 185. 

» I.e. the Cadiz Expedition of 1596, under the joint eom- 
mand of Howard and Essex. 



\ 



8 INTRODUCTION TO HOWARD .590 

Treasurer ^ his house called Theobalds,^ and the 
next winter I spent in Essex, at Paglesham ^ in 
Rochford Hundred, as overseer for my brother 
Peter in certain woods he had bought there. 

About this time, was I very desirous, by the 
instigation of some special friends of mine, to have 
been a follower of the Lord of Essex, and was 
three several times brought purposely to have 
been presented imto his lordship, but was every 
time delayed by reason of his great state * affairs, 
the Lord of heaven having other ways in his 
secret wisdom determined to dispose of me. 

In the latter end of March succeeding, or 
beginning of April 1597, by the means of one Mr. 
Gilbert Wood, one of the Lord Admiral's Chamber, 
an especial good friend of mine, I was presented to 
the Lord High Admiral of England, at his Manor 
at Chelsea, where his lordship was pleased not 
only to accept me as his servant, but also openly 
shewed such extraordinary respect of me as I 
had much cause to give God thanks, who no doubt 
had stirred his honourable heart to regard me, 
but a simple and mean fellow, even far beyond 
my expectation or desert, and this was the very 
first beginning of my rising. 

In the beginning of this year, 1597, my dear 
and loving mother deceased at Weston in Suffolk, 
not far from Bury, and lieth buried in the parish 
church there. A little after midsummer in the 
same year, I was employed by my brother Joseph 
Pett, in his yard at Limehouse, upon the repairing 

* William Cecil, Lord Burghley. 

* Pronounced ' Tibalds,' whence the form ' Tiballs ' in 
which it appears in the MS. Theobalds Park (near Waltham 
Cross) was afterwards exchanged between Burghley's son, 
the first Earl of Salisbury, and James I for Hatfield. 

* MS. ' Pakellsum.' * MS. 'estate.' 



\tj 



.IS9V ELIZABETH JONAS 9 

of a great Flemish ship of whom was master 
Mr. John King of Limehouse, where I first came 
acquainted with him, and in his company and Mr. 
Nicolas Simonson of Limehouse, I was first brought 
acquainted at Highwood Hill ^ where I first fell 
in love with my now wife, which was about 
St. James' tide.^ About Bartholomew tide ^ next 
following, the Elizabeth Jonas was brought into her 
Majesty's Dock at Woolwich, and there was the 
first preferment my brother Joseph holp me 
with, making me principal overseer of that busi- 
ness under him. During all the time of this 
work, we both lodged and dieted at old Mr. 
Lydiard's * in the yard. 

During the continuance of this work I did not 
neglect my wooing, having taken such a liking 
of the maiden that I determined resolutely (by 
God's help) either to match with her or never to 
marry any ; the which I with much difficulty 
(praised be God) at length achieved, all my own 
jfindred being much against my matching with 
her, by reason of some controversies grown twixt 
Mr. Nicolas Simonson and them. 

Toward the end of February in this present 
year, I took the lease of a new house (of Mr. William 
Borough,^ then Comptroller of her Majesty's 
Navy) at Limehouse by the through head,^ which 
to some charge I fitted for my dwelling, although 
I remained not in it little more than two years, 
paying 11/. yearly rent, and 20/. income.' 

1 MS. ' Hye Woodehill ' ; near MiU Hill. 

* St. James's Day, 25th July. 

» St. Bartholomew's Day, 24th August. 

* Hugh Lydiard, senior, Clerk of the Check. 

* The navigator, brother of Stephen Borough. 

* Possibly the entrance to the dock. 

» The * income ' was the fee or fine paid on entering upon 
the lease. 




10 MARRIED ' _S98 



I was married to my now wife Ami, the 
daughter of Richard Nicholls of Highwood Hill in 
the parish of Hendon in Middlesex, a man of good 
report and honest stock, the 15th day of May 
1598 at Stepney Church upon a Monday in the 
forenoon. I kept my wedding at my own charge 
in my new dwelling house at Limehouse, accom- 
panied with my brothers and sisters, my wife's 
parents, and divers of her friends and kindred. 

About midsummer after, was the EUzabeth 
Jonas launched out of Woolwich Dock, and sudden 
preparation made to have received her Majesty 
aboard the ship riding afloat ; but upon some 
unknown reasons her Majesty came not at all, 
for even at that instant had one Mr. Wiggs^ 
procured commission about examination of certain 
abuses in the Navy, which was pursued with 
a great deal of malice against divers particu- 
lar men but with little profit to her Majesty's 
service. 

From midsummer, all the ensuing year, till 
Christmas I lay still and idle without any manner 
employment or comings in but what my servants 
got with working now and then abroad, which 
was very little and hardly able to buy me food. 

About Christmas my honourable lord and 
master the Lord High Admiral commended me to 
an employment in Suffolk and Norfolk for the 
finishing of a purveyance of timber and plank 
formerly imdertaken by one Child of Sole,^ who 
dealt in Norfolk and, dying, left the business in 
much disorder. 

* Thomas Wiggs, a subordinate of Lord Buckhurst, 
Commissioner of State Trials. He is mentioned in a letter 
of Buckhurst to Cecil of 7th December 1600. Salisbury MSS, 
(Hist. MSS.), X. p. 411, and in Pepys' Miscell., x. p. 349. 

" Southwold. 



^Hs99 EMPLOYED IN EAST ANGLIA ii 

And one Robert Ungle^ who dealt in Suffolk 
and, for divers abuses by him there committed, fled 
the country and left aU the service in great dis- 
order and spoil ; for the rectifying of which abuses, 
saving of her Majesty's provisions, and discharging 
of the countries,^ it pleased my Lord to make 
choice of me to undertake the same, and to take 
order to send in all the said provisions of timber 
and plank ; which accordingly I did, using all care 
and diligence in the performance of the same, both 
to the content of her Majesty's service, my Lord 
Admiral and the Officers of the Navy, and the 
satisfaction of all countries where I had to do. 
Notwithstanding through the malicious envy of 
old Mathew Baker, Bright, Adye, and others ^ all 
my doings and accounts were throughly sifted, 
but thanks be to God nothing could be proved 
against me, so that I had all my bills passed 
quietly ; but by reason Mr. Fulke Greville,* being 
then Treasurer of the Navy, did not greatly affect ^ 
me, by cause of some particular spleens between 
him and Mr. John Trevor,^ then newly made 
Surveyor, who was my especial and worshipful 
friend, he laid a rub ' in my way, cutting me off 
wrongfully of twenty pounds in my accounts after 
all my bills were passed and signed by the hands of 
the Principal Officers, according to the custom of 
the Navy. 

All this year of 1599, I spent wholly in this 
service, in which time these occurrences happened. 

After the decease of my dear and loving mother 
there were left under the keeping of my father-in- 
law/ Thomas Nunn, then Minister of Weston in 

1 Or ' Vugle.' > I.e. districts. 

» See Introduction. * Afterwards Lord Brooke. 

* Like, favour. • See Introduction. 

» An allusion to the game of bowls. • Stepfather. 



12 MANSLAUGHTER OF ABIGAIL is^^ 

Suffolk, three sisters, vide : Abigail Pett, Elizabeth 
and Mary, the youngest, and one brother named 
Peter Pett, who was put out to a gentleman's 
house in Suffolk to teach his children, the daugh- 
ters remaining all at home with him, he being 
then lately again married. 

He used himself to them as a stern and cruel 
father-in-law, not contented that he had brought 
a general ruin upon my mother's whole family 
by cosening us of all that was left us, but pro- 
ceeded further, even to blood, for upon a slight 
occasion about making clean his cloak, being wet 
and dirty with riding a journey the day before, 
he furiously fell upon my eldest sister Abigail, 
beating her so cruelly with a pair of tongs and a 
great firebrand that she died within three days 
upon that beating and was privately by his 
means buried ; but God that would not let murder 
pass imrevenged, stirred up the hearts of his own 
parishioners and neighbours, who, complaining 
to the Justice, caused the body to be taken up, 
and so by the coroner's inquest that passed upon 
her and miraculous tokens of the dead corpse, as 
fresh bleeding, sensible opening of one of her 
eyes, and other things, he was found guilty of her 
death and so committed and bound over to answer 
the matter at next General Assizes to be held at 
Bury, which was in the Lent after, being in this 
year 1599, and in the time of my employment in 
Suffolk and Norfolk. 

Upon his committing, my two other poor 
sisters were put by the justices to the keeping of 
the town of Weston, till the assizes^ were past, 
at whose hands I received them at Bury in a 
miserable fashion, not having clothes nor any 
necessaries fit for them ; the charge of their board 

» MS. ' syses.' 



i 



599 DEATH OF ELIZABETH 13 



I was glad to defray to the constable, and all the 
charge of the assizes, where both they and my 
young brother were bound to give in evidence 
against our father-in-law, to whom we shewed more 
mercy than he did to us, whom our spoil would not 
content, but he thirsted also our blood. In his 
arraignment Sir John Popham, then Lord Chief 
Justice of England and Chief Judge of that circuit, 
shewed such true justice (notwithstanding great 
means was made for him, not only by his friends, 
but by the clergy of that country), that all his 
cruelty and wicked proceedings was laid open and 
he, convict of manslaughter by the jury, was 
committed to prison to sue for the benefit of the 
Queen's pardon,^ from whence being shortly freed, 
he, by God's just revenging hand, lived but a 
short time after. 

From the assizes at Bury I sent my brother 
and my two sisters home to my wife at Limehouse, 
being no small charge to me, being but newly 
married and having little means but my hands to 
bring in anything, yet I refused not to do the duty 
of a brother to them to the utmost of my power ; 
the eldest of my sisters, called Elizabeth, by 
means of friends I placed in London with a 
gentlewoman of good fashion, where she continued 
not long, but came home sick and died at my 
house as we doubted of the plague. My youngest 
sister sickened also shortly after, but it proved the 
small pox. 

In all these extremities I had little help from 
my brothers, who were bound in conscience to have 
had some care of them, the small portions they had 
being in the hands of my eldest brother Joseph, 
yet no relief came from him towards their main- 
tenance or bringing up ; but being but half brothers 
* S.P. Dom. 28th May 1599 ; the name is given as ' Nun.' 



14 MODEL SHIP * 159^ 

and sisters they thought them less bound to do 
them good and therefore left all the burden upon 
me, worst able of all to bear it. 

My youngest sister Mary, recovering her sick- 
ness, continued with me in my house contenting 
herself with such breeding as I could give her ; 
from whence she never removed till she was 
married from me. My young brother Peter, about 
the end of November, I placed with a worshipful 
gentleman. Doctor Hone,^ in the Arches,^ as one 
of his clerks, where he might have lived well if he 
would have stayed with him. 

In December this year, 1599, I began a small 
model, which being perfected and very exquisitely 
set out and rigged, I presented it to my good 
friend Mr. John Trevor, who very kindly accepted 
the same of me. 

In the beginning of this year, I, having no 
employment, determined with myself to have 
bought some part of a castle carvel ^ and to have 
gone in her myself ; whereby I hoped (by God's 
blessing) to have gotten an honest and convenient 
maintenance, and to that end I began to follow one 
John Goodwin of London, professor of the mathe- 
matics, with whom I spent three days in a week in 
practice, and so was purposed to have continued 
the whole year till the spring following ; but God, 
who in his secret counsel had otherwise decreed of 
me, altered all my determinations, for upon the 
25th day of Jime I was sent for to the Court, 
lying then at Greenwich, by my honourable lord 
and master the Lord High Admiral who, after 
some speeches expressing both his love and honour- 

* Probably John Hone, Advocate of Doctors' Commons, 
1589; Master in Chancery 1 596-1603. 

* The ecclesiastical * Court of Arches ' held at St. Mary-le- 
Bow. * A Newcastle carvel-built ship. 



^ J 1600 STOREKEEPER AT CHATHAM 15 

able care of me, his lordship concluded to send 
me down to Chatham, where I was to succeed in 
the place of one John Holding, a shipwright that 
was keeper of the plank yard timber and other 
provisions (upon some displeasure turned out of 
all), the means whereof being but small, as 18^. 
per diem and 61. per annum fee for myself, and 
allowance for one servant at i6d. per diem. 

I was very unwilling to undertake so mean a 
place, by the which I was neither sure of competent 
maintenance nor of any reputation, but that I was 
encouraged by the persuasions of my ever honour- 
able lord, who comforted me with promises of 
better preferment to the utmost of his power; 
whereupon I being contented to accept his lord- 
ship's offer, I was, the 27th of the same month of 
June, placed at Chatham by Sir Henry Palmer, 
then Comptroller, Mr. Johii Trevor, Surveyor, 
and Mr. Peter Buck, Clerk of the Ships. 

At this time there was grown very high terms 
of unkindness between my brother Joseph and 
me about my poor sisters and brother, because he 
did not only deny to be any ways contributory 
to their maintenance but also made the neighbours 
believe that they were brought up at his charge 
in my house, because he would not be troubled 
with them, when God knoweth he never disbursed 
halfpenny to their bringing up, nor cared what 
became of them. 

Now upon this occasion of my placing at Chat- 
ham, we were reconciled and ever after lived 
together as loving brethren. It also happened 
that Sir Fulke Greville, then Treasurer, continuing 
his spleen against me for Mr. Trevor's sake, 
opposed me all he could, whichjafter turned me 
to much trouble. 

About the time of my coming to Chatham, 



:\ 



i6 DEATH OF PETER i6oc 

Mr. Barker, the lord of the Manor, was removed 
to a house he had bought at Boley HiU^ by 
Rochester, by reason whereof his Manor House 
wherein he formerly dwelt at Chatham was void, 
the which house by means of my brother Joseph's 
encouragement I ventured upon and took a lease 
for twenty-one years, paying 25/. income, the 
which lease was sealed unto, me the 17th day of 
October, 1600. 

The i6th day of June in this year my youngest 
brother Peter, having, against all the consent of his 
friends and without their knowledge, forsaken his 
Worshipful master Doctor Hone's service and be- 
taken himself to disordered courses, sickened at 
London at the sign of the Dolphin in Water Lane, 
and the 21st day after deceased of the small pox 
before I knew he was sick, whose charge both of his 
sickness and funeral I was at, and saw him seemly 
interred, accompanied with a good company of my 
friends, in Barking churchyard ^ in Tower Street, 
the 23rd of the same month of June 1600. 

The 24th October, having bestowed all my 
poor stock upon the lease of my house and the 
furnishing of the same in some convenient manner, 
I shipped the same in [an] hoy of Rainham' and 
so removed to Chatham, myself going down in the 
hoy ; where I missed a great danger, for at the west 
end of the Nore about 3 of the clock in the morning, 
25th day, we were like to be surprised by a picking 
Dunkirk * full of men who, being at our passing by 
(although it was very dark) at an anchor, suddenly 
weighed and gave us chase, and had boarded us 
had not God prevented him by our bearing up, 

» MS.' Bulley ' ; the high ground south of Rochester Castle. 
• ' All Hallows, Barking,' founded by the nuns of Barking 
Abbey, whence the name. 

» MS. * raynam.* « Thievish Dunldrker. 



i6o2 ASSISTANT MASTER SHIPWRIGHT 17 

the wind being at east ; and running ourselves on 
shore within the Swatch/ the next day we got 
safe as high as GilHngham. 

My dwelHng house at Limehouse I passed away 
with a great deal of loss, both of income, rent and 
wainscotting to the value of 50/., putting it over at 
10/. per annum, when I was bound by lease to pay 
11^. Yet was I glad to be rid of it upon any 
condition. 

Presently after Christyde ^ my wife, being great 
with child, fell sick at Chatham and grew so weak 
that I was forced, about the loth of March follow- 
ing, to remove her, not without great hazard, to 
London, and from there to her father's house at 
Highwood Hill in Middlesex, where the 23rd day 
of March after, thanks be given to God, she was 
delivered of her first born son, John Pett ; from 
whence she returned to Chatham in safety some 
two months after. 

Much about this time I was made an assistant 
to the Master Shipwrights at Chatham, in the room 
of Thomas Bodman. In this year the first business 
I undertook was the repairing of the Lion's Whelp 
hauled up at the storehouse end at Chatham. 

In the year 1602 I also new built the Moon, 
hauled up in the same place, enlarging her both in 
length and breadth, and this year also, I, with 
Mr. Pickasee, undertook the victualling of the ship- 
wrights and caulkers at Chatham, which we con- 
tinued only two months, to our great loss ; which 
we could never get recompensed by reason Mr. 
Fulke Greville continued my heavy enemy, and 
was content to receive and countenance informa- 
tions against me, because he could not win me to 
such conditions as he laboured me in, both against 

» Swatchway ; the channel south of the Nore Sand. 
* Christmas. 






l6 FULKE GREVILLE i6o^ 

my good friend Sir John Trevor (who then lay- 
very dangerously sick at Plymouth) and against 
many others serving with me at Chatham. The 
principal informer and stirrer in this business 
against me was one George Collins, sometimes 
carpenter of the Foresight, a very stubborn and 
malicious fellow, who by Mr. Greville's counten- 
ance was suffered to sue me at the common law 
upon an action of trespass for striking him with 
a little rod upon the shoulder in the Queen's 
yard at Chatham, upon a cause of mutiny in the 
time of victualling ; and so little relief had I against 
him, notwithstanding my Lord Admiral's favour, 
that I was forced to compound with him and 
gave him 20 nobles ^ ready money for satisfaction. 
Thus it pleased God to exercise me with continual 
trouble and hindrances in the beginning of my 
service. 

In November this present year, 1602, Mr. 
Greville, having undertaken the preparation of a 
Fleet with her Majesty, to be ready fitted to sea 
by a set time, was contented (upon my promise 
to him to procure the said Fleet to be fitted in 
six weeks) to receive me to his favour, which 
promise I accordingly (by God's gracious assist- 
ance) fully accomplished ; by which means I had 
gained his love, favour and good opinion, had 
there not happened a sudden alteration by the 
death of her Majesty which presently followed. 

The i8th day of March 1603,^ my wife was 
deUvered of her second son, Henry, at my house at 
Chatham. 

The 24th day of the same month, her Majesty 
of sacred memory deceased at Richmond. 

* Originally half a mark, or 6s. 8^., afterwards los. 

• 1602, according to the Old Style, as it is before the 25th 
March. 



1 



i6o3 PLAGUE 19 

The same day his Majesty, whom God grant 
long to reign, was proclaimed at Westminster, 
London, and other places, and the next day, 
being Friday and market day, at Rochester. 

This year happened the great plague through- 
out England, but especially about London, by 
reason whereof many removed from thence into 
divers places in the country where they had any 
friends or means of succour. 

In the middle of July my brother Joseph, with 
his wife and children, removed from his house 
at Limehouse to Ipswich. 

To transport them thither by sea I procured 
a small pinnace of his Majesty's to be prepared 
ready, called the Primrose, and manning her with 
my good friends and neighbours as Boatswain 
Vale,^ David Duck, Mr. Rock, Robert Perin, 
Jarvis Mins, and divers others, together with 
myself, we embarked at Chatham the 14th of July, 
1603, and in Tilbury Hope took in our passengers ; 
and the i6th day in the afternoon landed them 
safely at Ipswich, where of their friends we 
received very great entertainment, staying there 
about 4 days ; and the 21st day we arrived again 
at Chatham, thanks be to God, in health, about 
4 of the clock in the afternoon. 

The sickness beginning to be very hot at 
Chatham, upon the persuasions of some of my 
friends I removed my wife and children from 
thence to my wife's father's in Middlesex, shipping 
them away in the same vessel I had to Ipswich, 
and landing at Dagenham ^ in Essex, had horses 
there met us, and so journeyed to High wood Hill. 
This voyage was taken from Chatham the i6th of 

^ Or Avale, see p. 86 ; for many years the pilot for ^the 
river and Downs. The Commission of 1618 proposed to 
pension him as ' aged and bhnd.* * MS. ' Dagnam.' 



20 EDWARD STEVENS 1603 

August ; we came to Highwood Hill the 19th day, 
where my wife and children remained till the 
3rd of October following, which day we took our 
journey to Dagenham, where the next day we were 
stayed by a great rain, but the 4th day we came 
over the ferry at Greenhithe ^ and safely home, 
thanks be given to God, at 4 of the clock that 
afternoon. 

This summer I began to new-build the Answer, 
being hauled up and blocked at the end of the 
storehouse at Chatham. 

The loth of November my landlord Mr. Barker, 
with some of his family, sojourned with me at 
Chatham, where they remained till the 28th day 
of the same month, and then returned to their own 
house at Boley Hill. 

During this time I divers times solicited my 
brother to be joined patentee with him, but his 
remissness caused me to overslip opportunity so 
long that one Mr. Stevens* of Limehouse, this 
year, by means of some great friends about my 
Lord Admiral, got a general reversion of all the 
Master Shipwrights' places, cutting me off from 
all hopes of any timely preferment, to my great 
discouragement considering what pains I took at 
Chatham to further his Majesty's service. 

When I was most dejected with the conceit of 
this injury, as I took it, it pleased God of His great 
mercy to me, even then when I least expected 
any such thing, to raise me up a means of some 
hope of preferment after this manner ; for about 
the 15th of January, being at Ratcliff with my 
wife, to christen her sister Simonson's daughter 
Martha, there was, unknown unto me, a letter 
sent post to Chatham from my honourable Lord 
Admiral, commanding me with all possible speed 

* MS. ' Grenehyve.' • See Introduction. 



i6o4 SHIP FOR PRINCE HENRY 21 

to build a little vessel for the young prince Henry 
to disport himself in above London Bridge, and to 
acquaint his Grace with shipping and the manner 
of that element, setting me down the proportions 
and the manner of her garnishing, which was 
to be like the work of the Ark Royal, battlement 
wise. This little ship was in length by the keel 
25 foot, and 12 foot in breadth, garnished with 
painting and carving both within board and with- 
out very curiously, according to his Lordship's 
directions. I laid her keel the 19th day of Janu- 
ary, wrought upon her as well day as all night 
by torch and candle lights under a great awning 
made with sails for that purpose. 

The 6th day of March after, I launched the 
ship, being upon a Tuesday, with a noise ^ of 
trumpets, drums, and such like ceremonies at 
such time used. 

I set sail with her on the Friday after, being 
the 9th day, from Chatham. Between the Nore 
head and the east end of Tilbury we had a very 
great storm, so that it was Sunday before we could 
get Gravesend ; and on Monday morning, being 
the 12th day, we anchored at Blackwall. Mr. 
George Wilson, then boatswain of the Lion, was 
master with me, and myself captain, and I was 
manned with almost all boatswains of the Navy 
and other choice men. 

On Wednesday, being the 14th day of March, 
by my Lord Admiral's commandment we weighed 
from Limehouse, and anchored right against the 
Tower before the King's lodgings, his Majesty 
then lying there before his riding through London. 
There the young Prince, accompanied with the 
Lord Admiral and divers of the Lords, came and 
took great pleasure in beholding of the ship, being 

» Band. 



22 CHRISTENING 1604 

furnished at all points with ensigns and pendants. 
The i6th day, being Friday, we unrigged and shot 
the bridge, and the 17th day we rigged again and 
received both ordnance and powder from the 
Tower. 

On Sunday in the afternoon, being the i8th 
day, fitted with a noise of trumpets and drums 
and fife, we weighed and turned up with the wind 
at south-west as high as Lambeth, with multitudes 
of boats and people attending upon us. As we 
passed by Whitehall, I saluted the Court with a 
volley of small shot and our great ordnance, and 
upon the ebb, turning down again, we did the like, 
and then taking in our sails we came to an anchor 
right against the Privy Stairs. 

On Monday the 19th day his Majesty went by 
barge to the Parliament. We shot our great and 
small ordnance of round,^ both at his taking barge 
and landing. 

All Tuesday and Wednesday we rode still, 
without doing anything but giving entertainment 
to gentlemen of the King's and Prince's servants 
that hourly came aboard of us. 

On Thursda}^ morning, being the 22nd day, I 
received a commandment from the Lord Admiral 
to prepare the ship and all things fitting to receive 
the young prince aboard of us in the afternoon; 
who accordingly presently ^ after dinner came 
aboard us in his barge accompanied with the Lord 
High Admiral, Earl of Worcester, and divers other 
noblemen. We presently weighed and fell down 
as far as Paul's Wharf,^ under both our topsails 

* Round shot. At that period salutes were fired with 
shotted guns, not with blank charges. 

■ Immediately. 

■ South of St. Paul's, and on the east side of Baynard's 
Castle. 



i6o4 OF THE DISDAIN 23 

and foresail, and there came to an anchor ; and then 
his Grace/ according to the manner in such cases 
used; with a great bowl of wine christened the 
ship and called her by the name of the Disdain. 

His Grace then withdrawing himself with the 
lords into the great cabin, there my honourable 
lord, and till then master,^ with his own hands 
presented me to his Grace, using many favourable 
words (beyond my deserts) in my commendations, 
with this addition, that I was a servant worthy the 
acceptance of the greatest prince of the world. 
From his hands it pleased his Grace very thank- 
fully to receive me as his servant, with many 
promises of his princely favour to me. The next 
day, being Friday and the 23rd of March, it pleased 
my Lord Admiral to entreat my worthy friend 
Sir John ^ Trevor to accompany me to the Lord 
Thomas Howard, then Lord Chamberlain, from 
whom receiving a ticket, I was sent to St. James', 
:he Prince's house, where by Mr. Alexander and 
Mr. Abington, then gentlemen ushers, I was sworn 
his Grace's servant, and by them presented to the 
Prince before he went to dinner, with as much 
favour and respect as I could desire. 

During this time of my attendance at the Court 
as his Grace's Captain of his ship, it pleased my 
honourable Lord Admiral to give order to Sir 
Thomas Windebank,* one of the Clerks of the 
Signet, to draw me a bill for the reversion of Mr. 
Baker's or my brother Joseph Pett's place, which 
iirst should happen to be void, notwithstanding the 
letters patent formerly granted to Mr. Stevens ; 
which accordingly was with all expedition per- 

^ I.e. Prince Henry. 
* I.e. the Lord High Admiral. 

» M.S. ' Ihon,' mis-transcribed in the Harl. MS. here and 
elsewhere as * Thomas.' * M.S. ' Winebancke.' 



24 BUILDS RESISTANCE 1604 

formed, and the nth of April following was 
presented to his Majesty and signed, and shortly 
after passed the great seal ; for the w^hole charge 
whereof I gave Sir Thomas Windebank 17/. 
About the same time Sir Robert Mansell had his 
patent passed for the Treasurer of his Majesty's 
Navy. 

The 3rd of May, after my return to Chatham 
from my attendance at Court, I began to set up a 
small ship at Gillingham in David Duck's yard at 
my own charges ; and the 17th day of the same 
month also was launched the Answer, whom I 
had new built, who by carelessness ran off before 
her time without any great hurt, thanks be to 
God therefor. About the midst of June following, 
the preparation was begun for the entertainment 
of his Majesty aboard the ships at Chatham, where 
I took both extraordinary care and pains, which 
my envious enemies Mr. Baker and Mr. Bright 
sought by all means to disgrace, even at the instant 
time when his Majesty was to come on board the 
Elizabeth ; but the Lord diverted all their malice 
by the countenance of my old master the Lord 
Admiral who, approving my honest endeavours 
and finding the success answerable in all respects 
to his Lordship's expectation, dismissed them with 
sharp rebukes and encouraged me with no small 
commendation. This happened the 4th of July, 
1604. 

The 12th of November after, I launched the 
new ship at Gillingham, which was begun in May 
preceding, and called her'^ name the Resistance. 

And in the beginning of December following / 
carried her up to Limehouse, and there hauled her on 
shore at the south side of my brother Joseph's ivharf, 
where she lay till I had sold away part of her. 
* The words in italics are wanting in the original MS. 



i6o5 VOYAGE TO SPAIN 25 

The 21st of January following I sold one-third 
part of her to Sir Robert Mansell and another third 
to Sir John Trevor, and the other third I reserved 
to myself. 

I rigged her and prepared her with all her furni- 
ture to attend the Lord High Admiral of England 
in his journey into Spain when he went Ambassador, 
and made ready the Bear and the rest of his 
Majesty's ships at Chatham that went that voyage, 
myself being commanded by his Lordship to 
wait upon him in his own ship, the Bear, which 
accordingly I performed. 

The 24th of March I took my leave of the most 
noble Prince my master at Greenwich, being Sun- 
day in the afternoon ; and the 28th day of the 
same month following I took leave of my wife 
and children at Chatham and attended the Lord 
Ambassador on board the Bear in his own barge, 
the whole fleet then riding at Queenborough, from 
whence we set sail the last day, being Sunday and 
Easter day. 

The 4th day of April we'^ came to an anchor in 
Dover Road, and the 10th day after we lost the sight of 
the Lizard. The next day, being the ZTth, the Lord 
Ambassador sent me aboard my own ship, the Resist- 
ance, with one Captain Morgan, with certain direc- 
tions, to the Groyne.^ But by the overbearing oj 
Captain Morgan, his Lordship altering his deter- 
mination came into the Groyne two days before us, 
where we also arrived the 16th day, being Tuesday. 

The 20th of April, being Saturday, I set sail 
with the Resistance out of the Groyne, with 
instructions to go for Lisbon, where I arrived the 
24th after, and there stayed to despatch my 
affairs till the 9th day of May following ; from 

* The words ia italics are wanting in the original MS. 

* Coruiia. 



26 VOYAGE TO SPAIN 1605 

whence I set sail for St. Lucar,^ and arrived there 
the nth day in the afternoon, being Saturday; 
from whence I went by passage boat, leaving my 
ship at Bonanza, 2 to Seville ; ^ from whence, after 
three days stay there, I returned to my ship the 
17th day of the same month. 

From St. Lucar I set sail the 2nd day of June, 
and plying it up for Cape St. Mary's * with a con- 
trary wind, I put room 5 the 5th day for Cales* 
road, from whence, putting to sea again the 8th 
day, I arrived back again at the Groyne the 19th 
day, according as my instructions directed me. 
Where going ashore to the Governor and under- 
standing the fleet to be all gone to St. Anderas' 
and that the Lord Ambassador was already (as 
he said) embarked for England, I put to sea again 
presently, directing my course for England. The 
23rd day I made the Start, and the 26th day of 
June, being Wednesday, I landed at Rye in the 
forenoon ; from whence I came post to my house 
at Chatham, with much rain, thunder, and 
lightning all the way, where I lighted about 10 
of the clock at night. 

In the midst of July, after my return home, 
I let out my ship, the Resistance, to merchants 
for a voyage into the Straits by the month, one 
Mr. Burgess going master, and my friend William 
Gibbons, his mate and purser. I docked her, 
sheathed her, and fitted her, and she went from 
Gravesend the 23rd day of August following. 

In the midst of October following I made a 
journey into Hampshire, to make a survey of a 

* San Lucar, at the mouth of the Guadalquivir. 
■ MS. * Bonance ' : opposite San Lucar. 

• MS. 'Civill.' * C. de Sta. Maria. 

• Bore away. • Cadiz. 

* Santander. 



i6o5 MASTER SHIPWRIGHT 27 

part of the forest of East Bere/ being then in the 
occupation of the Right Honourable the Earl of 
Worcester, of whom, after my return. Sir Robert 
Mansell and Sir John Trevor bought 3000 trees. 

At my return to London from that journey I 
found my eldest brother Joseph Pett, then dwell- 
ing at Limehouse, very dangerously sick, of the 
which he never recovered but departed this life 
the 15th day of November about 9 of the clock in 
the forenoon, being Friday. 

He was buried in the chancel in Stepney Church 
the 1 8th day of November in the forenoon, accom- 
panied with my good friends Sir Robert Mansell, 
Sir Henry Palmer, Sir John Trevor, then Principal 
Officers of His Majesty's Navy, and many other 
good friends and neighbours, who after the funeral 
returned to my brother's house, where they all 
were welcomed with a very great dinner and feast. 

Presently after my brother's decease, it pleased 
my very good lord, the Lord High Admiral, to 
grant his warrant for my entrance into my 
brother's place, to the effect of my letters patent, 
notwithstanding the claim made unto it by one 
Edward Stevens ^ of Limehouse, who had formerly 
procured a general reversion of all the Master 
Shipwrights' places, but by reason the fee was 
mistaken, wherein his Majesty was abused and 
charged with an innovation, he could not prevail 
in his claim, albeit he often petitioned the Lords 
of the Council and made great friends against me ; 
yet it pleased God, by the noble favour of the Prince 
my master, and the Lord Admiral's countenance, 
I enjoyed my place with a general approbation 
both of the State and Officers ; and so finished this 
year of 1605. 

1 In Hampshire, north of Havant. 
? See Introduction. 



28 BIRTH OF RICHARD 1606 

I had forgotten ^ to insert in his proper place 
the birth of two sons, which it pleased God were 
born unto me, the eldest whereof named John 
was born at Highwood Hill, in my wife's father's 
house, in the Parish of Hendon in Middlesex, the 
23rd day of March, 1600. The second son named 
Henry was born in my house at Chatham in Kent 
the i8th of March in anno Domini 1602. 

The I2th of January following I began a 
journey into Hampshire, into the forest of East 
Bere, where I spent the rest of that month in 
making choice of the trees were bought of the 
Earl of Worcester ; which business performed, and 
my good friend David Duck undertaking the 
whole charge of the same in the behalf of Sir 
Robert Mansell and Sir John Trevor, I returned 
home to my house at Chatham in the beginning of 
February. 

The 2ist of June succeeding it pleased God my 
wife was safely delivered of our third son Richard 
Pett at my house in Chatham. 

The 8th day of July I took another journey 
into Hampshire into Bere forest, as well to survey 
how the business was ordered as to carry down 
money to David Duck ; from whence I returned 
home the 14th day of the same month. 

The 17th day of July, his Majesty the noble 
King of Denmark arrived in England, against 
whose coming, being but only supposed some two 
months before, I received private directions from 
the Lord Admiral and some of the Principal 
Officers to have all the ships put into a comely 
readiness, which accordingly was performed in a 
decent and warlike manner, as if they had been 

* This is a mistake. He has already given the date of birth 
of John as 23rd March 1601-2 and of Henry as i8th March 
1602-3 ; see pp. 17 and 18. 



i6o6 ROYAL VISIT TO CHATHAM 29 

prepared to sea ; but upon the news of his certain 
arrival they were all rigged and furnished with 
their ordnance, and a great preparation was made 
aboard the Elizabeth Jonas and the Bear, for 
entertaining the Kings, Queen, Prince, and all the 
other State and Troupes ; ^ wherein I confess I 
strove extraordinarily to express my service for 
the honour of the Kingdom, but by reason the 
time limited was short, and the business great, 
we laboured night and day to effect it ; which 
accordingly was performed, to the great honour of 
our sovereign King and Master and no less admira- 
tion of all strangers that were eye witnesses of the 
same. 

The solemnity of this entertainment was per- 
formed the loth day of August, being Sunday. 
At this time Sir Oliver Cromwell ^ and other gentle- 
men, my good friends, w^ere lodged at my house. 

Presently after the King of Denmark was 
returned into his own country, order was taken 
by the Lords of his Majesty's Council, together 
with the Lord Admiral, for the dry docking of 
four of his Majesty's ships, videlicet, the Ark 
Royal, the Victory, the Golden Lion, and the 
Swiftsure ; the two latter being appointed to be 
docked at Deptford, commended to the charge of 
old Mathew Baker ; the other two, being ships 
royal, appointed to Woolwich and committed 
to my charge (by reason the Victory was given by 
the King to the Prince, whose servant I being, it 
was held fit to be most proper to me, which bred 
me no small trouble and question afterward).^ 

About the beginning of September following I 
received warrant and directions from the Principal 

* Suites. 

* Of Hinchinbrook, a gentleman of the Privy Chamber, 
uncle of the Protector. » In 1608, see Introduction. 



30 MASTER OF THE 1606 

Officers of the Navy for preparing the dock at 
Woolwich to receive the ships formerly appointed 
for that place ; which accordingly being effected, 
the 8th of October ensuing I docked the Victory, 
and the next day after, being Thursday, I docked 
the Ark, hastened the shutting in of the dock gates, 
shored them, and discharged my company the 
3rd day of November following ; but the 21st day 
of the same month I had order to press in new men, 
to rip and lay open the state of the ships, which in 
a short time being performed, I discharged my 
company the nth of December after. 

Towards the fine of January ensuing, I received 
warrant for the surveying of the forest of Alice 
Holt^ in Hampshire, and the forest of Shotover 
near Oxford. I began my journey thither from 
London the 27th day of the same month, and 
returned back to London the second day of Feb- 
ruary, with a good account of my service ; within 
short time after, warrants being granted for the 
number of trees to be taken in both these places, 
I substituted my brother Peter, my purveyor 
in Alice Holt, and one Richard Meritt, purveyor 
for Shotover. 

About the 15th day of April 1607, I received 
warrant for going in hand with the ships at Wool- 
wich, whereupon I removed thither with my house- 
hold presently after, and began first to work upon 
the Ark with a small company, till provisions could 
be brought in to put on more workmen, which was 
not till the beginning of August following, at which 
time I began to victual all the workmen, on a 
Monday, being the 3rd day of the same month. 

The 25th day of the same month, I was elected 
and sworn Master of the Company of Shipwrights, 

^ MS. * Alceholte ' (Aisholt=Ashwood), near the Surrey 
border S.W. of Farnham. 



1607 COMPANY OP SHIPWRIGHTS 31 

and kept a solemn feast with a great number of 
our friends, well stored with venison, at the 
King's Head in New Fish Street .^ 

After my settling at Woolwich I began a curious 
model for the Prince my master, most part whereof 
I wrought with my own hands ; which being most 
fairly garnished with carving and painting, and 
placed in a frame arched, covered, and curtained 
with crimson taffety, was, the loth day of Novem- 
ber, by me presented to the Lord High Admiral 
at his lodging at Whitehall. His Lordship, well 
approving of it, after I had supped with his honour 
that night, gave me commandment to carry the 
same to Richmond, where the Prince my master 
then lay; which accordingly was performed the 
next day after, being Tuesday and the nth day. 

On Wednesday morning, being the 12th day, 
having acquainted Sir David Murray ^ with my 
business, and he delivering the same to his High- 
ness, order was given to have the model brought 
and placed in a private room in the long gallery, 
where his Highness determined to see it in the 
afternoon, but my ever honoured old lord and 
master, unknown to me, studying by all means to 
do me good, had acquainted his Majesty with 
this thing, and the same day, unlooked for of 
any, procured his Majesty to make a purposed ^ 
journey from Whitehall to Richmond, to see the 
same model, whither he came in the afternoon 
about 3 of the clock, accompanied only with the 
Prince, the Lord Admiral and one or two attend- 
ants. His Majesty was exceedingly dehghted 
with the sight of the model, and spent some time 

* At the northern approach to old London Bridge. 

^ The poet, then gentleman of the bedchamber to Prince 
Henry. 

* I.e, for this special purpose. 



32 MODEL OF PRINCE ROYAL 1607 

in questioning me divers material things concern- 
ing the same, and demanding whether I would 
build the great ship in all points like to the same, 
for I will (said his Majesty) compare them together 
when she shall be finished. 

Then the Lord Admiral commanded me to 
report to his Majesty the story of the 3 ravens 
I had seen at Lisbon, in St. Vincent's Church,* 
which I did as well as I could, with my best expres- 
sion, though somewhat daunted at the first at his 
Majesty's presence, having never before this 
time spoken before any King. It pleased his 
Majesty to accept all things in good part, and to 
use me very graciously ; and so returned back to 
Whitehall again the same night. 

The succeeding year brought with it many 
great troubles, for the Lord of Northampton having, 
by the instigation of some that were no great well 
willers to the honourable Admiral and some of the 
Principal Officers of his Majesty's Navy in especial 
favour with his Lordship, had procured a great 
and large ^ commission from his Majesty for the 
inquiring of all abuses and misdemeanours com- 
mitted by all Officers in their several places, imder 
colour of reformation and saving great sums to 
his Majesty, which he expended yearly in the 

* A legend concerning the relics of St. Vincent, who suffered 
martyrdom at Valencia in a.d. 304. His body on being 
exposed to wild beasts was said to have been protected by a 
raven. During the Moorish invasion of Spain these remains 
were removed from Valencia to Cape St. Vincent, and in the 
twelfth century were brought by water from that Cape to the 
cathedral of Lisbon and placed in the Chapel of St. Vincent. 
Two (not three) ravens, who watched over his tomb, accom- 
panied the ship on its voyage, remaining on watch when the 
rehcs were deposited in the cathedral. The ship and the 
two birds appear in the arms of Lisbon. 

* I.e. of ample powers. 



i6o8 COMMISSION OF INQUIRY 33 

maintenance of his ships ; which inquisition was 
presented with such extremity of mahce as not 
only many were brought into great question and 
tossed to and fro before the commissioners at 
Westminster, to their no small charge and vexation, 
but the government itself of that Royal Office 
was so shaken and disjointed as brought almost 
imminent ruin upon the whole Navy, and a far 
greater charge to his Majesty in his yearly expense, 
than was ever known before. In this great inquisi- 
tion it pleased God, for punishment of my sins, to 
suffer me to be grievously persecuted and pubhcly 
arraigned, as shall be in his proper place at more 
large described. 

The parties informers ^ were many, whereof 
some were principal members of the Navy and had 
been raised from nothing by the noble favours of 
the good Lord Admiral, against whom they were 
contented to take party ; by name Sir Peter Buck, 
Clerk of the Ships, Thomas Buck, his brother, 
under clerk to him, Mr. Mathew Baker, WilUam 
Bright, principal Master Shipwrights to his 
Majesty, Hugh Meritt, one of the six Masters, 
Hugh Lydiard, Clerk of the Check at Woolwich, 
Thomas Norreys, and one Clifton, a baker, sometime 
Pursers of ships in the Navy, with divers others. 
Pursers, Boatswains, Gunners, and Carpenters. 
These were assisted with many others, as one 
Edward Stevens, a shipwright and yard keeper 
of Limehouse, and was in reversion for a Master 
Shipwright's place * to his Majesty, Thomas 
Graves of Limehouse, shipwright and yard keeper, 
Nicholas Clay of Redriif,* shipwright and yard 
keeper, George Waymouth, sometime a master 
and mariner, one Tranckmore, a shipwright ; with 

* See the list and notes at pp. 54-5. ^ Ante, p. 20. 
» Rotherhithe ; MS. ' Redreife.' 



34 PRINCE HENRTS VISIT 1608 

divers others that were either drawn into this 
business upon private ends of their own or wrought 
in with great hopes of future preferment. 

The persons principally questioned and aimed 
at (leaving the great master of the office) were Sir 
Robert Mansell, then Treasurer, Sir John Trevor, 
Surveyor, Sir Henry Palmer, Comptroller, Captain 
Thomas Button, John Legatt, Clerk of the Check 
at Chatham, myself, and Sir Thomas Bludder,^ 
then Victualler to the Navy. 

This year, in the end of July, I began the new 
gates for Woolwich Dock, and set up a dam with- 
out them, so that we wrought always dry ; which 
gates were placed, set up, and finished, and the 
dam taken away, within the space of nine weeks ; 
wherein I saved to his Majesty above four hundred 
pounds, according to a former estimate made of the 
charge of the same under the hands of his Majesty's 
Master Shipwrights. 

During this business at Woolwich it pleased 
God that my wife was safely delivered of her 
fourth son in Mr. Lydiard's house in the yard the 
27th April 1608, and was baptized in Woolwich 
Church the 5th of May following, and named 
Joseph. 

About the beginning of August it pleased the 
Prince's Highness my master to send me word 
that he would come to Woolwich at his return out 
of Essex from the Lord Petre's,^ whither his 
Grace was then going in progress ; and on Saturday 
after, being the 13th day of August, his Highness 
took his barge at Blackwall, and came by water 
to Woolwich about noon, accompanied only with 
his own train, where I received him on shore at 
the yard stairs. On the poop of the Ann Royal 
was placed a noise of trumpets, an ensign, and 
» MS. ' Bluther.' * MS. ' Peter.' 



i6o8 TO WOOLWICH 35 

two ensigns upon the heads of both the mizens. 
After my duty presented to his Highness with the 
best expression I could, to cause him to under- 
stand his welcome to that place and how much 
it would joy all seamen's hearts to perceive his 
Highness so well addicted to his Majesty's ships 
and the sight of them, I conducted his Highness 
round about the dock, and so directly aboard the 
Ann Royal to the very top of her poop where, after 
my duty performed, I gave a secret signal (as was 
before concluded between us) to my good friend 
Mr. Wilham Bull, then Master Gunner of England, 
who stood ready prepared upon a mount in Mr. 
Hugh Lydiard's garden with thirty-one great brass 
chambers,^ orderly and distinctly placed, which, 
with Mr. Gunner's help, I had procured from the 
Tower for that purpose. He, presently receiving 
the signal, diligently attending the same, gave fire 
to the train, and so discharged the whole volley 
with so good order as gave a marvellous pleasing 
content to his Highness (and the more because 
he expected no such thing, but that it was done 
suddenly). 

When the ordnance gave over, I then kneeled 
down to his Highness and besought him to be 
pleased to accept this poor sea entertainment 
from me, as an unfeigned earnest of my duty to 
him, which I would hereafter strive to express in 
better manner if his Highness would be pleased 
graciously to receive this his first homely welcome. 
His Highness then, having answered my request 
with a princely acceptance, commanded me to 
lead into all the places of the ship ; which having 
viewed with a great deal of delightful judgment, 

1 A small piece of ordnance without carriage, used for 
firing salutes. This was not the * chamber ' used with the 
early breech-loading ordnance. 



36 ROYAL VISIT 1608 

I led his Grace into the Yard, and so to the place 
where the keel, stem, and stern of his own ship, 
which was to be built, lay ready framed ; which 
having perused very seriously, and caused the 
length of the keel to be measured, I besought his 
Grace to walk into the house to rest himself, 
which his Highness wiUingly condescending unto, 
I conducted him unto Mr. Lydiard's parlour where 
was prepared a set banquet of sweet meats and all 
other fruits the season of the year could yield, 
with plentiful store of wine, both Rhenish white, 
sack, Greek wine and claret. His Highness was 
well pleased to take his refection, and after the 
banquet done, giving his hand to kiss to divers 
gentlewomen of the town that were in the room 
together with my wife, his Highness desired to be 
brought to the mount where the chambers were 
placed, which were again laden in this interim 
and ranged in their first order with the train 
made ready. This sight so much pleased his 
Grace that he was very desirous to have the train 
fired, his Highness standing by, but at my humble 
entreaty, understanding what danger was incident 
to such a business, he gave me order that, at the 
holding up of his handkerchief in his barge, I 
should see them put off ; and so taking notice of 
Mr. Bull and giving him his hand to kiss, taking 
his leave, I conducted his Highness to his barge, 
being the top of full sea ; where kissing his hand 
upon my knee, he expressed how kindly he accepted 
his welcome, using many gracious speeches to me, 
and so putting off. I returned to the mount, 
and, upon his Highness' signal given me, the train 
was fired and the chambers delivered their loud 
voices in as distinct order as at the first, to the 
great delight of his Highness, and general applause 
of all others there present. 



i6o8 ARK BECOMES ANNE ROYAL 37 

Having now finished, by God's providence 
and gracious assistance, the Ark, which I began to 
repair in Woolwich Dock in May, was twelve- 
month before, on the 29th day of September, 1608, 
I launched her. It was a very blustering day, 
the wind at south-west, but, thanks be to God, with 
a little difficulty she was launched and brought 
safely to her moorings. Her name was altered 
and given by the mouth of my very good friend 
Sir Oliver Cromwell, in presence of Sir Robert 
Mansell, Sir John Trevor and Captain Button, 
divers other gentlemen being on board, with his 
Majesty's trumpets and drums ; her name was 
given the Anne Royal. These knights, with the 
Lady Mansell, the Lady Trevor, Mrs. Button, and 
sundry others, dined this day with me at Wool- 
wich in Mr. Lydiard's parlour, my lodgings being 
as yet not altered, and therefore inconvenient 
for entertaining of any friends of account ; which 
lodgings I after by warrant repaired and made 
as they now are, for which I was greatly ques- 
tioned by the Lord of Northampton in his inquisi- 
tion, and stand upon his book of reformation at 
large recorded. 

The 20th October following, being Thursday, 
by God's good help I lay the keel of the new great 
ship^ upon the blocks in the dock, and the 28th 
day following, of the same month, I raised her 
stern, and presently after the stem, and proceeded 
in order with the floor ^ as fast as I could, not- 
withstanding the many practices underhand at- 
tempted to have diverted the whole course of that 

* The Prince Royal, 

» MS. ' flower.' * Floor — are those timbers lying trans- 
verse to the keel, being bolted through it . . . and strictly 
taken, is so much only of her bottom as she rests upon when 
lying aground.' — ^Blanckley, Naval Expositor. 



38 THE BUILDING OF 1608 

building, as hereafter in his proper place shall be 
discovered. 

During the time that I proceeded on with the 
new frame, the inquisition against the Navy then 
growing to the height and prosecuted with ex- 
tremity of malice against Sir John Trevor, Sir 
Robert Mansell, and some others, amongst whom 
myself held not the least place, about the fine of 
March, 1609, there was discovered unto me (by 
Mr. Sebastian Vicars, Carver to the Ships, my ever 
true and faithful friend) a secret combination 
against me concerning the building of the great 
ship, suggested first by the practice of my fellows, 
old Mr. Mathew Baker and Mr. WilUam Bright, 
old adversaries to my name and family, assisted by 
Edward Stevens, a Master Shipwright, who laid 
great claim to my place by a former patent to him 
granted under the broad seal of England, with 
some other shipwrights also joined with them by 
especial warrant from the great Lord of North- 
ampton, my most implacable enemy ; my fellows 
bearing me no small grudge because by the Prince's 
Highness' means, my master, I was preferred to 
that great business before them ; and Mr. Stevens 
malicing me because he could not prevail against 
me to recover my place from me. 

They had also won to their party by much 
importunity, and by means of a particular letter 
directed from the Lord Northampton to him to 
that very purpose, a great braggadocio, a vain 
and idle fellow sometime a mariner and master, 
called by the name of Captain George Waymouth ; 
who, having much acquaintance abroad amongst 
gentlemen, was to disperse the insufficiency of my 
business, reporting how I was no artist, and 
altogether insufficient to perform such a service, 
of no experience, and that the King's Majesty 



i6o9 THE PRINCE ROYAL 39 

was cosened and all the charge lost, and the frame 
of her was unfit for any use but a dung boat, with 
many other such false opprobrious defamations, 
wherein he was better practised than in any other 
profession. 

These rumours being thus divulged, the report 
thereof coming to Mr. Sebastian Vicars* ears was 
the cause that he, out of his great love and honesty 
to me, wrote to me what he heard abroad, wishing 
me to keep a careful watch over myself, for that 
they would bend all their practices, powers and 
friends, to the disgracing of the building and 
ruining of me. But I, being very confident of the 
goodness of my cause (though I received that 
admonition as from a dear friend with much 
acknowledgment of his love and care of me), yet, 
little regarding what their malicious practices 
could bring forth, made small reckoning of their 
plottings till such time as the good honest man, 
understanding from some of their own mouths 
what was intended against me, made a purposed 
journey to me to Woolwich (though he was then 
scarce able to travel by reason of a tedious^ 
sickness) and there thoroughly possessed me of 
the certainty of what he before by his writing had 
truly informed me. 

I, now perceiving it was no idle flim flam ^ as 
I before supposed, considered that the goodness 
of my cause might by my secure ^ neglect either 
suffer hazard, or be overborne by greatness, 
began to call my wits about me and to advise 
what was to be done in the business; at which 
time, to make good the supposition, I received a 
message by word of mouth from a worthy gentle- 
man, and good friend of mine, Mr. William Burrell, 
principal Master Workman to the East India 
* Troublesome, painful. » Lie. ■ Careless. 



40 THE BUILDING OF 1609 

Company, of all their project, which was discovered 
to him particularly by that Captain Waymouth, 
being at that instant time between drunk and 
sober. 

The 13th of April this Waymouth was, by 
consent of the rest, sent to Woolwich to survey 
my work, and thereupon to deliver his opinion, and 
I in the mean time was appointed to be at Redriff 
at a meeting at a court held for the incorporation 
of Shipwrights, whereof I was then Master, that 
in my absence he might have the better oppor- 
tunity to perform his malicious instructions, as he 
was directed by his great masters ; of the which 
his purpose I receiving certain intelligence, leav- 
ing my intended journey to Redriif, I awaited 
his coming, and, receiving him after a courteous 
manner, after some discourse and ordinary com- 
phments he returned back to his confederates, 
frustrate of his great purpose. 

Within some few days after, I wrote something 
to this purpose to my very good friends Sir 
Robert Mansell and Sir John Trevor, being then 
Treasurer and Surveyor of the Navy, desiring 
them, for that it was a business highly concerning 
the honour of our honourable lord the Lord High 
Admiral and their own particular reputations, they 
would be pleased to take the pains to make a sud- 
den journey to Woolwich, there truly to inform 
themselves not only concerning the state of the 
work but of divers other material business where- 
with I was to acquaint them at their coming 
thither. According to my request, they both 
came the next day ; where being throughly pos- 
sessed of all the passages and occurrences concern- 
ing the project of our adversaries, after they had 
carefully also surveyed the work, with all other 
things necessary to be advised of, leaving with 




t6o9 THE PRINCE ROYAL 41 

me, with good deliberation, instructions how to 
proceed in my defence, they departed again to 
Westminster the same afternoon. 

Presently after the departure of these gentle- 
men, desiring first the Lord to guide and direct 
my pen so as might best tend to his glory and the 
discharge of my duty, I betook myself to my 
study and in the briefest manner I could I certified 
the Lord Admiral of the truth of all the whole 
project plotted against me, with the names of the 
principalest actors therein, and the reasons induc- 
ing them unto it ; withal earnestly beseeching his 
Lordship to be pleased, since the matter so nearly 
concerned his Majesty's profit, the honour of the 
state, his Lordship's own safety, and the reputa- 
tion of his Office, to leave all respect of my par- 
ticular good and to procure such a view to be 
presently made of the work, by judicious and 
impartial persons, as his Majesty might receive 
no loss, the strength of the kingdom no prejudice, 
his honour no impeachment, and the Officers of 
the Navy no just calumniation nor blame. 

It pleased his Lordship, then lying at White- 
hall, presently after the receipt of my letter 
(wherewith he was not a little troubled to observe 
their malicious pract^'ces) to send for me to wait 
upon him, that by conference with me his Lord- 
ship might be better informed of each particular 
passage in this so dangerous information and 
conspiracy; and after his Lordship had received 
from me such satisfaction as he desired, comfort- 
ing me with many noble encouragements, as 
being (as he said) sufficiently persuaded both of 
my skill, experience and honesty, wishing me to 
take a good heart and never a whit to distrust 
the goodness of my cause, albeit I had strong 
adversaries, for that God in his mercy would never 



42 THE BUILDING OF 1609 

permit such a malicious practice to prevail against 
those that relied upon him, with many other 
fatherly instructions ; and so, being somewhat 
late, for that night his Lordsliip was pleased to 
dismiss me, giving me commandment to attend 
his further pleasure the next morning ; and this 
was the 20th day of April. 

It was no sooner day the next morrow but his 
Lordship, very careful of doing something in this 
weighty business, made himself ready, and by 4 
of dock, taking my letter in his hand, speeds 
himself to liis Majesty's chamber, lying then also 
at Whitehall, and sending in word that his Lord- 
ship was there to acquaint his Majesty with some 
business of great consequence, was presently 
admitted to his Majesty's bedside, and, having 
in few words given his Majesty a taste of his 
errand, delivered him my letter and besought him 
to be pleased thoroughly to peruse the same. 
The letter his Majesty twice read over, and per- 
ceiving how malice was the original of all this 
stir, seemed greatly to pity the wrong and injury 
done unto me, using this gracious speech in my 
behalf, that whatsoever my act was he knew not, 
but I deserved great commendation for my honest 
plainness delivered in my letter, and that it was 
great reason I should be justly proceeded withal. 

To the end therefore I might not be wrongfully 
oppressed, and the works disgraced without just 
cause, his Majesty took present order with the 
Lord High Admiral that he should join unto him 
the right honourable lords, the Earls of Worcester, 
then Master of his Majesty's horse, and of Suffolk, 
then Lord High Chamberlain, and repairing to 
Woolwich, should there, upon their oaths, honours, 
and faithful allegiance to his Majesty, without 
respect of any particular person, call before them 



i6oo THE PRINCE ROYAL 43 

my accusers, and, as well by examination of them 
as trial of the work itself, both in point of suffi- 
ciency, as well of matter as manner, should truly 
inform themselves whether this main accusation 
so much concerning his Majesty's honour were 
justly commenced or no ; which charge of his 
Majesty being performed, they should return the 
true report thereof with all speed to his Majesty, 
as they would answer it upon their allegiance. 

Whilst these things were thus ordering, my 
malicious adversaries were not idle, but plotting as 
fast against me, and had so far prevailed with the 
Lord Northampton that there should be a private 
warrant directed to the chief of them, vide ; 
to Mr. Baker, Bright and Stevens, and to some 
other whom they should associate with them, 
which warrant should have been signed with the 
King's own hand, to authorise them to repair to 
Woolwich, and there strictly to make a survey 
of the work ; which being done, upon the return 
of the insufficiency of the same under their hands 
and confirmation by oath, it was resolved amongst 
them I should be turned out and for ever dis- 
graced, the work utterly defaced, and I never to 
come to any personal answer ; and one of them 
that could make his party strongest should under- 
take the business, about which they were in great 
contention amongst themselves who should be 
preferred to it. 

But it pleased my good God, that never leaves 
his servants destitute of his help when all other 
means fail them, so mightily to work for me by 
means of my letter sent to my honourable Lord 
Admiral, and, as is shewed afore, delivered to his 
Majesty, so far to prevent their purposes, that 
upon that very day wherein they had determined 
to have displaced and disgraced me, that they were, 



44 THE BUILDING OF 1609 

unawares to them, warned by one of his Majesty's 
messengers to appear before the three Lords before 
named, to answer them at that very place and 
time wherein they made their account to have 
triumphed over me. This was the Lord's doing 
and it is marvellous in our eyes, and this day was 
appointed to be on Tuesday the 25th day of April, 
which time was accordingly kept, and the Lords 
were come to Woolwich by nine of the clock the 
same morning. The first thing they did was to 
take a dihgent survey of the work, first touching 
the form and manner of the same, and then con- 
cerning the goodness of the materials ; which having 
very carefully perused, they repaired into the house 
and sat at a little table in the middle of my dining 
room. Their Lordships being set, first Mr. Baker 
was called and demanded, for the good of his 
Majesty's service, to deliver plainly what he could 
justly except against the ship, either in point of 
art or in sufficiency of the materials, and leading 
him from point to point concerning her propor- 
tion of length, breadth, depth, draught of water, 
height of tuck,^ rake afore and abaft, breadth of the 
floor, scantling of timber, and other circumstances, 
after a deal of frivolous arguings to no purpose, 
their Lordships found by his examination nothing 
worthy of observing ; and directly finding him to 
be led more out of an envious malicious humour 
against me than upon any certain ground of error 

* The Tuck is ' that part of the ship where the ends of 
the bottom planks are collected together immediately under 
the stem ... a square tuck ' (as in this case) * is terminated 
above by the wing transom and below and on each side by 
the fashion-pieces ' (Falconer, Marine Dictionary). According 
to Sutherland {Shipbuilder' s Assistant) , the 'height of the tuck ' 
was taken from the point where the heels of the fashion-pieces 
were ' let in upon the posts,' i.e. upon the stem post and 
false stem post. 



i6o9 THE PRINCE ROYAL 45 

in the mould, or probability of insufficiency of any 
the materials used in the frame; whereupon he 
was dismissed. 

After him was Bright called, and then Stevens, 
who were so tripped in their several examinations 
as their Lordships found them in their answers 
clean contrary one to another almost in every 
question, by which their Lordships concluded, as 
they did of Mr. Baker, that all this question and 
infamous report of the business was plotted by 
them out of some malicious respects to disgrace 
me and my works, and not of any care or con- 
scionable regard of the good of his Majesty's 
service ; and so they were dismissed. 

Then was great killcow ^ Waymouth called, 
who being examined as the others before him were, 
was able to say nothing to any purpose, but held 
their Lordships with a long tedious discourse of 
proportions, measures, lines, and an infinite rabble 
of idle and unprofitable speeches clean from the 
matter, wherewith their Lordships were so tired 
as he was commanded silence. Then every man 
being dismissed the room, they consulted in 
private about some half hour, and then we were 
all called in again ; where their Lordships, address- 
ing their speech to me, delivered that, by all this 
enquiry, they in their judgments could find no 
just cause of exception against the business, and 
this accusation grew for aught they could perceive 
out of envy and malice, and therefore I had no 
cause to be discouraged in my service but to go on 
both comfortably and cheerfully, assuring me they 
would so effectually return the account of the 
particulars of this their day's work to his Majesty 
as should not only give his Majesty satisfaction, 
but also secure and defend me from all the op- 
^ Bully, swashbuckler. 



46 THE BUILDING OF 1609 

position any of my adversaries could practise 
against me, wdth many other noble speeches of 
encouragement. And so about 4 of the clock in 
the evening, taking their caroches/ they returned 
to the Court to Whitehall. 

The same night, after their coming to the 
Court, their Lordships repairing to his Majesty, 
they there delivered the account of their journey, 
together with all the particular passages in the 
same ; there offering to prove upon their honours, 
allegiances, and their lives, the ground of that 
conspiracy to spring from no other reason than 
inveterate malice to me, and that they found the 
business in every part and point so excellent, as 
befitted the service of so royal a king ; with which 
his Majesty rested marvellous w^ell satisfied. 

My adversaries, whose malicious practices no- 
thing could daunt, hunting after nothing so much 
as my ruin and utter disgrace, were so fired 
wdth this prevention that, redoubling their fury, 
[they] went all together the next morning to their 
great patron and abettor, the Lord Northamp- 
ton, who being vehemently incensed before, to 
have such an affront to the proceeding of his 
commission, as he termed our courses to have 
wrought, was willing to entertain anything that 
carried but hkelihood to give him means to be 
revenged on me for it. After therefore these cater- 
pillars had discovered to his Lordship all the 
circumstances of the hearing before the Lords, 
complaining very grievously as they termed it, 
of their partiality towards me and bitterness to 
them, and that they were not suffered to speak, 
nor could be heard in any[thing] they could inform 
against me, they offering upon their hves to make 
good all their informations against me to be true, 
» A coach or chariot of a stately or luxurious kind. — N.E.D. 



i6o9 THE PRINCE ROYAL 47 

so that they might but gain an equal hearing, his 
Lordship promised to move his Majesty in the 
granting of a second hearing ; wherein he doubted 
not, as he said unto them, but they should have 
amends made to them for the former injuries and 
obtain their purpose against me in despite of all 
my friends and upholders. 

His Lordship immediately upon this repaired 
to his Majesty, and there made a grievous com- 
plaint against the partiahty of the three Lords, 
which they shewed in the examination of the 
business ; there in the behalf of the plaintiffs — 
tendering to his Majesty that they did offer upon 
their lives to prove aU their informations true, 
and besought his Majesty very earnestly there 
might be a second examination committed to his 
Lordships care, whereby all partiality should be 
prevented and his Majesty receive better confirma- 
tions of their good service than what the Lords 
had before, upon their superficial survey and 
partial examination, exhibited to his Majesty. 
His Majesty made answer that upon his Lord- 
ship's first complaint he had made especial choice 
of three principal peers of the realm, of whose 
faithful fidehty he was so confidently assured that 
he could not but give credit to that account their 
Lordships had returned upon the serious examina- 
tion of that so weighty a business. Notwith- 
standing, seeing his Lordship urged so earnestly 
a review and second examination, since it was a 
business of such main consequence, for his better 
satisfaction and clearing all doubts and scruple, 
his Majesty resolved to take the pains in his own 
person to have the hearing of the cause indiffer- 
ently between all parties ; appointing Monday the 
8th of May following to be the time for the same 
hearing at Woolwich in the yard where the ship 



48 THE BUILDING OF 1609 

was then in building ; giving ordei to the Lord 
High Admiral of England to provide for the same, 
and to command all such persons as were any ways 
interested in that business to give their personal 
attendance upon his Majesty at the same time 
and place. 

This resolution of his Majesty made known, 
there was preparation on both sides, to be pro- 
vided both of information and defence, to give his 
Majesty satisfaction ; but the contrary parties 
doubting their malicious practices would now 
be plainly discovered, never dreaming of such a 
course, they still laboured to bring disgraces 
upon me ; informing, in this interim of ten days, 
if I might be suffered to continue the workmen 
upon the frames, I would so handle the matter 
that all things should be reformed that had by 
them been formerly found defective, both in 
point of materials and proportions ; and therefore 
were earnest suitors to have all the workmen 
presently discharged, and the work to stand. 
His Majesty, upon the advice of some of the Lords, 
whereof the then Lord Treasurer, Sir Robert 
Cecil and Earl of Salisbury ^ being chief, would not 
consent on any condition to have the workmen 
absolutely discharged, but that order should be 
taken the work should cease, and the men con- 
tinued at his Majesty's charge till the hearing should 
be past, and his Majesty determine what was after 
to be done. W^hereupon his Majesty commanded 
a letter to be written to me to the same effect, 
charging me upon my allegiance to follow the 
directions therein contained, which I accordingly 
very carefully observed. In the mean time no 
day almost passed wherein Mr. Baker, Bright, 

» Sir Robert Cecil had been created Earl of Salisbury in 
1605. 



i6o9 THE PRINCE ROYAL 49 

Stevens, Clay, Graves, Captain Waymouth, with 
their mahcious associates, did not meet at Wool- 
wich to take all the dimensions of the ship, to 
deface the work by striking aside the shores, and 
condemning the materials, aggravating continual 
disgraces upon me, and raihng despitefully to 
my face ; which I was forced to endure with 
patience and put up with silence, flying to God, 
on whose mercy I wholly depended in these ex- 
tremities. 

The good Lord Admiral was not idle in this 
interim to provide for to give his Majesty full 
satisfaction in all things could be objected by 
the informers, and to that purpose carefully advis- 
ing with Sir Robert Mansell and Sir John Trevor, 
principal Officers of his Majesty's Navy, together 
with myself, whom it did most concern, what 
course was to be held to meet all objections could 
be any ways produced against me ; and for that 
the adverse part had made choice of a certain 
number of masters and builders in the river of 
Thames to strengthen their proceedings, it was 
held fit and resolved the like course should be 
taken by us for our better defence ; whereupon 
sundry experienced men known to be honest and 
impartial of both kinds were nominated and 
appointed by warrant from the Lord Admiral to 
attend this service, some inhabiting about the river 
of Thames and others of remote places, with whom 
divers consultations were held, as well to inform 
them of the truth of every particular as also to 
satisfy their doubts in anything wherein it was 
fit they should be throughly resolved. I, for my 
own part, confident of mine own integrity, com- 
mending my cause to God, provided myself to be 
able to answer all objections whatsoever could 
be alleged against me, either in point of art, experi- 



50 THE BUILDING OF 1609 

ence, or care, in this so weighty service of trust 
and consequence. 

I must not here forget the princely favour of 
my royal, then master, Prince Henry, of ever 
famous memory, who in his noble care of me in 
the interim of the time appointed by his Majesty 
for my hearing did almost every day send me a 
comfortable encouragement by some one of his 
principal gentlemen to heart me on and put life 
into me, lest I should any ways be disheartened 
with the apprehension of the power of my great 
and potent adversary ; and when the time grew 
near for my trial sent me a commandment to 
wait upon his Grace, the Sunday preceding the 
day, at St. James, which I accordingly performed ; 
where his Highness vouchsafing to lead me in his 
hand through the park to Whitehall, in the public 
view and hearing of many people there attending 
to see him pass to the King, his father, did in such 
loving manner counsel me with such comfortable, 
wise, and grave advice touching my carriage and 
resolution in my trial, as was no little testimony 
of his principal care of me, to my great comfort, 
and joy of all those that were both eye and ear 
witnesses of it ; besides casting ^ the worst that 
might be, if I had been overthrown by the censure 
of his Majesty, his Highness had graciously deter- 
mined to have received me into a place in his 
house, and resolved to have provided for me whilst 
I had lived. 

The time drawing now near, there was sent 
from London at the appointment of the Lord 
Admiral, hangings to furnish the room where his 
Majesty was to sit, and the next room to it where 
he was to withdraw, the one being the common 

> Considering. 



1609 THE PRINCE ROYAL 5I 

dining room of the workmen, and the other my 
own dining room, both which I caused to be 
hanged and trimmed up with such furniture as 
was befitting such a presence, with all conveni- 
ence the place could any ways afiord. 

On Monday morning, being the eighth day of 
May, the Lord Admiral came betimes to Woolwich, 
attended by Sir Robert Mansell, Sir John Trevor, 
and others, where his Lordship was met by all 
those persons which were formerly ^ warned to be 
there on our part, and his Lordship took those 
rooms which were fitted for his Majesty. Pre- 
sently after came the Lord Northampton attended 
with all the spiteful crew of his informers, and he 
took Hugh Lydiard's house, being Clerk of the 
Check, which was fitted for him, and was there 
attended with all his rabble. 

Before his Majesty's coming, Waymouth and 
his associates pryed up and down the yard, belch- 
ing out nothing but disgraces, despiteful speeches, 
and base opprobrious terms, being so confident of 
their wished ends as they before had given out 
that I should be hanged and the work defaced 
at the least ; which was likely enough to have 
proved so, had not God put a hook into their 
nostrils and by the justice of the King caused 
themselves to fall into the pit they digged for 
another. 

The noble Admiral spent the time till his 
Majesty's coming very quietly and privately, 
consulting advisedly with those appointed for 
the business, never so much as taking notice of 
the base usage of them on their side. 

All things being in a readiness, about eight of 
the clock his Majesty came in his caroche attended 

* Previously. 



52 THE BUILDING OF i6o^ 

with Prince Henry and the principal Lords of 
his Majesty's Council. The Lord Northampton 
met him before he came to the ordinary gate of 
the yard, and used all the means he could to have 
led his Majesty through Lydiard's garden by a 
back way into his house ; but his Majesty told his 
Lordship that the Lord Admiral, whom he espied 
waiting with his train at the ordinary gate of the 
yard, would justly take exception at his so doing, 
for that it belonged properly there to his Lordship 
to receive and entertain him. So alighting, the 
Lord Admiral, after his duty performed, guided 
his Majesty in the rooms provided purposely for 
the business, whom I ushered as belonged to my 
place. 

After his Majesty had a little reposed, he 
desired the Lord Admiral to bring him to the 
sight of the work then in hand, which accordingly 
was done, directing his Majesty to a brow^ or 
stage made at the stem of the ship, where he might 
perfectly take a perfect view of the whole ground 
work of the frame, being then about half set up 
and planked as high as the rungheads,^ no foot- 
waling^ as then begun. After his Majesty had 
satisfied himself sufficiently, he returned back 
to the place again, and there seated himself in 
the chair under the state,* at a little table standing 
right before him ; the Prince and Lords taking 
their stands on his Majesty's right hand, with the 
Lord Admiral and all those warned on our part ; 
and the Lord Northampton on the left hand of his 

» MS. ' brew.' 

• MS. * Wrong heads.' The upper ends of the floor timbers. 
■ The inside planking from the kelson to the orlop 

clamps. 

* Canopy. 



i6o9 THE PRINCE ROYAL 53 

Majesty, with all his crew of informers and others 
appointed to assist him on his part, of sea masters 
and shipwrights of the Thames. 

These things thus ordered, his Majesty, silence 
bepng] commanded by his gentlemen ushers, 
his Majesty began a very worthy speech ; first to 
signify the cause of his coming to that place and 
how much it imported the royal care of a king 
to take to his personal examination a business 
of such consequence, as so much concerned the 
strength and honour of his Kingdom and State, 
besides the expense of his Treasure. Next he 
addressed his speech to the actors on both sides, 
to those that were informers and to those that were 
defendants ; the substance of his royal speech 
tending to aVeHgious exhortation that none of 
both sides should either accuse for malice or other 
pretence, or excuse for love, favour, or other par- 
ticular respects, for that his Majesty, in the seat 
of justice presenting God's person, would not be 
deluded, nor led by any coloured pretences from 
understanding the very plain truth of that busi- 
ness which was to be handled ; and therefore willed 
such on both sides whose conscience accused them 
either of malicious proceedings, private ends, or 
partial favour, to give over and depart before they 
took the oath to be administered unto them ; 
threatening severe punishments to those should be 
foimd offenders herein ; declaring what danger it 
was to be perjured before the Majesty of God and 
the King. 

His Majesty's speech so effectually delivered 
to the purpose of the matter in hand to the 
admiration of the hearers, commandment was 
given to call the names of those to be sworn on 
both sides. 



.^VVE^^ 






0\-iV 



^v<\0 



54 THE BUILDING OF 1609 

On Lord Northampton's side were : 

Seamen. 

Sir Henry Middleton.^ Robert Rickman.* 

Mr. Hugh Meritt.2 Thomas Redwood.* 

Captain Watts.^ , Captain Geare.^° 

Captain Norreys.* Captain Moore." 

Mr. Chester.^ Mr. James Woodcott.^^ 

Captain Waymouth.® Mr. Mathew Woodcott.^^ 

Captain Newport.' Captain Miller. 



1 Of the East India Company, merchant and sea-captain. 

" One of the six Masters Attendant of the Navy. 

» Probably John Watts, who was captain of Denbigh's 
flagship in the Cadiz Expedition of 1625 and was knighted i 
together with Michael Geere and others, at Plymouth on the 
return. He was captain of Buckingham's flagship in the 
lie de Rhe expedition of 1627. 

• Captain Thomas Norris (or Norreys) referred to at p. 119 
as being one of the Commissioners of 1618 and at p. 120 as 
one of Pett's ' greatest enemies.' From p. 33 it would appear 
that at one time he had been a purser. 

• Perhaps the Captain James Chester referred to in Naval 
Tracts of Sir William Monson, I. xxxiv. and III. 60. 

« See Introduction. 

' Captain Christopher Newport, recommended by Mansell 
and Trevor in 1606 for the reversion of one of the principal 
masters' places, In 1612 he was captain of the East India- 
man Expedition. He was removed from among the six 
masters by the Commission of 1618, on account of his employ- 
ment by the East India Company. 

• Of Limehouse ; master of a merchantman, and a ship- 
builder. 

• Probably the ' Thomas Redwood, mariner, precinct 
of the Tower of London,' whose will was proved in 1613 
(Wills, P.C.C.) 

" Possibly the William Geere granted 'the office of an 
Assistant of the Admiralty ' in 1604 ; or Michael Geere 
granted ' the place of Assistant to the King's chief officers 
of the Admiralty ' in March 1608, subsequently knighted 
and a Master of Trinity House. 



i6o9 THE PRINCE ROYAL 55 

Shipwrights. 

Mr. Mathew Baker.^* Mr. Clay.is 

Mr. William Bright.^* Mr. Graves." 

Mr. Edward Stevens.^* Mr. Tranckmore.^' 

Captain Waymouth. Mr. Lydiard.^^ 

Other Informers, 
Thomas Buck.^^ Clifton, a baker.^o 

^1 In 1618 ' Captains Geer and Moore ' were engaged ' in 
receiving and inventorying the Destiny and her furniture, 
the goods of Sir Walter Raleigh.' — Cal. S, P. Dom., Novem- 
ber 2. 1618. 

" A servant of the East India Company. 

" Of Limehouse, mariner. 

" See Introduction. 

"MS. * Cleye.' Referred to at p. 33 as ' Nicholas Clay 
of Redriff, shipwright and yardkeeper/ Nominated in the 
Charter of 1605 as one of the ' Assistants * of the Shipwrights* 
Company. The name is there spelt * Cley/ but he signed as 
' Nycholas Clay.' 

" Referred to at p. 33 as ' Thomas Graves of Limehouse, 
shipwright and yardkeeper ' ; the indictment is, however, 
signed by ' John Greaves ' (see Introduction), and it may 
be noted that 'John Graves' was nominated an 'Assistant ' 
by the Charter of 1612. Probably Pett has made a mistake 
in the forename. 

" Probably Robert Tranckmore, who with Jonas Day 
was employed in 1627 in making a dry dock, etc., at Ports- 
mouth. These two with Pett were also ordered to report on 
the faults in the ships built by Burrell. 

" Clerk of the Check at Woolwich. 

" Brother of Sir Peter Buck, Clerk of the King's Ships. 
It appears from p. 33 that he was an under clerk to Sir Peter. 
In October 1607 Thomas Buck and William HoUiday were 
granted * protection ' for a year, and this was renewed in 
September 1609. On 31st July 1609 Thomas Buck and John 
Clifton were granted the moiety of all forfeitures, etc., incurred 
by officers of the navy for frauds against the Crown. 

«<» John Clifton (see preceding note) ; he had been purser 
in the Answer in the Spanish voyage of 1605. 



56 THE BUILDING OF 1609 

Sworn on our part : — 

Seamen, 

Mr. William Jones.^ Mr. Thomas Fuller.' 

Mr. William Bygatt.2 Mr. Robert Wright.^ 

Mr. Michael Meriall.^ Mr. Thomas Johnson.* 

Mr. John King.* ' Mr. John Dawes. 

Mr. George Ireland. Mr. Nicholas Diggens.^^ 

Mr. Arthur Pett.^ Mr. Jorden." 

Mr. John Woodcott.® Mr. Michael Edmondes. 

* In October 1604 he was granted with others a reward of 
5s. a ton for building five new ships. He was a friend of 
William Adams, the navigator, who refers to him in his letter 
from Japan of October 23, 1611, to the East India Com- 
pany. It would appear that he and Diggens (and possibly 
Woodcott) would more properly have been included under 
'shipwrights.' 

« Probably the William Bigatt who was master of the 
Lion under William Borough in 1587. See *The Mutiny of 
the Golden Lion ' in Oppenheim, Administration of the Royal 
Navy, p. 382 et seq. 

» Of Stepney. 

* Became in 1610 one of the six principal masters. New- 
port's reversion (see note 7, p. 54) was granted ' after the 
placing of John King.' 

» Possibly Arthur Pett, the navigator of 1580. He was one 
of the members incorporated by the second charter of the 
Virginia Company in 1609. 

• Possibly referred to in Court Minutes of the East India 
Company (Cal. S.P. East Indies, 407) of April 1608 : * Gratifi- 
cations to Diggins, Burrell, Kitchen and Woodcott.' 

' This may be the * old Thomas Fuller ' who died in the 
East India Company's ship Thomas in 161 2. 

» MS. * Write.' In 1604 the Lord Mayor was directed to 
appoint Richard and Robert Wright joint packers of woollen 
cloths, &c., and porters of strangers' goods in and out of the 
port of London. It is not, however, clear that this is the same 
man. 

• Of Ratcliff. Mentioned in the grant to the North-West 
Passage Company. Cal. S.P. Colonial, July 26, 161 2. 



i6o9 



THE PRINCE ROYAL 



57 



Shipwrights. 



Mr. William Burrell." 
Mr. Nicolas Simonson.^* 
Mr. Thomas Jenkins.^* 



Mr. Thomas Cole.^^ 
Mr. Thomas Prime.^^ 



Carpenters of his Majesty's Navy, 



Lawrence Andrews. ^^ 
David Duck.i' 
Robert Bromadge. 
Thomas CateroU. 



John Elye. 
Thomas Hampton, 
Nicholas Surtis.^® 
Robert Sharpe.^ 



18 



These several persons being called and appear- 
ing, the form of the oath was read unto them by 
the Right Honourable Sir Robert Cecil, Earl of 



" Granted in August 1604 the usual allowance for build- 
ing five new ships. William Adams, who died in Japan in 
1620, had been for twelve years apprenticed to Diggens, and 
refers to him affectionately in his letters to the East India 
Company. (See Letters received by the East India Company, 
vol. i.) 

^1 Probably the ' Edward Jordan, mariner,' mentioned in 
the Pipe Office Dec. Acct. for 1613 (No. 2251). 

" Principal master workman of the East India Company ; 
see Introduction. 

" Brother-in-law of Phineas. A shipbuilder at Ratcliff ; 
nominated as a warden in the shipwrights' charter of 1605. 

^* Nominated as an ' Assistant ' in the shipwrights' charter 
of 1612. 

" Thomas Cole of Woodbridge and Thomas Pryme of Yar- 
mouth were nominated ' Assistants ' in the shipwrights' charter 
of 1605. 

" MS. ' Androes.' 

^' Shipbuilder at Gillingham, see p. 24. He was also a 
shipwright in Chatham Yard. 

" Referred to at p. 93 as * friends in the navy.' 



58 THE BUILDING OF 1609 

Salisbury, and then Lord Treasurer, who person- 
ated the Clerk of the Session, and the book was 
presented to them by the Right Honourable 
Charles Howard, Earl of Nottingham, Lord High 
Admiral of England. 

These ceremonies performed, his Majesty 
willed the Lord Northampton to begin his accusa- 
tion, and then I was called personally to answer 
and kneeled right before his Majesty, near the side 
of the table ; the Lord High Admiral standing at 
my left hand. Sir Robert Mansell and Sir John 
Trevor standing both right behind me. The ac- 
cusation against me was exhibited by the Lord 
Northampton in writing,^containing sundry articles 
in point of my sufficiency, art, and experience, and 
in point of my care and honesty in discharge of 
my duty in putting in unserviceable materials 
to the great detriment of his Majesty's Service. 
His Majesty perceiving the articles to be many 
and very intricate to answer each particular, very 
judiciously contracted all the business to three 
principal heads : the point of art, the point of 
sufficiency of materials, and the point of charge ; 
and to these heads I was commanded to frame 
my answers, and they their accusations. I must 
confess that at the first I was so daunted with 
the majesty of the King, the power of my 
adversary, and the confused urging of the 
objections, that I was confounded in myself till 
it pleased God, by the helps of the Lord Treasurer 
and his discreet directions,^ I was recollected 
and recovered my spirits, and so orderly answered 
to each objection ; his Majesty still holding us on 
both sides to the proposition. 

Much time was spent in dispute of proportions, 

> See Introduction. 
« MS. ' directed.' 



1609 THE PRINCE ROYAL 59 

comparing my present frame with former pre- 
cedents and dimensions of the best ships, for 
length, breadth, depth, floor, and other circum- 
stances ; in all which they could not fasten any- 
thing upon me but reflected to their disgrace and 
apparent breach of oath, and plain demonstration 
and expression of combined practice. 

One point of proportion was mainly insisted 
upon and with much violence and eagerness urged 
on both sides, which was the square of the ship's 
flat in the midships,^ they aflirming constantly 
upon their oath it was full thirteen foot, we as 
constantly insisting that it was but eleven foot 
and eight inches ; but because this difference was 
long and could not be tried upon the small plates 
his Majesty referred the trial to be made upon 
the great platform, which was purposely framed 
of planks, to the full scale of the ship, where all 
the lines of the midship bend ^ were drawn, and 
the square of the flat truly described, with their 
centres, perpendiculars, and sweeps ; which trial, 
because it much concerned the truth or falsity of 
all the rest, his Majesty would not give trust to 
any of those that were by oath interested in the 
same, but made choice of the noble and worthy 
knight. Sir Thomas Chaloner, then Governor of 
the Prince's Highness' household, and of the 
learned reverend gentleman Mr. Briggs,^ reader 
of geometry lecture in Gresham College in London, 
and Master of Art and student in St. John's in 
Cambridge, who were to decide this controversy. 

This thus concluded, we came to the point 
of charge ; to which was answered that the charge 

^ See Introduction. 

* The transverse section of the ship at the greatest breadth. 

* Henry Briggs (i 561-1630), mathematician. First Pro- 
fessor of Geometry at Gresham College, 



6o THE BUILDING OF 1609 

of the building of this ship should not exceed 
other ships that had been built in her Majesty's 
times, I mean Queen Elizabeth of famous and 
happy memory, allowing proportion for proportion, 
the garnishing not exceeding theirs. This gave 
full satisfaction to this point of charge, being the 
second head propounded. It then being almost 
one of the clock, his Majesty called for his dinner, 
referring the other points to be handled in the 
ship, after dinner. All this time I sat upon my 
knees, baited by the great Lord and his bandogs ; 
sometimes by Baker, sometimes by Bright, 
Stevens, Clay, gaping Waymouth, and some- 
times confusedly by all ; and, which was worst, 
his Majesty's angry countenance still bent upon 
me, so that I was almost disheartened and out of 
breath, albeit the Prince's Highness, standing near 
me, from time to time encouraged me as far as 
he might without offence to his father, labouring 
to have me eased by standing up, but his Majesty 
would not permit it. 

So soon as his Majesty and the Lords had 
dined, the King rose and went into the body of 
the frame of the ship, to make trial of the goodness 
of the materials. All the lower futtocks^ were 
placed, and many upper futtocks also. The ad- 
verse part had chalked with a mark almost half 
the lower futtocks for red ^ wood, cross-grained, 
and merely ^ unserviceable, all which timbers his 
Majesty caused to be dubbed * by the workmen 

• The futtocks or foothooks are the timbers between the 
floor timbers and the top timbers. The floor timbers, lower 
and upper futtocks, and top timbers, when put together, form 
a complete frame-bend. 

• Redness being a sign that the wood was past its prime 
and beginning to decay. 

» Entirely. 

• To be dressed or smoothed with an adze. 



i6o0 THE PRINCE ROYAL 6i 

ready with their tools for that purpose, and being 
tried they were all approved very sound and 
serviceable ; and touching the cross-grained timber 
his Majesty protested very earnestly the cross 
grain was in the men and not in the timber. 
His Majesty spent much time in the survey of 
these things, still giving way to what objections 
the adverse part could allege, and what answer 
I could make in my defence. 

This business performed within board and 
his Majesty well satisfied in every particular, he 
openly delivered that the ship would be too 
strong if one third of the timber ^ were left out ; 
and then began to give me a princely countenance 
and encouragement, protesting oftentimes that 
all this grievous accusation proceeded of nothing 
but malice. Then his Majesty came without 
board and curiously ^ surveyed the planks, tre- 
nails, and workmanship, all which gave him such 
good satisfaction as still confirmed his opinion of 
their malicious proceedings. 

All the while his Majesty was intentive upon 
this search, the gentlemen forenamed, that were 
appointed for the trial of the point of the true 
flat of the floor, they were busied in taking off the 
measures from the ship and bringing them to the 
platform ; and when they found by due trial all 
the lines to be truly set off, they acquainted his 
Majesty that all things was in readiness. His 
Majesty then, having received satisfaction of all 
things about the frame, repaired to the platform, 
attended with the Prince, the Lords, and many 
thousand spectators besides. His Majesty then 
caused those gentlemen to measure each dimen- 
sion of breadth and depth for his own satisfaction, 

* The timbers, popularly called ' ribs,' forming the frame. 
■Carefully. 



62 THE BUILDING OF 1609 

and then coming to the point of the square of 
the floor, whether it were answering their assertion 
of 13 foot, or agreeable to ours of eleven foot eight 
inches, the square of 13 foot was tried from the 
true centre and perpendicular, which being applied 
to the sweeps of the mould did differ above 16 
inches at the runghead, the like trial made by 
our true centre and perpendicular fell as just 
in our lines as could be possibly ; which done, 
his Majesty with a loud voice commanded the 
measurers to declare publicly the very truth, which 
when they had delivered clearly on our sides, all 
the whole multitude heaved up their hats, and 
gave a great and a loud shout and acclamation, 
and then the Prince's Highness called with a high 
voice in these words : * Where be now these per- 
jured fellows that dare thus abuse his Majesty 
with these false informations, do they not worthily 
deserve hanging ? ' 

By that time all these things were thus per- 
formed and his Majesty wonderfully satisfied, and 
it growing somewhat late, his Majesty returned 
again into the hall where he formerly sat ; and 
being placed, and the room filled as full as it 
could be packed, his Majesty began a most worthy 
and learned speech for conclusion of the business, 
the scope of his words tending first to a full declara- 
tion of the satisfaction he had received touching 
this great business, wherein he expressed with 
many effectual speeches what content he received 
in bestowing his pains that day to so good a 
purpose ; next his Majesty addressed himself to 
give thanks to the Lord Northampton for his 
great care and diligence to search out such errors 
in the Office of the Admiralty, wherein his Majesty 
and the State were abused, with encouragement 
for him to go forward with prosecuting his com- 



\ 



1609 THE PRINCE ROYAL 63 

mission, notwithstanding his Lordship had been 
misinformed by being drawn to question this 
present business ; next, his Majesty directed his 
speech to Mr. Baker, Bright, Stevens and the 
rest of the informers, very bitterly reprehending 
their mahcious practices, more to bring to effect 
their own private ends than out of any conscion- 
able care of the good of his Majesty's Service 
or benefit of the State, repining at the preferment 
I had and the countenance of the Prince, his 
son, and therefore combining together to dis- 
grace and ruin me, though otherwise they envied 
one another and were at controversy who should 
be preferred to my business ; with many good 
exhortations to v/ill them to beware how they 
did abuse the Majesty of God and himself, his 
substitute, with malicious informations in which 
he could do no less than think them perjured, 
as in the prosecuting of this whole business 
was too apparent to himself and all the world, 
whereby they deserved to be severely punished, 
if he should censure them as they worthily 
merited. 

His Majesty then began to shew me a very 
pleasing countenance and turned his speech to 
me, willing me not to be discountenanced with 
these proceedings against me, since he was now 
sufficiently persuaded of my honesty, integrity 
and abihties to perform what I had undertaken, 
advising me not to refuse counsel of my fellow 
servants since it was his service, wherein we ought 
to join together for his good and the honour of 
the State ; with many other princely expressions 
of his good opinion of me and readiness, not only 
to give me countenance, but assurance of future 
favour towards me ; and lastly he cleared all 
imputations and aspersions unjustly cast upon 



64 THE BUILDING OF 1609 

the Lord High Admiral, with recital of all his 
honourable services performed to the honour of 
the State and his perpetual fame, commending his 
great wisdom and impartial carriage of himself 
in this day's trial, wherein he was never observed 
to give any impediment to his Majesty's judicial 
proceedings but all furtherance possible, as was 
both evidently manifest to his Majesty by the 
great pains he had endured that day and the 
noble patience he had given public testimony of 
to all present which were eye witnesses of it ; with 
many other gracious speeches to put new life and 
power into him to go on as he had begun to the 
perpetual eternizing his name and honour : then, 
giving general thanks to those that had taken pains 
in that day's business, with protestation of his 
princely care in all matters of such consequence 
for the safety and honour of the State and King- 
dom, he concluded his speech. 

Then the noble Admiral, as his Majesty was 
rising, humbly besought his Majesty to license him 
to speak a few words, as well to declare his own 
innocency concerning these unjust accusations, 
as to clear me in the point both of my sufficiency 
and my care and honesty to perform the service 
entrusted to me, to which his honourable request 
(though it grew now to be late) his Majesty most 
willingly condescended. 

The sum of his Lordship's speech tended to 
admire^ and extol his Majesty's justice, great 
wisdom, and princely care of the good of the com- 
monwealth, in that he had refused no pains (as this 
day's work and honourable assembly could justly 
witness) to provide to rectify and set straight, to 
the wonder and admiration of them all, a work 
of so great a consequence, and of such a kind 
» Marvel at, Lat. admirari. 



x6o9 THE PRINCE ROYAL 65 

of intricacy as his Majesty had never been ac- 
customed to before, and yet so clearly to examine 
and try in so short a space, as if he had only [been] 
bred and accustomed to such elements, with many 
other honourable speeches tending to that purpose. 
His Lordship then laying his hand upon my head, 
standing next unto him upon his right hand, did 
there freely offer to pawn all his lands, his honour, 
and his life, in my behalf for the performance and 
finishing of this royal work ; which being once 
perfected, if his Majesty (by the advice of the best 
experienced artist and seamen of the Kingdom) 
should dislike, he would willingly, with help of 
his, take off from his Majesty's hands at his and 
their proper charge with [out] any damage or loss 
to his Majesty ; and this did his Lordship deliver 
with such bold, assured, confident earnestness as 
gave much content to his Majesty and satisfac- 
tion to the Prince, the Lords, and most part of 
the rest of the standers by. 

To this speech his Majesty replied briefly with 
gracious acknowledgments of his princely accept- 
ance of his Lordship's true, faithful service and zeal 
expressed in that his worthy speech, of which he 
had so great assurance as he confidently protested 
never king could be more happy than himself 
in the service of such an honourable subject ; and 
therefore there was no need why he should any 
ways engage neither himself nor his honour in that 
which his Majesty had, by the course of upright 
justice, before the face of God and the world, 
so apparently cleared ; this said, his Majesty 
rose. 

In passing through the hall, the Lord Admiral 
going before and leading me in his hand, the Lord 
Thomas Howard, then Lord Chamberlain of the 
Household, made a motion to his Majesty to lay a 



66 THE BUILDING OF 1609 

charge upon me that I should not make any 
quarrel against any person or persons that had 
that day given information against me, alleging 
he knew my stomach to be such as, if I were 
not contained by his Majesty's commandment, I 
would call them to account for their doings, where- 
upon blood might ensue. 

His Majesty, giving ear to what his Lordship 
advised, gave him thanks for his worthy counsel ; 
and calling me unto him before the whole company, 
I sitting upon my knees, he gave me an especial 
charge upon my allegiance and life that I should 
not quarrel or challenge any person or persons 
whatsoever that had that day given ^ information 
against Tme, alleging I had honour sufficient to 
have been cleared of all questions and objections 
unjustly laid to my charge by the equity of my 
cause and his justice. 

This speech concluded, his Majesty hastened to 
take his caroche which attended at the gate : the 
noble Lord Admu*al brought me in his hand to 
his Majesty, to kiss his royal hand and take my 
leave. His Majesty gave me his hand to kiss 
with such an expression of his princely favour 
and encouragements to proceed cheerfully in my 
business as did not only infuse new life into me, 
but also gave great comfort and content to all 
the standers by. 

Then I presented myself upon my knee to the 
most noble Prince my then master, who, taking 
me from the ground, did so affectionately express 
his joy for my clearing and the satisfaction his 
father had received that day, that he protested 
he would not only countenance and comfort me 
hereafter but care to provide for me and my 
posterity while he lived. I received the like 
noble courtesy fr^^m nil tlie lords, who declared 



t 



1609 THE PRINCE ROYAL 67 

their joy for the happy success ^ God gave me in 
this great deUverance. 

The great Lord of Northampton, seeing the 
event of this business, and that all things sorted 
out clean contrary to his expectation, railing 
bitterly against his informing instruments, took 
the back way to his coach and would not so much 
as take any leave of his Majesty, but posted away 
with no little expression of great discontentment, 
as did also the rest of his partakers. 

The Lord Admiral attended his Majesty, being 
never better contented in all his life, and returned 
to Whitehall with the company, it being almost 
eight of the clock before they went from Woolwich. 

Sir Robert Mansell, Sir John Trevor, Captain 
Button,^ and the rest of my good friends followed, 
amongst whom was the good old Lady Mansell 
and Mrs. Button, who had taken the pains to 
attend the hearing in an inner 100m all that day. 

This day, as it was a very tedious day unto 
me by reason I was to answer all objections and 
kneel so long together, so was it a day of jubilee 
to me, a day never to be forgotten of me nor mine ; 
wherein my good God shewed me wonderful favour 
and mercy to enable me to endure the frowns of 
the King, and to strengthen my weak abilities to 
withstand the malice of such and so many power- 
ful adversaries by the space of one whole Jong 
summer's day, for his Majesty (albeit he was 
sufficiently persuaded of their malice and my 
integrity) yet till he had cleared all doubts by the 
course of strict examination, and found me in his 
justice guiltless, he would show me no counten- 
ance at all ; but after their malice was (;^scovered, 
and all those heads and points fully answered and 
clearly resolved, his Majesty then both in counten- 
* Result. " Thomas Button. Knighted 1616 ; died 1634. 



68 COMMISSION OF INQUIRY 1609 

ance, words, and all other princely expressions, 
declared his royal disposition towards me. 

The next day, being the 9th of May, I began 
the work again, every man striving to express 
his willingness thereunto by reason of the great 
encouragement ' his Majesty had pubHcly and 
generally given to them ; and within two or three 
days after, the Lord Admiral, Sir Robert Mansell, 
and Sir John Trevor, advising together with me, 
we resolved to move the Lords of the Council to 
have two principal men, which were Master Ship- 
wrights, to be by their order appointed to repair 
twice at least in the week to Woolwich, to survey 
the provisions, and to foresee that no unserviceable 
materials should be wrought upon the ship, which 
we did to clear all suspicions of any ends of our 
own. This accordingly was consented to of the 
Lords, and Mr. Mathew Baker and Henry Reynolds 
were appointed to be the overseers, who for 
fashion's sake some three or four times came to 
Woolwich, but finding our care to be more to 
perform honestly than theirs could be to prevent 
with their best endeavours, they gave over the 
trust recommended to them and left me to myself. 

The 7th of June following, the Red Lion, which 
was newly rebuilt by Mr. Baker at Deptford, was 
launched ; where was present the King's Majesty 
and the Prince, I attending then near the place 
at the great storehouse end, where his Majesty 
had his standing ; he was pleased very graciously 
to confer with me and to use me with extraordi- 
nary expressions of his princely favour. 

The 8th day of June, being the Thursday in 

Whit sun week, his Majesty began to hear the great 

and general cause of the Navy in his Presence 

Chamber at * Greenwich, wherein three whole days 

» MS. ' and/ 



f 



i6o9 ABUSES IN THE NAVY 69 

was spent in several examinations of the truth and 
circumstances of the informations dehvered by 
the Lord Northampton and his agents, against 
Sir Robert Mansell, Sir John Trevor, Captain 
Button, Sir Thomas Bludder, Mr. Legatt,^ myself 
and many others. 

The first day the Lord Northampton made 
the very entrance into the business a great com- 
plaint of the dishonour he reaped by my hearing 
at Woolwich, insisting very maliciously in incens- 
ing his Majesty against me and others, who, as he 
said, traduced him in every tavern and ale bench, 
to his great dishonour; and therefore humbly 
besought his Majesty that business might be again 
called in question, alleging the confidence of the 
informers who were ready to maintain the truth 
of their former informations with their lives. 

His Majesty, taking it ill that my Lord should 
dare to question his just proceedings, which he had 
taken such pains personally to hear [and] deter- 
mine, took him short off with a sharp reprehen- 
sion and willed him no further to insist upon that 
whereof his Majesty and the whole world were so 
sufficiently satisfied ; but if he had aught else to 
say he should proceed with that, and he was there 
ready to hear and to do him all right. Then his 
Lordship began to deliver sundry particular 
bitter accusations against Sir Robert Mansell, Sir 
John Trevor, and the rest, all savouring more of 
malice than of truth, as was apparent by every 
man's answer when they were called to speak for 
themselves. 

On Saturday, being the loth of June and the 

* John Legatt, or Legate, Clerk of the Check at Chatham, 
granted in 1604 the reversion of the Clerkship of the Navy 
after Peter Buck, sen. {Pat. Roll, 1655). He appears, however, 
to have died before Buck, probably in 1615. 



70 ABUSES IN THE NAVY 1609 

last day of hearing, to conclude all, I was called 
the last man to answer a grievous accusation for 
my Spanish voyage made in the Resistance, when 
I attended the Lord Admiral for the conclusion of 
the peace. Captain Norreys being then the principal 
informer, it was laid to my charge I had trans- 
ported and sold to the Spaniards divers tons of 
brass ordnance and other provisions of powder 
and shot, but after it came to the trial all proved 
nothing but ridiculus mus ; ^ his Majesty being 
made privy to all the proceeding in that business 
by the Lord Admiral when he was in Spain, so 
that I was fully cleared of all those scandalous 
and false informations by his Majesty's own mouth, 
to the shame and disgrace of those that were 
the principal actors and prosecutors of it; and 
thus was that great hearing fully concluded at 
Greenwich. 

It must not be forgotten how the Lord in his 
justice "IdidJ revenge my injuries and wrongs even 
upon^all those that were sworn against me ; but 
because in modesty I will spare to nominate 
some, and in what particulars they were after- 
wards in special matters beholding to me, yet I 
must not pass over one remarkable accident that 
happened to one of them in this manner. 

Captain George Waymouth before mentioned, 
being one of the most violent and bitterest 
adversaries that came against me, happened to 
have drawn in a knight of Hampshire to be so 
credulously confident of his special art in building 
of ships, that he trusted him to have the over- 
sight and direction of building a small ship for 
him, which was expected to have been so rare a 

* An allusion to the well-known line of Horace (De Arte 
Poelica, 139) : ' Parturiunt montes, nascetur ridiculus mus ' 
(Mountains are in labour, a silly little mouse will be bom). 



i 



i6o9 CAPTAIN WAYMOUTH 71 

sailer, and every way so well conditioned, as she 
should run beyond the moon ; but in the end, 
when she came to be tried, she proved the veriest 
bauble and drown devil ^ that ever went to sea ; 
and so plainly cozened the knight both of his 
charge and expectation. 

The provisions of cordage, anchors, sails, 
munition, and other furniture were to come from 
London, and Captain Waymouth was trusted both 
to ship them and to convey them to the vessel ; 
and for the better security he resolved to embark 
himself with them, and falling down as low as the 
North Foreland, there mistaking his course (as 
he did in the North-west Passage ^), instead of 

* MS. ' veryest bable and drowne divell.' This has the 
appearance of a seaman's saying, but I have not met it else- 
where. * Bable ' (bauble) is used contemptuously for 'a mere 
toy, applied to a machine, etc., considered too small or weak 
for actual work ' {N.E.D.), as in the following passages : 

' . . . the sea being smooth. 
How many shallow bauble boats dare sail 
Upon her patient breast . . . 
But let the ruffian Boreas once enrage 
The gentle Thetis ... 
. . . Where's then the saucy boat 
Whose weak untimbered sides but even now 
Co-rivall'd greatness ? ' 

Shakespeare, Troilus and Cressida, I, iii. 
* ... his shipping 
Poor ignorant baubles — on our terrible seas 
Like egg-shells mov'd upon their surges, crack'd 
As easily 'gainst our rocks.' 

Shakespeare, Cymheline, III, i. 
The word * bawble ' is also used by Anson in speaking of 
the Try at sloop, which the Spaniards at Juan Fernandez 
could not credit with having rounded Cape Horn. 

* Devil ' seemingly refers to the ' poor devils ' forming the 
crew : it does not appear to refer to the seam in the ship's 
bottom to which that name is sometimes given. 

' Referring to his voyage in 1602. See Introduction. 



72 CAPTAIN WAYMOUTH 1609 

going to Shoreham in Sussex, he went for Flushing ; 
and so, pretending some lame excuse to colour 
his pretence, passed from thence to Antwerp, 
where it is most certain he proffered to sell all 
his commodities and his service also, had he not 
been prevented, albeit he enjoyed a pension ^ of 
ten groats per diem here in England from his 
Majesty under the title of Master Engineer. 

This his juggling was not so privately con- 
veyed but notice and advertisement was given 
and sent to the Lords of the Council, and by their 
Lordships to the Lord High Admiral ; whereupon 
strict order was taken that he should be appre- 
hended as a pirate if he at any time were found 
in England. 

Upon knowledge hereof, he secretly stole over 
and got to London, and there very privately, by 
means of one Mr. Poory,^ a gentleman having 
some near dependence upon the right honourable 
the Earl of Salisbury, then the Lord Treasurer of 
England, his case was made known to his Lord- 
ship to be a means to his Majesty for his pardon. 
His Lordship, very well remembering what part 
he played at my hearing at Woolwich, and what 
particular notice his Majesty and the Prince's 
Highness took of his dishonest and base carriage, 
utterly disclaimed him so much as to hear him 
named ; but being very much importuned by Mr. 
Poory and one, old Keymer,^ he advised his safest 

• Granted October 27, 1607. 

• Apparently John Pory, who, from his letter to Dudley 
Carleton of January 3, 1610 (S.P. Dom., James I, Hi, i), appears 
to have been connected with the Lord Treasurer. This would 
be the traveller and geographer of that name, then M.P. for 
Bridgwater, but settled in London. 

• Probably John Keymer, the author of Observations upon 
the Dutch Fishing. 



i6o9 CAPTAIN WAYMOUTH 73 

course to be to make his way to the Lord Admiral, 
in whose power he was now fallen by piracy, and 
that he had no better or readier way to effect 
this but to repair to me and to confess his former 
injuries and truly to deliver by what means and 
working he was drawn into that business, and so 
to offer me as public satisfaction as he had done 
me public injury, that I might be a mean both 
to the Prince's Highness and to the Lord Ad- 
miral he might, upon this submission, be both par- 
doned and received into favour. This counsel was 
presently followed, and a great supper bespoken 
at the Three Cranes in the Vintry by Mr. Poory and 
Mr. Keymer, to which I was trained by a solemn 
invitation by them both, by a letter sent to me to 
Woolwich that very morning before the supper 
intended. 

We met according to appointment, and, after 
some compliments passed, Poory and Keymer, 
drawing me aside into a private room, there dis- 
covered unto me the cause of their meeting and 
sending for me, which when I throughly under- 
stood I refused either to stay or see Waymouth ; 
but at length won by their importunities, and the 
rather for that they confidently assured me this 
was done by the advice of my most honourable 
good Lord, the Lord Treasurer, I was contented 
to stay supper with them, and Waymouth came 
in and sat at the same table without any speech 
concerning the business. Supper ended, Mr. 
Poory began to break the matter to this effect : 
that Captain Waymouth there present, acknow- 
ledging his error in doing me so great an injury, 
was purposely come in their company to offer me 
what satisfaction I would desire, confessing it 
now lay in my power either to undo him or to 



74 CAPTAIN WAYMOUTH 1609 

recover his lost reputation, and to perform what 
I should enjoin him, in what public manner I 
would require. 

To this I answered that, first, I never had any 
conversation with Waymouth, nor did ever give 
him any cause to be my enemy in so great a height 
as to accuse me before a king in the presence of 
such an audience, wherein no less than my life 
was questioned, aggra[va]ting each circumstance 
of his malicious carriage towards me as well as 
I could then remember. 

To be short. Captain Waymouth, there rising 
from the table, in the presence of all that were 
there, fell on his knee and desired me as I was a 
gentleman to pardon what he had inadvisedly 
done against me ; all the circumstances he would 
truly discover, if I would give him leave to speak ; 
and then, rising from the ground, laid down his 
sword at my feet, there vowing in the presence 
of God and that company, both himself, his life, 
and sword, should be ever at my command and 
service. 

He tncii ireely delivered by whom he was first 
solicited to join in that business against me, which 
was Mr. Baker, Bright, and the rest, for the space 
of two months together ; to whom he made flat 
denial to join in such a malicious practice, and did 
never condescend till they procured him to be sent 
for by a letter from the Lord Northampton to 
come to speak with him, by whose flatteries and 
fair promises he was enticed to be a party with 
them ; and this he offered to make good upon his 
oath whensoever he should be called. 

Upon this his submission, I was contented to 
forgive the injury done to me in my own particular, 
but I could not promise to mediate betwixt him 
and the Prince my master, nor the Lord Admiral. 



i6io LAUNCH AT DEPTFORD 75 

This was accepted upon my promise I would not 
aggravate anything against him, and thus spending 
almost the whole night I took my leave, and so 
took boat and returned that morning to Woolwich ; 
and this was about the i8th of November. 

This meeting was not so private but that his 
Highness and the Lord Admiral had notice of it, 
whereupon the Prince sent for me and commanded 
me to deliver the truth, which I accordingly did 
in each particular. His Highness disliked that I 
did not acquaint him with it, but when I assured 
him of the manner of my training thither, with 
some little check ^ he was satisfied ; and the Lord 
Treasurer did so mediate for him to the good Lord 
Admiral that his pardon was granted, but himself 
from that time after (till his dying day which 
shortly followed) was never received to favour, 
nor good opinion. 

In the beginning of January following, there 
were two new ships, builded at Deptford ^ for the 
East India Merchants, to be launched ; whereat 
his Majesty with the Prince and divers lords 
were present, and feasted with a banquet of sweet- 
meats on board the great ship in the dock, which 
was called the Trade's Increase ^ ; the other was 
called the Peppercorn,* the names being given 
by his Majesty. I did there attend, and received 
gracious public usage from his Majesty, the Prince, 
and the Lords ; but the tide was so bad that the 
great ship could not be launched out of the dock, 
and the smaller, which was built upon the wharf, 
was so ill stroken ^ upon the launching ways that 

» Reproof. « By William Burrell. 

' Of 1 100 tons ; wrecked on her first voyage in 161 3 and 
burnt by the Javanese. 
* Of 250 tons. 
« MS. 'strokes.' The ship is struck (lowered) upon the 



76 FEAST AT ST. JAMES'S 1610 

she could by no means be put off, which did some- 
what discontent his Majesty.^ 

The last day of January, the Prince's Highness 
came to Woolwich, to see in what forwardness the 
ship was in, where I gave him and his followers 
entertainment. 

The 7th day of January, by commandment 
from the Prince's Highness, I attended at the great 
feast made by him at St. James's to the King, 
Queen, Duke of York, Lady Elizabeth, the Lords 
of the Council, and all the Knights that were 
actors at the barriers. ^ The supper was not ended 
till after ten at night, from whence they went to 
the Play, and, that ended, returned again to a set 
banquet in the gallery where the supper was, the 
table being above 120 foot long, and it was 3 of 
the clock in the morning before all was finished. 

The 9th of February, my wife's brother, John 
Nicholls, being a linen draper dwelling in Friday 
Street, died of the sickness. 

The 25th April the Prince's Highness came to 
Woolwich and dined there, with all his train, in 
my dining room. 

The 27th April, my sister Lydia, whom I was 
glad to maintain a long time before, with a poor 

launching ways when the blocks and wedges on which the 
keel is supported are driven out and the weight of the ship 
taken upon the cradle, the bottom of which rests upon, and 
slides along, the launching ways. 

* According to the account of the captain of the Pepper- 
corn (Egerton MS. 2100) this was on 30th December. The 
Peppercorn was launched on ist January, * and the great 
ship the Trade's Increase ... a little removed, but not 
launched. The 2nd day Tuesday the Trade's Increase was half 
her length removed but not launched for the dockhead was too 
narrow for her passage. The 3rd day . . . she was launched.' 

• An account of this tournament is given in Birch, Lije oj 
Henry, Prince 0} Wales, p. 182 et seq. 



i6io ROYAL VISIT TO WOOLWICH 77 

man that was her husband, died at Plumstead, 
and was there buried at my charge. 

The 30th of this month, the Resistance was 
launched out of my brother Simonson's Dock at 
Ratchif, where she was newly repaired. 

The second of May, the Lady Elizabeth with 
her train came to see the great ship at Woolwich, 
and was entertained by my wife, I being then 
at London. 

About the loth of May, this present year, I 
bought Sir John Trevor's third part of the Resist- 
ance, so that I had two third parts of her to 
myself. 

The i8th of June the Prince's Highness came 
to Woolwich, to see the ship, who was now in 
great forwardness and almost ready ; and the next 
day after he came thither again in company of the 
King his father, and a great train attending on 
them, in the afternoon. His Majesty spent almost 
two hours in great content in surveying the ship, 
both within and without, protesting it did not 
repent him to have taken such great pains in 
examination of the business of that work, since 
the fruit thereof yielded him such contentation.^ 
His Majesty then did me the honour to come 
into the house, where my wife had prepared a 
banquet of sweetmeats and such fruits as were 
then to be had, whereof he was pleased to taste 
plentifully and did very graciously accept of his 
homely entertainment, giving me especial com- 
mandment not to launch the ship till his pro- 
gress was ended. 

Between Easter and Michaelmas that the 
ship began to be garnished,^ it is not credible 
what numbers of people continually resorted to 

^ Satisfaction, content. 

* Completed with her ornamental work. 



78 BIRTH OF PETER x6io 

Woolwich of all sorts, both nobles, gentry, citizens, 
and from all parts of the country round about ; 
which was no small charge to me, in giving daily 
entertainment to all comers, which could not be 
possibly avoided in that place at such a time. 

In the beginning of August I was summoned 
to Chatham with my fellow Master Shipwrights, 
there to take a survey of the Navy "according 
to the yearly custom. Sir John Trevor, then 
Surveyor, attended that service personally ; where 
we spent four days in performing that business, 
and so returned to Woolwich. 

The 6th of this month of August, my wife was 
delivered of her fifth son, at Woolwich in my own 
lodgings, between the hours of 6 and 7 of the clock 
in the morning, being Thursday.^ And the i6th 
day of the same month he was baptized in the 
church at Woolwich, upon a Thursday in the 
forenoon. 

The witnesses were my brother Peter and 
brother William Brooke, godfathers, and my wife's 
mother. Mistress Katherine Nicholls, godmother. 

The 22nd of this month, I let out the Resist- 
ance for a voyage into the Straits at the rate of 
100/. per mensem, with 36 men ; Mr. William 
Gibbons appointed the master. 

The 31st day, I rode to Nonsuch,* to the 
Prince, that then was there in hunting, who of 
his nobleness promised to send me a buck to 
Woolwich, because he had then given all away 
that were fallen that day. 

The 9th of September, being Simday, about 
six of the clock in the evening, divers London maids, 
coming to see the ship, brought in their company 

* The 6th August 1610 was a Monday. 

• Near Cheam. This Palace was commenced by Henry 
VIII and pulled down by the Duchess of Cleveland. 



x6io THE PRINCE ROYAL 79 

a little boy of 12 years old, the only child of his 
mother, a widow woman dwelhng in Tower Street, 
who, carelessly going up and down upon the main 
orlop,^ fell down into the hold of the ship and 
was thereby so broken and bruised that he 
died before midnight, being the first mischance 
that did happen in the w^hole time of the ship's 
building. 

About the middle of this month, being ready 
to have the ship stroken down upon her ways, I 
caused 12 of the choice master carpenters of his 
Majesty's Navy to be sent for from Chatham to 
be assistance in her striking and launching ; and 
upon the i8th day, being Tuesday, she was safely 
set upon her ways, and this day Sir Robert Mansell 
cam^ and dined with me in my lodgings. 

The 20th of this month, the French Leaguer ^ 
Ambassador came to Woolwich, to see the ship, 
whom I entertained in the best manner I could ; 
and in the time of his being within, the Prince, my 
royal master, sent me a wonderful fat buck which 
he killed with his own hand. 

Now began we on all sides to make preparation 
for the launching of the ship, and for that purpose 
there was provided a rich standard of taffety,^ 
very fairly gilt with gold, with his Majesty's arms, 
to be placed ^upon the poop, and a very large 
ensign of crimson rich taff ety, with a canton of the 
Prince's crest, to be placed upon the quarter deck, 

* * The Orlopp is no other but the Deck (as we say) the 
lower Deck, the second Deck, so you may as well say the lower 
Orlopp, or the second Orlopp : and indeed it is commonly held 
the proper speech to call them the first Orlopp and the second 
Orlopp : for this word Orlopp seems to be appropriated only 
to these two Decks/ — ^Manwayring, The Seaman's Dictionary. 

2 MS. ' Lyeadger.' The Sieur de la Boderie, then engaged 
in settUng the * League ' or Treaty between the two kingdoms. 

» A silk stuff. 



8o THE LAUNCHING OF 1610 

and all other ornaments were carefully provided 
for, befitting that purpose. There was a standing 
set up in the most convenient place in the Yard for 
his Majesty, the Queen, and their royal children, and 
places fitted for the ladies and Council, all railed 
in and boarded ; all the rooms both in my own lodg- 
ings and at Mr. Lydiard's were ^ prepared and very 
handsomely hanged and furnished with a cloth of 
state, chairs, stools and other necessaries ; nothing 
was omitted that could be imagined any ways 
necessary, both for ease and entertainment. 

Upon Sunday in the afternoon, being the 23rd 
day of September, Sir Robert Mansell, Sir John 
Trevor, and Sir Henry Palmer came to Woolwich 
to see how everything was ordered, and finding 
all things prepared and fitted to their likings, 
about three of the clock they returned all to Dept- 
ford, where they lodged that night at Sir Robert 
Manseirs. This evening, very late, there [came] 
a messenger to me from them, bringing a letter 
which was sent to them from Court, at Theobalds, 
to give me order to be very careful to search the 
ship's hold for fear some treacherous persons 
might have bored some holes, privily, in the ship, 
to sink her after she should be launched ; but my 
care had prevented their fears aforehand, so far 
as possibly could be searched or discerned. 

On Monday morning, assisted by the help of 
my brother Simonson and sundry other my friends, 
we opened the dock gates and made all things ready 
against the tide, but the wind blowing very hard 
at south-west kept out the flood so as it proved a 
very bad tide, little better than a neap, which 
put us afterwards to great trouble^and'hazard. 

The King's Majesty came from Theobalds, 
though he had been very ill at ease with a scouring 
« MS. * withe.' 



i6io THE PRINCE ROYAL 8i 

taken with surfeiting by eating grapes, and landed 
here about eleven of the clock. Prince Henry 
attended him, and most part of the Lords of the 
Council. The Lord Admiral, attended by the 
Principal Officers of the Navy together with 
myself, received him on land out of his barge and 
conducted him to the place provided for him in 
Mr. Lydiard's house ; his dinner was dressed in 
our great kitchen. After dinner came the Queen's 
Majesty, accompanied with the Duke of York, 
Lady Ehzabeth, and divers great lords and ladies 
in her train. The drums and trumpets [were] 
placed on poop and forecastle and the wind instru- 
ments by them, so that nothing was wanting to so 
great a royalty that could be desired. 

When it grew towards high water and all 
things ready, and a great close lighter made fast 
at the ship's stern, and the Queen's Majesty with 
her train placed, the Lord Admiral gave me com- 
mandment to heave taut the crabs ^ and screws,^ 
though I had little hope to launch by reason the 
wind over-blew the tide ; yet the ship started and 
had launched, but that the dock gates pent her in 
so strait that she stuck fast between them, by 
reason the ship was nothing lifted with the tide 
as we expected she should, and the great lighter 
by unadvised counsel being cut off the stern, the 
ship settled so hard upon the ground that there 
was no possibility of launching that tide, besides 
that there was such a multitude of people got into 
the ship that one could scarcely stir by another. 
The noble Prince himself, accompanied with the 
Lord Admiral and other great Lords, were upon 
the poop, where the great standing gilt cup was 
ready filled with wine to name the ship, so soon as 

r » A small capstan, placed on the ground. 

* MS. ' scruses.* Placed at the bow to start the ship, 

a 



82 THE LAUNCHING OF 1610 

she had been on float, according to ancient custom 
and ceremony performed at such times, by drink- 
ing part of the wine, giving the ship her name, 
and heaving the standing cup overboard. 

The King's Majesty was much grieved to be 
frustrate of his expectation, coming on purpose, 
though very ill at ease, to have done me honour, 
but God saw it not so good for me and therefore 
sent this cross upon me both to humble me and 
to make me know that howsoever we purposed, 
he would dispose all things as he pleased ; so that 
about five of the clock his Majesty with the Queen 
and all their train departed away to Greenwich, 
where then the household were removed. Prince 
Henry stayed behind a good while after his Majesty 
was gone, conferring with the Lord Admiral, 
Principal Officers, and myself what was to be 
done ; and, leaving the Lord Admiral to stay here 
to see all things performed that was resolved on, 
he took horse and rode after the King to Green- 
wich, with promise to return back presently after 
midnight. 

So soon as the multitudes were gone and things 
quiet, we went presently in hand to make way with 
the sides of the dock gates, and having great store 
of scavelmen ^ and other labourers, we made all 
things ready before any flood came ; which per- 
formed, every man applied himself to get victuals 
and to take rest. The Lord Admiral sat up all 

» The * scavel ' was a small spade used for digging clay, 
etc., as in forming drains. The scavelmen were dockyard 
labourers whose duty it was to clean and pump out the docks. 
The name, which disappeared after 1844, probably on the 
introduction of steam pumping machinery, was no doubt a 
survival from the time when the ' dock ' was formed of piling, 
wattles, and clay, which was placed round the ship when she 
had been brought to the shore, or across the mouth of the creek 
into which she had been hauled, and which had to be dug 
away in ' opening the dock.' 



i6io THE PRINCE ROYAL 83 

the night in a chair in his chamber, till the tide 
was come about the ship ; and Sir Robert Mansell, 
Sir John Trevor, and Sir Henry Palmer made shift 
in my lodgings to rest themselves. 

The beginning of the night was very fair and 
bright moonshine, the moon being a little past 
full, but after midnight the weather was sore 
overcast, and a very sore gust of rain, thunder 
and lightning, which made me doubt that there 
was some indirect working amongst our enemies 
to dash our launching ; this gust lasted about half 
an hour with great extremity, the wind being at 
south-west. 

In the midst of this great gust, Prince Henry 
and all his [train] were taken upon the top of 
Blackheath in their coming to Woolwich, but his 
invincible spirit, daunted with nothing, made little 
account of it but came through, and was no sooner 
alighted in the yard but, calling for the Lord 
Admiral and myself and Sir Robert Mansell, went 
all presently on board the ship, being about two 
of the clock, almost one hour before high water ; 
and was no sooner entered but, the word being 
given to set all taut, the ship went away without 
any straining of screws or tackles, till she came 
clear afloat into the midst of the channel, to the 
great joy and comfort of the Prince's Highness, 
the Lord Admiral, and all the rest of my noble 
loving friends, which mercy of God to me I pray 
I may never forget. 

His Highness then, standing upon the poop 
with a selected company only, besides the trum- 
pets, with a great deal of expression of princely joy, 
and with the ceremony ^ of drinking in the great 
standing cup, threw all the wine forward towards 
the half deck, and solemnly calling her by the 

* For an account of this ceremony see Fraser, The Londons 
of the British Fleet, p. 68. 



84 COMPLETION OF 1610 

name of the Prince Royal, the trumpets sounding 
all the while, with many gracious words to me, 
gave the standing cup into mine own hands, and 
would not go from the ship till he saw her fast at 
her moorings. In heaving down to the moorings 
we found that all the hawsers that were laid on 
shore for land-fasts were treacherously cut, to put 
the ship to hazard of running on shore, if God had 
not blessed us better. 

In the interim of warping to the moorhigs, his 
Highness went down to the platform of the cook- 
room where the ship's beer stood for the ordinary 
company, and there finding an old can without a 
lid, went and drew it full of beer himself, and drank 
it off to the Lord Admiral, and caused him with 
the rest of his attendants to do the like. 

About nine the same morning, being very 
rainy, he took his barge, accompanied with the 
Lord Admiral and the rest of his train, and, giving 
us a princely gracious farewell, rowed against the 
tide to Greenwich, where he made relation of all 
the business and the circumstances thereof to the 
King his father. 

We then came on shore to refresh ourselves 
with victuals, and to take some rest, having toiled 
all the night before ; and, amongst the rest of the 
company. Sir Henry Palmer was pleased to stay 
dinner, where we drank Prince Henry's health 
round, to hanseP the standing cup given at the 
launching. 

The 8th day of October I began to kill beef at 
Woolwich for the victualling of the Resistance, for 
a voyage into the Straits. 

The 20th of October were discharged most part 
of all the workmen which wrought upon the Prince, 
and were paid at Deptford [the] same day. 
• To inaugurate the use of. (N.E.D.) 



i6io THE PRINCE ROYAL 85 

The 22nd day of this month, the Resistance 
fell down to the wall,^ and the 27th day she came 
down to Woolwich, and there anchored by the 
Prince. 

This day also I shipped away my household 
stuff from Woolwich to Chatham. 

The 29th day, being Monday, I removed from 
Woolwich to Chatham, with my wife, children, and 
my whole family, and the next day I returned 
again to Woolwich, and the next day divers Straits 
ships fell down to Woolwich, and we caused them 
to anchor by the Prince, and to help us with all 
their men to set the Prince's masts. 

The first of November, being Thursday, was 
set the Prince's foremast, and on Saturday, being 
the 3rd day, her boltsprit was set also, all the 
merchantmen's companies helping us. 

The 8th day, being Thursday, the Resistance 
and the rest of the Straits ships set sail for Graves- 
end, and I went down thither in the Resistance, 
and that night went to Chatham, and the next 
day returned to Gravesend and cleared away my 
ship. 

The loth day, being Saturday, betimes in the 
morning the Resistance and the rest of the Straits 
ships set sail from Gravesend, and went over the 
next tide. I went in the Resistance, Captain 
John King went in his own ship, the Mathew, and 
Mr. Jenkins the shipwright went with Mr. Wills 
in the Althea, and Mr. Newport went master in 
the Centaur. We all anchored in the Gore,^ 
and lay ashore at Birchington that night, old 
Thomas Puniett in our company. The next day 

1 Presumably of Deptford Yard, but he may mean Black- 
wall. She had been undocked at Ratcliff. 

» The Gore Channel, running between the Kent coast and 
Margate Hook Sand, west of Birchington. 



86 THE PRINCE ROYAL 1610 

Captain King, Mr. Jenkins, Mr. Puniett,^ and 
myself, came post to Chatham ; they lay at my 
house all night, and the next day I came up to 
Woolwich with them in my company. 

The Prince by this time was wholly rigged and 
made ready to go to Chatham, of which having 
made Prince Henry's Highness acquainted, he 
was pleased to come on board her at Woolwich on 
Thursday, being the 6th December, where he 
stayed some 3 hours, being wonderful desirous to 
[have] had us set sail, if we could possibly have 
done it without danger. Sir Robert Mansell 
that day attended upon the Prince, and was by 
him commanded to go down in her to Chatham 
with us. Captain King was master, thereto being 
appointed by the Prince, old John a Vale was our 
pilot, Mr. John Reynolds the master gunner, and 
LawTence Spencer, boatswain. So soon as it was 
high water, which was about 3 of the clock, his 
Highness went on shore at Woolwich where his 
coach attended ; at his landing we gave him 
eleven pieces of ordnance, which was all we had 
then aboard. 

The 7th day of this month, Sir Robert Mansell 
sent his bedding and provision on board the Prince, 
and necessaries for the journey, and that night 
he came on board and lay there all night ; and the 
next day, being Saturday, the wind being at 
south-west, we made ready to set sail and got our 
anchors on board, but it was a great fog all the 
morning, and at noon it cleared up, but it was so 
little wind that we could scarce bear ahead with 
all our sails and boats, yet we with much ado 

* Thomas ; one of the pilots for the river and Downs. 
The name appears elsewhere as * Poynett,* ' Punnett,' and 
* Poinet.' He signed with a mark ' T.' 



i6io SAILS TO CHATHAM 87 

got as low as Halfway Tree,^ and there, the water 
being much fallen, we anchored all that night. 

The next day, being Sunday the 9th December, 
we set sail about one of the clock, with a fresh 
gale at south-west, and that night anchored at 
the lower end of Gravesend. Monday, the loth 
day, we set sail into Tilbury Hope, and, for that 
we wanted a great anchor and cable. Sir Robert 
thought it fit for us to stay there till we were 
supplied with all wants, for which purpose Sir 
Robert went back to London that night, and I 
went home to Chatham. 

On Friday after, being the 14th day, I returned 
on board the ship into Tilbury Hope, and presently 
after Sir Robert came on board, and having re- 
ceived the supply of our wants, we made ready 
to set sail again the next day. 

Saturday morning, we set sail from Tilbury 
Hope and anchored thwart the Nore, where we 
lay all that night ; Sunday, the i6th day, we 
weighed and anchored within Sheerness ; and on 
Monday we got up as high as St. Mary's Creek ; ^ 
and the next day, being Tuesday and the i8th 
day, we brought the ship safe to her moorings 
within the chain at Upnor, for which we gave 
God thanks. 

So soon as the ship was safe moored. Sir Robert 
Mansell rode away post for London, and I went 
home to my house. On the Wednesday after I 
made a journey to London to wait upon the Prince, 
my master, where I stayed till the Saturday after, 
being the 22nd day, and then returned home to 
Chatham ; and thus ended the year of 1610. 

1 On the Essex shore, half-way between London and 
Gravesend. 

« Now covered by the extension of Chatham Dockyard 
northwards. 






88 VISIT OF PRINCE HENRY i6ii 

Anno 1611. There passed little worth note till 
towards the end of April, this present year ; and 
the 29th day of this month, being on a Monday, 
I was by the Prince's Highness' command sent 
for to come to London, to be at Westminster with 
Sir Robert Mansell that night at supper. The 
message came to me between 2 and 3 [of the] clock 
in the afternoon. I presently caused my horses 
to be taken up and made ready, and presently 
took horse and according to appointment came 
thither by seven that night, where I found Sir 
Robert Mansell and Sir Oliver Cromwell expecting 
my coming. 

The next morning Sir Robert Mansell and 
myself repaired to St. James's, where I received 
from the Prince's own mouth his Highness' intent 
to make a private journey to Chatham, and to 
go down in his barges round about by Queen- 
borough ; giving me strait charge I should 
acquaint none w4th it, but make preparation 
for his lodging and diet and his small train in 
Chatham, Mr. Legatt's house being appointed 
the place to receive his own person. So, being 
taught my lesson, I returned to Chatham, taking 
present order for the preparing of all things for 
his entertainment. 

There was a small merchantman bound for the 
East Country, which was purposely sent down into 
Tilbury Hope, to ride there, to refresh his High- 
ness on board her and to relieve the watermen ; to 
which purpose she was quaintly fitted with all 
things, and a great breakfast prepared for that 
purpose, Sir WilHam St. John^ having the charge 

* A Captain of the Navy, commended by Nottingham to 
Ssdisbury in 1609 for having taken Harris, the pirate, on the 
Irish coast and done good service off the West Islands of 
Scotland {Col. S.P.D., July 3, 1609). 



i6ii TO CHATHAM 89 

of seeing it performed, being as Captain of the 
ship for present.^ 

The 5th of May, being Sunday, after dinner I 
took horse to Gravesend, where met me Captain 
King, who had part of that merchant ship and 
was commanded to attend, and we lay all night 
at Gravesend. 

On Monday morning, being the 6th of May, the 
Prince's Highness took his barges at Whitehall by 
5 of the clock. He was accompanied with the 
Earls of Shrewsbury, Arundel, and Earl of Mar, 
Sir Thomas Chaloner, Sir Oliver Cromwell, Sir 
Robert Mansell, and some others of his household 
servants. About 9 of the clock his Highness came 
on board, where we were ready to receive him 
after the sea manner, with trumpets and drums, 
and after he had refreshed himself, the Lords 
broke fast, and the watermen relieved with fresh 
spells, we went on against the tide till we came 
within Queenborough water, and it was ebbed 
before we could get as high as Upnor ; and so, 
passing along by all the ships, his Highness was 
landed at the old dock at Chatham a little be- 
fore 6 at night, and thence walked on foot to 
Mr. Legates house, where his supper was ready 
prepared for him and his train, to his great 
content. 

The Earl of Arundel was lodged at a boat- 
swain's house next Mr. Legatt's, the Earl of 
Shrewsbury and Earl of Mar were lodged at my 
house, the other train in other convenient places. 

Tuesday morning betimes, according to his 
Highness' directions overnight, barges and boats 
were ready prepared to attend his Highness ; who 
had broke fast and was ready by seven of the 
clock, and took his barge and went first on board 

^ For the time being. 



go PRINCE HENRY AT CHATHAM 1611 

the Prince, and so from ship to ship of the lower 
reach, taking particular private information from 
Sir Robert Mansell and myself (none else suffered 
to come near) of the state and condition of each 
several ship in his own table book. This done, 
landed and went to dinner, where he was very 
merry and pleasant ; we having placed 15 great 
brass chambers in the garden to be fired when his 
Highness drunk any healths, and were attended 
by Mr. John Reynolds, master gunner of his own 
ship, who carefully performed his charge. 

Dinner done, his Highness proceeded again 
in viewing all the ships and pinnaces in the upper 
reach, not leaving out any one which he was not 
on board of, taking ^ the same course with them as 
was done with the other in the forenoon, by which 
time the day was far spent, and his Highness 
returned to his lodging, supper being ready against 
his coming. 

Wednesday, after his Highness had broke fast, 
he took his barges and went up to Strood by water, 
all the ships of both reaches giving him a royal 
farewell with their ordnance, which he com- 
manded to be shot, even over his barge, not- 
withstanding all the persuasion to the contrary." 
He was landed at Strood, where his coaches 
attended him, and thence went to Gravesend, 
whither I also waited on him, and there his High- 
ness was received by the magistrates of the town 
with all their small shot and the ordnance of the 
blockhouses : at his putting in his barge he was 
pleased to grace me with kissing his hand, express- 
ing how well he was pleased with his journey 

> MS. ' taken.' 

* It was customary at that period to fire salutes with 
shotted [guns, and accidents from the shot were not 
infrequent. 



i6ii ARABELLA STUART 91 

and entertainment ; thence I returned home to 
Chatham. 

The 4th of June, being Tuesday, being prepared 
to have gone to London the next day, about mid- 
night one of the King's messengers was sent down 
to me from the Lord Treasurer to man the Hght 
horseman^ with 20 musketeers and to run out as 
low as the Nore head to search all ships, barks, 
and other vessels, for the Lady Arabella ^ that 
had then made a scape and was bound over for 
France ; which service I performed accordingly, 
and searched Queenborough, and all other vessels 
I could meet withal, and then went over to Leigh ^ 
in Essex and searched the town ; and when we 
could hear no news of her went to Gravesend, and 
thence took post horse to Greenwich, where his 
Majesty then lay, and delivered the account of 
my journey to the Lord Treasurer by his Majesty's 
conunand ; and so was dismissed, and went that 
night to Ratcliff, where I lay at Captain King's. 

The loth of June, being at London, I had news of 
the arrival of the Resistance from the Straits, where- 
upon I went presently for Chatham, and the next 
morning returned to Gravesend and shipped myself 
in a ketch, and was before night set on board the 
Resistance in Gore End road, where were other 
ships that came thither in company, and amongst 
the rest one of the East India ships newly come, 
of whom one David Middleton * was captain. I 
stayed in the Gore till the 17th day, at which 

* A light ship's boat or gig. 

* Arabella Stuart. Placed in custody after her marriage 
to William Seymour. She escaped dressed as a man, but 
was captured in the Straits of Dover and committed to the 
Tower. 

3 MS. ' Lee.' 

* Younger brother of Sir Henry Middleton. This was the 
return from his voyage in the Expedition, 



92 SURVEY OF THE NAVY 1611 

time we were purposed to have weighed and come 
over, but there rose such a storm at west, and so 
over-blew, that divers ships venturing were cast 
away, and they that scaped best lost their masts 
and ground tackle, but God blessed us that we did 
not lose the ship at all. I then, having earnest 
business to be at Chatham, was set on shore at 
Margate, from whence I took post horse and came 
safely that night to Chatham, giving God thanks 
for his merciful deliverance. 

About this time Sir John Trevor, having sold 
his place of Surveyor of the Navy to one Captain 
Richard Bingley,^ was come down to Chatham to 
surrender his place unto him at the pay then made ; 
and thereupon there was by the new Surveyor's 
means a strict survey made of the whole Nav^^ 
wherein I denied to join before I knew the Prince's 
pleasure, but was afterwards persuaded to yield 
unto it by Sir John Trevor's importunity ; whereby 
I incurred great blame and a sharp check from 
the Prince's Highness, which I had much ado to 
pacify by the help of the best friends I had about 
him, being sent for on purpose to Richmond to 
give his Highness satisfaction therein. 

About the 8th day of July I paid the company 
of the Resistance for their voyage, and presently 
graved her for another, and at the same time I 
was sent for by the Lord Admiral of England, to 
Hampton Court, to give an account about the 
proceedings of the survey, made a little before 
at Chatham, of the state of the Navy ; and 
then I was also sent for to attend the Prince 
at Richmond, to give his Highness satisfaction 
concerning the proceedings therein, which he 
took as an affront, because I had not made his 

* The grant of this post to Bingley was dated 7th May. 
He was knighted on loth November. 



i6ii THE RESISTANCE 93 

Grace acquainted with it, being hindered by Sir 
Richard Bingley. 

The 17th day of this month,^ being Saturday, 
having fitted the Resistance in all points for her 
voyage into the Straits, she set sail to Blackwall, 
and the next morning came to Gravesend, where 
I left her and went to Chatham ; 8.nd next day, 
being Monday morning, I brought my wife to 
Gravesend with me, where we lay that night, 
and having cleared the ship from thence, saw 
her set sail on Tuesday morning betimes, and 
then returned home to Chatham. 

In the end of this month I caused the little 
Disdain, Prince Henry's pinnace, to be rigged and 
fitted for me to take the air of the sea to the 
river's mouth. 

The 3rd of September, being Tuesday, I set 
sail with the Disdain betimes in the morning from 
Upnor, having the ship manned with divers of my 
friends in the Navy, which voluntary went with 
me, as David Duck, Nicholas Surtis, Robert 
Sharpe, cousin ^ Peter Pett, and others, whom I 
royally victualled, and put out of Queenborough, 
and with the next flood, the wind westerly, we 
turned up as high as Hole Haven, ^ where we 
anchored all night ; next morning I turned up to 
Gravesend, where we anchored in expectance of 
the company of my friend Captain John King, 
who was to come from London to meet me there 
upon his faithful promise, but he failing, I with 
my company dined on shore at Gravesend, and in 
the afternoon set sail into Tilbury Hope where we 
anchored all night. 

The next morning, being Thursday and the 
5th day, we weighed betimes in the morning with 

* August : the month is noted in the margin. 
» Nephew. ^ \y^^ Qf Canvey Island. 



94 THE DISDAIN 1611 

a fair gale of wind at west and went down as low 
as the buoy of the Oase edge, where we anchored 
till the flood, before which time the wind harted ^ 
in and blew a very fresh gale, and before a quarter 
flood it blew so much wind as we could not main- 
tain our topsails abroad, and the sea was so high 
grown that our little ship would not work, so that 
we had much ado to get up as high as thwart of 
Minster Church upon the Island of Sheppey,^ 
where, close under the edge of the Cant, we came 
to an anchor in shoal water; by which time it blew 
up a very great storm, the wind at west-south-west, 
and there we were forced to ride it out till the next 
day at half flood, not without some danger ; and 
then the wind beginning to duller ^ we weighed 
and got up under Sheerness,* where we anchored 
all night, and the next day, being Saturday and 
the 7th day, we brought our ship safe to Gil- 
lingham, giving God thanks for our safety and 
deliverance. 

About the middle of December, the Honour ^ 
and Defiance being appointed to be brought into 
dry dock at Woolwich, the Honour to be repaired 
by Mr. Baker, who first built her, and the Defiance 
com^mended to me, we began to prepare the dock 
for the receiving of them in after Christmas ; and 
so ended this year of 161 1. 

The 6th day of January I went from Chatham 
to Woolwich to dock the Honour and the Defiance. 

» This word is not in the N.E.D. ; it is probably derived from 

* heart ' or * hearten/ to acquire more energy. See also note 
on p. 106. 

« MS. * Shepeway.* 

» This word is not in the N.E.D. , but it evidently means 'to 
become more dull or calm.' It is used as a transitive verb 
by Mainwaring in the Seaman's Dictionary, s.v. ' Blowe * : — 

* the heat of the land, which should duller the wind.' 

• Sheirenasse. • Merhonour. 



i6i2 THE NORTH-WEST PASSAGE 95 

On the gth day we opened the gates and brought 
in the Defiance ; the next day proved so much 
wind as we could not stir the Honour from her 
moorings, so that she was not docked till the night 
tide ; the nth day the gates were shut in and 
caulked. About the middle of this month, Prince 
Henry lying at Greenwich, all the King's Master 
Shipwrights were commanded by his Highness 
to attend him about a resolution of building ships 
in Ireland, and a proposition was made by Mr. 
William Burrell to undertake to build one of six 
hundred tons in the room of the old Bonaventure, 
at a rate,^ to build her in Ireland, myself being 
appointed to have gone over thither to see him 
to perform his bargain ; and every Master Ship- 
wright brought in plats,^ to the end his Highness 
might make the better choice for what propor- 
tions and kinds of moulds ^ he did best approve of 
for fitness of service. 

About this time also I did accompany Captain 
Thomas Button to make choice of a ship * for the 
North-west Passage, in which journey he was to 
be employed by the appointment of the Prince. 
Towards the end of this month I attended at 
Deptford to the docking of the Dreadnought. 

About the 6th of March, the Resistance re- 
turned home of her voyage, and the 23rd of the 
same I paid all her company. 

The 14th day of April, being Easter Tuesday, 
I came to Gravesend to meet Captain Button, 

* For an inclusive sum. * Plans, draughts. 

= I.e. the curves of the timbers which were to form the 
frame. Each complete * mould ' would give a transverse 
section of the ship. 

* Button sailed as ' Admiral ' of this expedition in the 
Resolution, which was lost in the voyage. He was accom- 
panied by the Discovery in which Waymouth and Hudson 
had made earlier voyages to the same parts. 



96 THE RESISTANCE SOLD 1612 

who was then going away upon his voyage, and 
we parted together ^ on board his ship, from whence 
I returned to Chatham. 

About the middle of June, by the command- 
ment of Prince Henry, I began to make ready a 
frame for a small new ship, who was to be as a 
pinnace to the great ship, the Prince, in which the 
Prince's Highness did purpose to solace himself 
sometimes into the Narrow Seas ; and therefore 
she was appointed to be fitted with a very roomy 
cabin and all other accommodations for that pur- 
pose ; the keel of which ship was laid in the 
launching place at the old dock at Chatham the 
last day of June, being in length 72 foot, in breadth 
24 foot, and to draw 11 foot water, of the burden 
250 tons and tonnage, ^ or thereabouts. 

Much about the loth July, I sold the good 
ship called the Resistance to one Mr. Henry Main- 
waring,' brother to Sir Arthur Mainwaring, for 
700 and odd pounds, whereof I received 450/. 
down and gave time for the payment of the rest, 
having Sir Arthur Mainwaring bound for the 
payment of the same, which was not performed 
in more than two years after. The cause that I 
sold this lucky ship was for that Mr. William 

1 This use of ' together ' in the sense of mutually, from 
each other, is not illustrated in the N.E.D., but it is evi- 
dently cognate to its use in the expressions ' love together,' 
' see together ' ( = meet) of which examples are given. 

■ The burden in * tons ' represents the net wine-carrying 
capacity of the ship in Bordeaux casks. The ' tonnage ' 
was an additional allowance equal to one-third of this ; the 
* ton and tonnage ' representing the gross burden (see 
Oppenheim, Administration, pp. 30, 132, 266). 

» The pirate ; subsequently a naval officer ; author of the 
Discourse of the Beginnings, Practices, and Suppression oj 
Pirates, and of The Seaman's Dictionary ; knighted 1618. 
MS. ' Manwaring ' ; other spellings of the name are Maynwar- 
ing, Manwayring, Maynnaring, Mannering. 



i6i2 VISIT TO PRINCE HENRY 97 

Gibbons,^ that was my master in her, was by my 
consent licensed to go with Captain Button (being 
his near kinsman) to the North-west Passage. 

The 1st of August, being Saturday, the Prince's 
Highness being to take his progress from Rich- 
mond, I rode from Chatham to Richmond, accom- 
panied with Captain John King and Mr. John 
Reynolds, then master gunner of the Prince. The 
next day, being Sunday, I waited on his Highness to 
chapel and at dinner ; he had this day a great deal 
of private conference with me concerning affairs 
of consequence. After his Highness was risen from 
dinner and had talked with me awhile at the bay 
window of the presence,^ he was pleased to license 
me to depart to dinner, which was prepared for 
me and my company by Mr. Alexander, the 
principal gentleman usher, at Mr. Wilson's house, 
then his Highness' tailor ; from whence I was three 
times sent for by his Highness in dinner time, to 
attend him to give him satisfaction about sundry 
material questions wherein he desired to be satis- 
fied ; which done, he sent me to dinner, command- 
ing me after I had dined to wait upon him again. 
Between two and three of the clock, I attended 
according to his Highness' commandment, at what 
time he was pleased to deliver his pleasure to the 
full unto me, with protestation of the trust he 
reposed in me and the good opinion of my per- 
formance of what he was pleased to commend to 
my charge, with many princely passages of his 

* Gibbons, who was Button's cousin, went in the Resolution 
as a volunteer. In 1614 he went out again in the Discovery 
in command, but this voyage proved a complete failure. 
Button had a very high opinion of him, and so, apparently, 
had Pett. For an account of the voyages, see Rundall, 
Narratives of Early Voyages (Hakluyt Soc), and Christy, 
Voyages of Foxe and James to the North-west (Hakluyt Soc). 
» Presence-chamber, 



98 VISIT OF PRINCE'S SUITE 1612 

gracious favour and intendiments to provide for 
me. In conclusion, upon my parting, with a most 
princely loving gravity, he gave me a farewell in 
these words ' Go on cheerfully ' saith he * in that 
which I entrust you with, and let not the care for 
your posterity incumber you any ways, for you 
shall leave the care both of yourself and them to 
me, who have a purpose carefully to provide for 
you ' ; which gracious speeches took such impres- 
sion in me, that when I came to kiss his Highness' 
hands at parting I could not choose but shed some 
tears, though I little thought (as God knoweth) 
that had been the last time I should have seen 
him alive, and those the last words that ever he 
spake unto me. This night we took our leaves 
at Richmond and came to Greenwich, and lodged 
that night with Mr. Reynolds. 

At the time of our being at Richmond, it was 
concluded by Mr. Alexander and some others of 
the Prince's servants (not without his Highness' 
knowledge) to come to Chatham with their wives 
to be merry, and it was agreed also that we would 
fetch them to Chatham by water in our pinnaces, 
to go round about by water ; which accordingly 
was by us performed, and upon the 12th day of 
this month we embarked them at Greenwich, about 
five of the clock in the morning, to the number of 
some twenty persons, men and women, being pro- 
vided of all manner of victuals and store of wine 
for our passage, and by 6 at night we arrived at 
Chatham, where they were that night entertained 
at supper and lodged with me, as many as we could 
receive; the rest were billeted with Mr. Legatt 
and other neighbours ; they were entertained by 
none but the Prince's servants. The first day I 
feasted all the company ; the second day they were 
feasted with great royalty on board the great ship, 



x6i2 COMPANY OF SHIPWRIGHTS 99 

the Prince, dinner and supper, accompanied with 
the Principal Officers of his Majesty *s Navy, where 
the King's, Queen's, and all their children's healths 
were drunk round with loud report of the ordnance, 
a noise of music attending us all the day. We took 
leave on board about ten of the clock at night, our 
music playing before us, and for our farewell there 
were 25 pieces of great ordnance discharged after 
the watch was set. On the Saturday, being the 
15th day, all the company were feasted, dinner 
and supper, at Mr. John Legatt's. On the Sunday 
we were all invited to Rochester by Doctor Mil- 
bourne, one of his Highness' chaplains, and then 
Dean of Rochester, who bestowed upon us a 
sermon, himself preaching ; with him we dined 
and supped, and then returned to Chatham. 

Monday proved so foul and rainy that the 
company could not take their journey towards 
London as was purposed ; they all dined with me 
and supped at Captain King's. 

The next proved very fair, so that after break- 
fast some in coaches, and some on horseback, 
rode for Gravesend, accompanied with Mr. Legatt, 
Captain King, and myself ; where we saw them 
shipped in a barge, and then took our leaves, 
bidding them farewell with some ordnance from 
both blockhouses. 

The 25th day of September, the new charter ^ 
for incorporating the shipwrights of England, 
granted by King James, in which by the same 
charter I was ordained the first Master. I was 
sworn in my place of Mr. Master, the dinner being 
kept at the King's Head in Fish Street, Mr. Doctor 
Pay 2 making the sermon at the next church 
adjoining. 

About this time my picture was begun to be 

1 See Introduction. ^ Perhaps Nicholas Pey 



xoo PRINCE HENRTS DEATH 1612 

drawn by a Dutchman working then with Mr. 
Rock^ at Rochester. 

The 15th day of October, my eldest and first 
daughter Ann was born at my house [at] Chatham 
between one and two of the clock in the afternoon, 
and at that time I had a little fit of sickness which 
made me keep house 9 or 10 days. 

The 25th day of this month the noble Prince 
my master, the hope of Christendom, sickened. 

The 26th of this month my daughter was 
baptized in the forenoon at Chatham Church, 
where Mr. Doctor Milbourne, then Dean of Roches- 
ter, preached ; where a great company of my 
friends dined with me and were very merry, little 
thinking of the calamity that so soon followed to 
us all in general, but to myself in particular, by 
the death of that ever renowned branch. Prince 
Henry, my royal and most indulgent master ; at 
which time began my ensuing misfortune and the 
utter downfall of all my former hopes, to the ruin 
of all my poor posterity, being now exposed to the 
malicious practices of my old enemies, having 
nothing but the mercies of my good God to trust 
unto and to comfort me withal. 

The 6th day of November, I being the same 
day come up to London, in the afternoon I came 
to St. James about four of the clock, where I found 
a house turned to the very map ^ of true sorrow, 
every man with the character of grief written in 
his dejected countenance, all places flowing with 
tears and bitter lamentations ; and about 6 of 
the clock the same evening, the most renowned 
Prince of the world, our royal and most loving 
master, departed this life, not only to the loss and 
utter undoing of his poor servants, but the general 
loss of all Christendom of the protest ant religion. 
» Thomas ; ship-painter. * Picture, image. 



i6i2 AND FUNERAL loi 

The beginning of December, I had warning to 
attend at St. James upon the preparation for the 
funeral of our master, and had black cloth delivered 
to me according to the place I was ranked in 
above stairs, which was a gentleman of the Privy 
Chamber extraordinary ; and the 6th day after, 
being Sunday, all his Highness' servants waited 
at St. James upon his hearse, then standing in the 
Chapel, to whom Doctor Price, then one of his 
Highness' chaplains, directed an excellent sermon, 
his text being taken out of the 3rd chapter of the 
second book of Samuel, the 31st verse, in these 
words: — 'Rend your clothes, put on sackcloth, 
and mourn before Abner.' There were very 
few present at the sermon that did not bitterly 
mourn and shed tears in abundance. 

The next day, being Monday the 7th December, 
we did attend his Highness' corpse to the funeral 
in the Abbey at Westminster, which was the most 
lamentable march that ever I went. It was three 
of the clock in the afternoon before his body was 
placed under the hearse. The Lord of Canter- 
bury's Grace preached the funeral sermon : there, 
with his body, I burying all my hopes of my 
future preferments. I came with an exceeding 
heavy heart that night to Ratcliff, where that 
time I lodged. 

After the ceremonies of the funeral were per- 
formed, I returned to my house at Chatham, where 
I stayed till the 27th day of this month, and then, 
being sent for by the Lord High Admiral's messen- 
ger to attend his pleasure, I rode to London by 
land, where I stayed till the end of December, and 
then returned again to my house at Chatham. 

The 6th day of January I received a letter 
from the Lord High Admiral, together with the 
list of those ships that were appointed to be made 



102 SHAM SEA FIGHT 1613 

ready for the transportation of the Lacly Eliza- 
beth/ with warrant to put them presently in 
hand to be graved and fitted accordingly. 

The nth day I was sent for from Chatham by 
a messenger, to attend the Lord Admiral, lying 
then at Chelsea ; which accordingly I presently 
performed and rode to London, where I stayed 
full three days, the Lord Admiral sitting every 
of those in council, attended by the Principal 
Officers of the Navy, the Masters and Master Ship- 
wrights, to resolve not only for the preparation of 
the fleet to attend the transportation, but also for 
preparing man}^ vessels, to be built upon long 
boats and barges, for ships and galleys for a sea- 
fight to be presented before Whitehall against 
the marriage of the Lady Elizabeth ; the manner 
whereof concluded and ordered in writing, I was 
licensed to go to Chatham, to take order for the 
Disdain and sending up of as many long boats and 
sea barges as could be spared from the Navy ; 
which having ordered, I returned again presently 
to London, and did there attend daily in overseeing 
these businesses, which were put out by the great ^ 
to divers yardkeepers,^ by reason of the shortness 
of time limited for making them ready against 
the marriage. By reason of this my continual 
attendance, not only upon that service but also 
upon the Admiral and Sir Robert Mansell (princi- 
pally entrusted for the ordering of the whole 
service), I first took a lodging at Westminster, near 
Sir Robert's house, in St. Stephen's Alley,* which 

> Daughter of the King, married to Frederick, Elector 
Palatine, subsequently King of Bohemia. Prince Rupert 
was her third son. 

» By contract. " Shipbuilders. 

* St. Stephen's Alley occupied a site near the position 
of the present Parliament Street, where Charles Street runs 
into it. 



i6i3 LADY ELIZABETH MARRIED 103 

I continued many years after. Amongst other 
vessels fitted for this piece of service was an old 
pinnace of the King's called the Spy, of the burden 
of 60 tons, having 9 pieces of brass ordnance, 
appointed to serve as an Argosy, whereof I was 
(somewhat against my will, by the Lord Admiral's 
persuasion) made to serve as a Captain, in which 
jesting business I ran more danger than if it had 
been a sea service in good earnest. 

After the sea fight was performed, I was en- 
treated by divers gentlemen of the Inns of Court, 
whereof Sir Francis Bacon was chief, to attend the 
bringing of a mask by water in the night from St. 
Mary Overy's ^ to Whitehall in some of the galleys, 
but, the tide falling out very contrary, and the 
company attending the maskers very unruly, the 
project could not be performed so exactly as was 
purposed and expected, but yet they were safely 
landed at the Privy Stairs at Whitehall ; for which 
my pains the gentlemen gave me a fair recompense. 

The marriage consummate and these royalties 
ended, the Lord Admiral gave me a present 
despatch to po^ c to Chatham, to make all possible 
haste for to make ready the fleet, the Prince being 
appointed to go Admiral, ^ and to transport the 
Lady and the Palsgrave's ^ person and the Lord 
Admiral to command her. So that upon the 21st 
day of February I took my journey from London 
to Chatham, and about the middle of the week 
ensuing I caused the Anne Royal and the Lion to 
be brought on the ground and graved. 

On the 27th of this month I launched the small 

» The wharf of that name at Southwark. It lay north- 
west of the present cathedral (St. Saviour's) which had been 
the church of the Priory of St. Mary Overy. 

2 I.e. the Prince Royal to be flagship of the fleet. 

» The Elector Palatine. 



104 TRANSPORTATION OF THE 1613 

ship I had begun to build the summer before, which 
the Lord Admiral was pleased to call by the name 
of the Phoenix, and was also appointed to be one of 
[the] Fleet for the transportation, being commanded 
by Sir Allen Apsley, then Victualler of the Navy. 

The 5th and 6th days of March I careened the 
Prince, and might with much ease have brought 
her keel above the water but that I received a 
strict commandment from the Lord High Admiral 
that I should not careen her but within six strakes ^ 
of the keel, to which purpose Mr. Thomas Ayles- 
bury,^ then his Lordship's secretary, was sent 
down to see me perform it. 

About the 14th of this month the Lord Admiral, 
very careful to have all things ordered as befitted 
the royalty of such a service, came down to Chat- 
ham in person, where he stayed two days to direct 
all things according to his liking ; wherein I gave 
his Lordship much satisfaction, and by the end of 
this month I had by my care and diligence fitted 
the whole Fleet to set sail to Gillingham. 

The 1st of April, being Maundy Thursday, the 
Prince set sail over the chain, ^ Captain John King 
being master. The Lord Admiral, being newly 
come to Chatham, came on board of us as we were 
under sail and went down in her to Gillingham, 

* ' A strake is the term for a seam betwixt two planks (as 
the . . . ship heels a strake, that is one seam),' Mainwaring 
(1623). According to Blanckley (1750) the term was applied 
to ' the uniform ranges of planks on the bottom, decks and 
sides of the ships.' The ship was not to be heeled over 
further than would bring the sixth seam, or edge of the sixth 
plank, above water. 

• MS. ' Alsbrey.' Mathematician ; appointed one of the 
Commissioners of Inquiry in 1626 ; Master of the Mint and 
created baronet in 1627 ; appointed Surveyor of the Navy in 
1628. 

■ At Upnor. 



i6i3 PALSGRAVE AND ELIZABETH 105 

coming to an anchor at St. Mary Creek's mouth. 
His Lordship lay at Mr. Legates. 

On Easter day, being the 4th of April, the Lord 
Admiral with his retinue received the holy sacra- 
ment in the parish church at Chatham. Doctor 
Pay that was chaplain to the Lord William 
Howard, Baron of Effingham and Vice Admiral 
in the Anne Royal, preached and delivered the 
sacrament. 

On Easter Tuesday in the afternoon the Lord 
Admiral with all his retinue removed from Chat- 
ham, and came on board their several charges at 
St. Mary Creek at Gillingham, and lay on board 
in his own cabin this night. So soon as prayers 
were done this evening and the tables covered, 
the Lord Admiral, out of his noble favour to me, 
called me unto him and there gave me special 
charge to take my place at his own table all the 
voyage ; and would not commonly have grace said 
before his Lordship had seen me set down, except 
I had been upon some earnest business, giving 
charge also to all his officers to let me have any 
thing of his own provisions which I should send 
for at any time. I lay in a settle bed on one side 
of the master's cabin. 

Wednesday being the 7th day, at quarter flood, 
being about eleven of the clock, we set sail from 
Gillingham, the wind at south-west, a pretty fresh 
gale : the ship wrought exceedingly well and was 
so yare ^ of conduct, as a foot of the helm did steer 
her : we came to an anchor at Queenborough a 
great while before high water, where we rode 
all that night. 

The next day, being Thursday, the wind south- 
west and a very fair gale, the Admiral had given 
order we should weigh betimes to get out, and 
* Nimble, quick, ready. 



io6 THE PRINCE ROYAL 1613 

accordingly the Anne Royal, being Vice Admiral, 
in whom Hugh Meritt served Master, was fitted 
and prepared for the purpose, having one anchor 
on board by the time the ship was went up upon 
the flood, and was ready with his other anchor 
on peak,^ supposing we had been so provident to 
have our ship in the like readiness ; but our master, 
willing to do his countryman a courtesy, that lay 
by our side in a hoy with forty tons of beer of our 
provision to take in, neglected the time so long, 
being not accustomed to command such great 
ships, that it was more than half flood before we 
could get our anchor on board ; by reason whereof, 
the tide running very strong and the wind harten- 
ing 2 in, it was almost high water before we were 
fitted to set sail and our other anchor got up. The 
wind then having power on our weather quarter, 
and the tide upon the lee bow, kept our ship from 
flatting ; ^ and in the setting of our sails, many 
seamen being with us that were prime commanders 
and captains, attending the Lord Admiral as his 
retinue, had every one their voice in commanding 
and countermanding one another, that they bred 
a mere * confusion and put the master clean 
besides almost his senses ; so that in fine the ship 
was put on ground at the top of high water, upon 
the tongue of the spit of the sand going into 
Queenborough, where, do what we could with all 
our wits and endeavours, she sat all the tide of 
ebb and almost ebbed dry ; which unfortunate 
accident gave not only great discouragement to 
the Lord Admiral, to have such a chance befall 

1 MS. * pike' The anchor is a-peak when the cable is 
heaved in so far as to bring the hawse of the ship right over 
the anchor, the cable being then perpendicular. 

' On p. 94 the wind is spoken of as having ' harted. ' 

» Going round ; turning head from wind. « Complete. 



i6i3 PUT A-GROUND 107 

him, but also gave great advantage to the enemies 
of the ship, of whom the Lord Northampton was 
chief, to persuade the Lady EHzabeth not to 
venture her person in such a vessel that had so ill 
a beginning, but rather to embark herself in some 
other and to return her ^ home. 

When we saw we were so fast as there was not 
hope of getting the ship off that tide, I desired 
liberty to sound the place where she sat, which 
the Lord Admiral easily gave his consent to do. 
I then calling into the boat with me some of the 
captains that were masters and mariners, amongst 
which I chose Captain Robert Bradshaw and 
Captain Geare for two principal, with others, 
and John Reynolds, then Master Gunner of the 
ship, taking lead lines with us, we sounded both on 
head, stern, and sides ; and finding soft ground and 
little difference in depth, we were satisfied that 
the ship could take no hurt if she had strength 
sufficient to bear herself with so massy a weight 
as she had in her of ordnance, victuals, and other 
things in hold, and her masts and sails above 
head, with so much company, both of the mariners 
belonging to the ship and the Lord Admiral's 
retinue, being not so few in all as 800 persons ; 
but God be thanked, the ship took no harm at all ; 
and we, having sounded the depth of the same 
furrow she made in running on shore, we caused 
an anchor to be laid right a-stern as her dock ^ 
directed us, and so with little difficulty she was 
heaved afloat into the channel in the morning 
tide, to the great satisfaction and content of ^ the 
Lord Admiral and general joy of the whole com- 
pany, for which we gave God thanks. 

* I.e. the ship. 

2 The ' furrow ' or depression in the ground made by the 
ship's bottom. » MS. ' to.' 



io8 TRANSPORTATION OF THE 1613 

The next days, being Friday and Saturday, 
we lay still to prytly ^ the ship and take in such 
provisions as were wanting. 

The nth day, being Sunday, we weighed and 
set sail, and anchored for that night at The Spits ^ ; 
next day we weighed and anchored short of the 
Long Sand head^ ; next day we weighed and 
anchored middle of the Channel * ; next day 
anchored short of the North Foreland. 

The 15th day, being Thursday, we came to an 
anchor in Margate Road. 

The next day the Lord Admiral went on shore 
to Margate, where he lay 3 days at the house of 
Mr. Roger Morice, one of the 4 Masters of His 
Majesty's Navy, and then returned on board. 

The 2ist day, being Wednesday, [the] Lady 
Elizabeth's Grace [and] the Palsgrave, with all 
their train, came to Margate ; there were embarked 
in barges and the ships' boats, and were received 
on board the Admiral, where they lay all the 
night. 

The 22nd day, the wind being got easterly and 
likely to be foul weather, her Highness, with the 
Palsgrave and most part of her train, were again 
carried on shore to Margate and there landed. 

The 25th day, being Sunday, they were all 
again embarked in the barges and boats and 

* This word, which Pepys transcribes as ' pritly,' is not 
in the N.E.D., but since it appears to have the same meaning 
as * predy ' (or ' priddy ') which was in use at sea in the seven- 
teenth century for ' make ready ' or ' set . . .in order,' it is 
not impossible that it may be a variation of that word. 

» Tlie ends of the Buxey and Gunfleet sands, where the 
Spitway leads between them from the East Swin to the 
Wallet. 

* Eight and a half miles north of Margate. 

* The entrance to the Thames, opposite the Queen's 
Channel ; not the EngHsh Channel. 



i6i3 PALSGRAVE AND ELIZABETH 109 

received on board the ships ; presently we set 
sail and that night anchored without the Foreland. 

The 26th day the wind shortened ^ upon us, so 
that we were constrained to anchor in the midst 
of the Channel in 25 fathom, being a windy, rainy, 
foul night. 

The 27th day, being Tuesday, was a very wet 
forenoon, but about 11 of the clock whilst her 
Highness was at the sermon, it cleared up and the 
wind veered southerly, so that we weighed, both 
having fair weather and a fair wind ; standing our 
course, quarter winds, a little before we made the 
land we lost a man through his own wilfulness. 
This evening we anchored under Blankenberghe ^ 
Sconce,^ being very fair weather. 

The 28th day we weighed about noon, and 
anchored thwart of Sluis,* where came on board us 
with his yachts,^ the Prince of Orange, Grave ^ 
Maurice, with a great train of gallantry and 
followers, who all lay this night on board the 
Admiral. 

The 29th day we weighed upon the flood and 
turned up to Flushing. Some mile short of the 
town, her Highness, with the Palatine and most 
part of her train, were embarked in the barges and 
boats, being very fair weather, and was saluted 
with all the ordnance of the whole fleet, and landed 
at Flushing, where they were received with all 

1 Drew ahead or became ' scant.' The use of ' shorten 
in this sense is rare and unknown to the dictionaries. 

2 MS. ' Blakenborough. ' On the Belgian coast. 

3 MS. * Scone.' A small fort or earthwork. 
« MS. ' Sluce.' 

^ MS. ' yoathes.' This must be one of the earHest instances 
of the introduction of the Dutch ' lacht ' into EngHsh. The 
word * yacht ' does not seem to have come into use until after 
1660. 

• Count : Dutch ' Graaf/ 



no TRANSPORTATION OF THE 1613 

royalty and saluted with all the ordnance of the 
town and castles and guarded with the soldiers 
and garrison of the town ; our ships anchored a 
little above the Rammekens.^ This afternoon I 
went on shore to attend the Lord Admiral and lay 
in Flushing, our charges being defrayed by the 
town. The 30th day, being Friday, the Count 
Palatine took leave of her Highness and went post 
to the Palatinate. 

This afternoon I, with others of the Lord 
Admiral's retinue, took coach to Middelburg and 
were lodged and billeted for our diet at the 
English house with him. 

This forenoon, being May Day, divers of our 
retinue took a coach and rode to Camphire ^ to 
see the Island ; this afternoon her Highness and 
her train were received into Middelburg with all 
royalty. 

The second day, being Sunday, the Burghers 
feasted her Highness at the Town House ; this 
evening the Lord Admiral brought me to take 
leave of her Highness and to kiss her hand ; the 
next day her Highness took leave of the Lord 
Admiral and his train, having attended her to the 
place where she was embarked ; which done, the 
Lord Admiral returned from Middelburg in his 
barge on board the Prince, where he found such a 
multitude of people, men, women, and children, 
that came from all places in Holland to see the 
ship, that we could scarce have room to go up and 

* Fort Rammekens, east of Flushing, at the entrance of 
the channel between Walcheren and South Beveland. Ram- 
mekens, Flushing, and Brill were then occupied by EngUsh 
garrisons as * cautionary towns,' in security for the money 
lent to the Dutch by Elizabeth. 

* Campvere, now called Vere, on the north-east side of 
Walcheren Island, at that time the staple port for Scottish 
merchants. 



i6i3 PALSGRAVE AND ELIZABETH iii 

down till very night, which confluence of people 
lasted from the time we anchored at Flushing 
till we weighed thence. 

Fourth day ; [the] Lord Admiral gave order 
we should weigh from Flushing to avoid the 
trouble of people, which accordingly was done, and 
we fell down to Cassant Point ,^ where we anchored 
all that day and next night. 

The 6th day, in the morning, we weighed with 
the wind at east -north-east, a fresh gale and very 
fair weather, and this evening we anchored under 
the Gun fleet .2 

The 7th day, the wind continuing easterly, we 
weighed and set sail, and by 12 of the clock we 
came to anchor at Gillingham, from whence I 
attended the Lord Admiral in his barge to Chat- 
ham, where he lay that night at Mr. Legates 
house. I found my wife and family all in health, 
and gave God thanks for his preservation of us in 
our journey and safe return home to our mutual 
comforts. 

Sir Robert Mansell lay at my house. On 
Saturday morning, being the 8th day, the Lord 
Admiral went from Chatham, on whom I attended 
to Gravesend, and there taking leave returned 
back to my house [at] Chatham. 

At Whitsuntide Sir Robert Mansell was com- 
mitted to the Marshalsea,^ upon some displeasure * 
his Majesty took against him by the instigation of 
the Lord Northampton, where he was detained 
prisoner, till the 13th June following [he] was 
released at Greenwich. 

1 On the (then) I. of Cadzand. « off the Essex coast. 

3 The prison situated near St. Saviour's, Southwark. 

* Mansell was accused of taking exception to the Com- 
mission for Inquiring into the Abuses of the Navy, in a con- 
temptuous and disloyal manner. 



112 DEATH OF MATHEW BAKER 1613 

In the latter end of July I received command- 
ment to take the charge of new building the Defi- 
ance, being then in dry dock at Woolwich. Old 
Mr. Baker having the charge of new building the 
Merhonor at the same time in the same dock with 
her, upon which business I was entered the second 
August. 

About the middle of August, old Mr. Baker 
sickened and, perceiving his sickness was to death, 
was desirous to recommend the finishing of the 
Merhonor to me, and to that end importuned me 
to ride to Windsor to the Lord Admiral to signify 
his earnest suit to his Lordship in that behalf ; 
which was willingly condescended unto, and I 
had his Lordship's warrant at the same time for 
it ; he deceasing the last of this month, and his 
funeral was solemnized at Deptford, the second 
of September, where myself was present. 

About the midst of September, my good, 
faithful friend, Mr. Sebastian Vicars, the carver, 
departed this life ; and the 27th day of this month 
my second son Henry departed this life at Chat- 
ham ; and at the very instant my noble, worthy 
friend. Sir Thomas Button, then Captain Button, 
alighted at my house, newly being returned from 
the dangerous voyage of the North-west Passage, 
where he had wintered. 

The i6th of October, I escaped a great danger 
by the fall of my horse within one mile of Dartford, 
being riding to Chatham. 

The 28th of October, I was taken very sick, 
going by water from Woolwich to Westminster 
to accompany the ordinary shipwrights and other 
of Chatham to move the Lord Admiral about their 
pay, being much behindhand. I was forced this 
night to lie at the King's Head in Fish Street, 
whither I came from Westminster on foot, to 



i6i4 SICKNESS 113 

have prevented my sickness. The whole com- 
pany having appointed to dine there, most part 
of them waked with me all that night. The next 
day, accompanied with my brother Peter, I took 
oars to Gravesend, and from thence rode home, 
being taken with a fit upon Gad's Hill, with much 
ado recovering my own house, presently taking 
my chamber, and being dangerously sick ; from 
whence I did not stir down stairs till Christmas 
holidays after ; which happened ill for my busi- 
ness at Woolwich, where in my absence, through 
the careless neglect of the foremen, the workmen 
made wonderful spoil and havoc. 

The next week after I took my sickness, and 
the news thereof, brought to London, came to 
the ears of the Lord Admiral, who acquainted 
his Majesty therewith ; whereupon I received two 
several letters from the Lord Admiral by post, 
and special commandment from his Majesty to be 
certified the truth, and to let me know that, if I 
needed, some of his own physicians should be 
sent unto me ; which exceeding great grace from 
his Majesty and expression of love from the 
Lord Admiral was no small comfort unto me in 
my extremity. 

The end of this month my wife's cook-maid 
died in the house, and was buried on New Year's 
Day. 

The seventh of January, I returned from 
Chatham to Woolwich with my wife and some of 
my children and family ; and because my lodg- 
ings at the Dock were not fitted, I lay in the town 
at the house of a widow woman called Mistress 
Spicke, for the space of a month, till the lodg- 
ings in the King's Yard were prepared and made 
ready. 

Th^ 14th of February, I began to victual all 



114 THE KING OF DENMARK 1614 

the shipwrights and workmen employed upon the 
Merhonor and Defiance at Woolwich. 

The 28th of March it pleased God miraculously 
to preserve me from loss of life by a fall on board 
the Honor, which was only from deck to deck, 
by God's merciful providence very hardly escap- 
ing to fall into, the hold, which would have beat 
me all to pieces. 

The 14th of June, my honourable and impla- 
cable enemy, the Earl of Northampton, departed 
this life at his house at Charing Cross. 

The 22nd of July, the King of Denmark came 
suddenly to Somerset House unexpected. 

The first of August, my gracious master, King 
James, accompanied with the King of Denmark, 
Prince of Wales, Lord Admiral, and many other 
lords, came to Woolwich and went on board the 
Merhonor, then being in dry dock and almost 
finished, which ship liked them wondrous well : 
here our King took leave of his Majesty of Den- 
mark and returned to Whitehall. From hence 
the King of Denmark took barge to Gravesend, 
being accompanied with the Prince and Lord 
Admiral ; Sir Robert Mansell and myself were 
commanded to attend them. 

The second of August, the King of Denmark 
was entertained on board the Prince, riding at 
her moorings in the river of Chatham, the Prince of 
Wales and the Lord Admiral of England accom- 
panying him. Sir Robert Mansell and myself 
attending. The ship was completely rigged and 
all her sails at the yards, and richly adorned with 
ensigns and pendants, all of silk, which gave very 
great content to the King of Denmark; yet it 
was a very foul rainy day. From thence they 
returned to Gravesend, where they took leave and 
the King of Denmark embarked in his own ships. 



I 



i6i6 VISITS WOOLWICH 115 

In the end of November, all the workmen that 
wrought upon the Merhonor were discharged 
from Woolwich. 

The 6th of March/ the Merhonor and Defiance 
were both launched out of the dry dock at Wool- 
wich in one tide, and the 25th day of April follow- 
ing they set sail from Woolwich, and the next 
day came to their moorings at Chatham. 

In May the dock at Woolwich was prepared 
for the receiving in of the Elizabeth Jonas and the 
Triumph, v/ho were appointed to be new built ; 
which ships were accordingly brought from Chat- 
ham, and were both brought into the dock, the 
first and second days of June, and the gates shut 
again and the ships shored. 

The 25th of July, the Lord's Grace of Canter- 
bury lay at Rochester, and went on board the 
Prince, riding at her moorings, where he was 
entertained with a banquet of sweetmeats by Sir 
Robert Mansell, myself attending there. 

The 29th of August, I removed from Wool- 
wich to Chatham with my wife and family, and 
the next day after my wife sickened of a surfeit, 
eating too many grapes, which had like to have 
cost her her life. 

The 9th of October, my wife was delivered of 
her 7th child, being a son, between the hours of 
10 and II [o']clock at night : the 22nd day after 
he was baptized at Chatham Church and called 
by mine own name, Phineas ; the witnesses were 
Mr. Robert Yardley andMr. King, godfathers, and 
my sister Simonson, the godmother. 

About the 27th day of March I bargained with 

Sir Walter Ralegh ^ for to build him a ship of 500 

tons, which I procured leave for from the Lord 

Admiral, to build her in the galley dock in his 

» 1615. « MS. ' Rawly.' 



ii6 BUILDS SHIPS FOR 1616 

Majesty's Yard at Woolwich, towards which I 
presently received 500/. to begin withal, and the 
8th day of April following I began to set men on 
work upon her. 

The 8th day of April, I bought a piece of ground 
of one Christopher Collier, lying in a place called 
the Brook at Chatham, for which I paid him 35/. 
ready moneys. 

The 1 8th day of April, I was elected and 
sworn Master of the Corporation of Shipwrights 
at our common hall and meeting place at 
Redriff. 

The 13th day of May, I bought the rest of the 
land at the Brook, of John Griffin and Robert 
Griffin, brothers, and a lease of their sister, belong- 
ing to the College of Rochester. 

The 22nd of May, I removed my wife and some 
of my family from Chatham to Woolwich. 

In July Sir Henry Mainwaring caused me to 
build a small pinnace of 40 tons for the Lord 
Zouch, being then Lord Warden of the Cinque 
Ports, which pinnace was launched the 2nd of 
August and presently rigged and fitted, all at my 
charge ; and the 6th day we set sail with her from 
Woolwich accompanied with Sir Walter Ralegh 
and his sons. Sir Henry Mainwaring, Mr. Chris- 
topher Hamon,^ cousin William Hawkridge,^ my- 
self, son, and divers others. The first tide we 
anchored [at] Gravesend ; next night at the North 
Foreland ; next tide in the Downs, where we landed 
and rode to Dover Castle in the Lord Warden's 
coach, sent purposely for us, leaving the pinnace 
to be brought in to Dover Pier with the pilot 
and mariners. We stayed at Dover till the 
1 6th of August and then took leave of the Lord 

» Mentioned by Ralegh in his testamentary memorandum. 
" See note on p. 151. 



I 



x6i7 LORD ZOUCH AND RALEGH 117 

Warden, and came to Woolwich the 17th day at 
night. 

Towards the whole of the hull of the pinnace 
and all her rigging and furniture I received only 
100/. from the Lord Zouch, the rest Sir Henry 
Mainwaring cunningly received in my behalf, 
without my knowledge, which I could never get 
from him but by piece-meal, so that by the bar- 
gain I was loser 100/. at least. 

The 3rd day [of] December following, died my 
brother Cooper at Chatham. The i6th of De- 
cember I launched the great ship of Sir Walter 
Ralegh's called the Destiny, and had much ado 
to get her into the water, but I delivered her to 
him on float in good order and fashion ; by which 
business I lost 700/. and could never get any 
recompense at all for it, Sir Walter Ralegh going 
to sea and leaving me unsatisfied. 

This year of 1617 proved a very fatal and 
troublesome year unto me. The 14th day of 
March I removed my wife and family from Wool- 
wich to my house at Chatham, she being so 
big with child that I was forced to carry her by 
coach, and that very leisurely for that she was 
with child with two twins. The 20th of this 
month my wife's own father died at his house at 
Highwood Hill. 

The 15th day of April my wife was safely 
delivered of two daughters at 12 of the clock 
at night : they were both baptized in Chatham 
Church the 22nd day in the afternoon, being 
Tuesday ; the eldest named Mary ; the other 
Martha. 

About the midst of May, I was sent for by the 
Lord Treasurer, then Earl of Suffolk, and Sir 
Fulke Greville, then Chancellor of the Exchequer, 
and by them employed in a most troublesome 






ii8 COMMISSION 1617 

business into the New Forest in Hampshire, where 
one Sir Giles Mompesson ^ had made a vast waste 
in the spoil of his Majesty's timber, to redress 
which I was employed thither to make choice, out 
of the number of trees he had felled, of all such 
timber as was useful for shipping ; in which busi- 
ness I spent a great deal of time, and brought 
myself into a great deal of trouble. 

The 6th of November my daughter Mary, the 
eldest of the twins, departed this life at Chatham, 
and was buried 2 days after at Chatham. 

The 8th day of December my young son Phineas 
departed this life after he had lived 2 years 2 
months and odd days,^ and was buried at Chatham. 

My dear loving wife sickened at Chatham the 
29th day of December, and hardly escaped with 
life, yet it pleased God she did recover. 

The last of this month my brother Simonson 
made himself away in the garret of his own house 
at Ratcliff, to the utter undoing of his poor wife 
and children. 

In the month of June ^ there was a commis- 
sion granted by his Majesty to certain Commis- 
sioners for the reformation of the abuses in his 
Majesty's Navy, the names of which Commissioners 
were Sir Lionel Cranfield,* Sir Thomas Smith, ^ 

» Politician ; degraded 1621. Smiles, Men 0] Invention 
and Industry, p. 43, says he was the original of ' Sir Giles 
Overreach ' in Massinger's play, * A New Way to Pay Old 
Debts.' 

» Sic. 

" 161 8 ; see Introduction. 

* A prot^gd of Northampton and Buckingham. Master 
of Wardrobe and Court of Wards. Treasurer 1621. Earl of 
Middlesex 1622. Impeached 1624. 

* First Governor of the East India Company, member 
of the Muscovy Company, and Treasurer of the Virginia 
Company. 



i6i8 OF INQUIRY 119 

Sir Richard Weston/ Sir Francis Gofton,* Sir 
Richard 3 Sutton, Mr. John Coke,* Mr. Pitt ^ of 
the Exchequer, Sir John Osborne, Sir John 
Wolstenholme,^ Mr. Burrell, and Captain Thomas 
Norreys. 

The 6th day of July these Commissioners 
came to Chatham in great state, having called to 
assist them divers masters of the Trinity House 
and divers shipwrights of the river of Thames, 
where, commanding also the masters and master 
shipwrights of his Majesty's Navy, they went on 
board the Prince and there publicly caused their 
Commission to be read, the Officers of the Navy 
being present ; which done they proceeded to give 
order for a general survey of all the ships in the 
Navy, with all their furniture, and all other things 
belonging unto them ; in the which was spent a 
great deal of time, for they returned not to London 
till the 1 6th day of the month after. Myself was 
commanded in particular from his Majesty to give 
them the best assistance I could, which accordingly 
I did with all diligence and carefulness ; which 
proved afterwards to the ruin and undoing to 
me and all mine, the whole bent of Mr. Burrell 
tending only to overthrow me and root my name 
out of the earth, by his means procuring most 
part of the Commissioners to join with him in his 
malicious practice ; so that from the time that 

1 Chancellor of the Exchequer 1621. Created Earl of 
Portland 1633. 

^ Knighted in company with Sutton, Pitt, and Osborne in 
February 161 9. 

3 MS. * Robert.' 

* MS. ' Cooke.' Deputy Treasurer of Navy 1591 ; knighted 
1624. 

^ William Pitt ; one of the Tellers of Receipt. 

« MS. ' Worsenam.' Of the East India and Virginia Com- 
panies ; knighted 1617. 



120 VISIT OF BUCKINGHAM 1618 

he was settled, I was sequestered from meddling 
with any business, and all employments and pri- 
vileges taken from me. Captain Norreys being 
brought over me, and I forced to live as a slave 
under them the whole of the time of their Com- 
mission, undergoing many disgraces and contempts 
which I could not possibly have undergone had 
not the Lord been exceedingly merciful unto me 
in giving me patience to submit myself to his will 
and pleasure. 

The whole year of '18, '19 and part of *2o, I 
attended altogether at Chatham, being employed 
upon the making of the new dock and other busi- 
nesses under the command of the Commissioners ; 
the reward of my extraordinary pains was recom- 
pensed with no other reward than base usage and 
continual counsels and plats to ruin me, wherein 
they obtained the sum of their desires to the utter 
undoing of me and mine ; Mr. Burr ell and Norreys 
my greatest enemies. 

The 24th of January in this present year my 
wife was delivered of a young son at Chatham, 
who was, the 3rd day of the same month, being 
Sunday, baptized in Chatham Church by Mr. 
Fyham ; his name called Phineas. The witnesses 
were my wife's sister Russell and niece Hawk- 
ridge, godmothers, my nephews Peter and WilUam 
Pett, godfathers. 

The 19th day of this present month of July 
in the year 1619, the great Duke of Buckingham, 
lately made the Lord Admiral of England, came 
to visit the Navy then riding at Chatham, being 
accompanied with divers lords and Sir Robert 
Mansell ; who in his being here used me with such 
extraordinary public respect that wrought me 
much prejudice in the opinion of the Commis- 
sioners, who ever after plotted to ruin me and to 



/ 



x62o TO CHATHAM 121 

bring me out of favour both with the Lord Admiral 
and the King himself. 

The 20th day of November, attending at Theo- 
balds to deliver his Majesty a petition, his Majesty 
in his princely care of me, by the means of the 
honourable Lord High Admiral, had before my 
coming bestowed on me for supply of my present 
relief the making of a knight baronet,^ which I 
afterwards passed under the broad seal of England 
for one Francis Radclyffe ^ of Northumberland, 
a great recusant,^ for which I was to have 700/., 
but by reason that Sir Arnold Herbert * (that 
brought him to me) played not fair play with me, 
I lost some 50/. of my bargain. 

About this time the Commissioners of the Navy 
had finished two new ships built by Mr. Burrell at 
Deptford in his Majesty's Dockyard, and had 
procured the King's Majesty to come thither 
and see them, and named ^ the one the Happy 
Entrance, and the other the Reformation. 

The 14th day of May in the year 1620, my 
wife was delivered of her eleventh child, being 
the last she had, being a son born at my house in 
Chatham. The 25th day after, it was baptized and 
called Christopher. Sir Christopher Cleve ^ and his 

1 This rank was instituted in 1611 by James I. to raise 
money for the Crown, the sum to be paid being 1095^. At 
first certain restrictions as to numbers and conditions were 
made. The restrictions were gradually withdrawn, and under 
Charles I. blank patents were put up for sale. The price seems 
to have fallen as low as 300/. by the end of Charles I.'s reign. 

2 MS. * Ratcliff ' • ancestor of the Earls of Derwentwater. 

3 A Roman Catholic who refused to attend his parish 
church. * A gentleman pensioner, knighted in 1617. 

^ I.e. the King named them. The names allude to Buck- 
ingham's entrance into the Lord High Admiralship and his 
* reformation ' of the Navy affairs. 

« Or Cleive (Clive), MS. ' Cleave.' Knighted in 1605. 



122 EXPEDITION 1620 

brother-in-law, Mr. Samuel Heyward, being god- 
fathers, and my good neighbour, Mistress Legatt, 
godmother. 

The 1 2th day of June this present year. Sir 
Robert Mansell being ordained Lord General of 
the Fleet for the expedition against the Pirates of 
Algiers, by his great importunity with his Majesty 
I was commanded to go in hand with building two 
new pinnaces for that voyage, whereof the one 
was to be of burden 120 tons, and the other, 80 
tons ; for which I did contract with certain mer- 
chants of the city that were appointed Committees 
for that business, whereof Sir Thomas Smith, 
Mr. Burrell, and divers others of my great enemies 
were of the quorum ; but I, upon some hopes of 
thanks and reward, enlarged them to a greater 
proportion than my contract, making the one 
wherein I was myself to serve as Captain in the 
voyage, of 300 tons, called the Mercury, and the 
other, called the Spy, of 200 tons, wherein Captain 
Edward Giles served ; and for that I exceeded the 
contract, the unconscionable merchants and Com- 
mittees cast upon me all the whole surplusage^ 
of the charge, to the value of 700/., notwith- 
standing I was forced to hasten the business and 
to keep extraordinary numbers of workmen at 
great rates, and in a place where the provision and 
materials were nightly stolen and embezzled to 
my utter undoing ; whereof I never could obtain 
any recompense, though to my great expense and 
charge I made means both to his Majesty and the 
Lords of the Council, and had warrant against 
the Committees, but was continually overborn by 
their greatness and malice. 

The i6th and i8th days of October, both the 
pinnaces were launched at Ratcliff, where they 
* MS. ' surplage.' 



i62i TO ALGIERS 123 

were built, and all expedition was used to rig and 
make them ready to set sail ; I preparing myself, 
to my great charge, to proceed in the voyage and 
to get the ships to Erith, because of ice in the 
river, where we rode till we were cleared thence 
by the Committees, which was about the 22nd of 
December ; at what time Mr. Puniett the pilot 
came on board me to carry me into the Downs, 
and Sir John Ferne,^ that went passenger with 
me to the Fleet ; my wife also came then on board 
of me. 

The 27th day of December, we weighed and 
turned down from Erith into Tilbury Hope, where 
we rode till the 29th day, and then weighed, and 
anchored at the buoy of the Oaze Edge.^ 

The 30th day of December, I parted with my 
wife and sent her to Gravesend in a light horseman 
that came to the ship with some provisions. 

We set sail from the buoy of the Red Sand ^ 
the first of January, being New Year's Day, and 
anchored in the Gore, where we rode one day, and 
thence into the Downs, where we landed our pilot. 

We rode in the Downs till the 13th day, and 
then set sail and were put into the Needles, and 
anchored at the Cowes two days ; then set sail, 
and the 4th of February we made the South Cape.* 
The 8th day we entered into the Straits of Gibral- 
tar,^ and the 8th day at night came to an anchor 
in Malaga Road. 

The 19th day of September, 1621, we arrived 
in the Downs, and the 20th day at night, I came 

^ Captain of the Mary gold merchantman. 

2 Probably what is now the West Oaze Buoy, about five 
miles east of the Nore Light. 

« South-east of the Oaze, on the opposite side of the Oaze 
Deep. 

* Cape St. Vincent. • MS. ' Jubellatare.* 



124 SURVEY OF 1621 

safe to my house at Chatham, finding my wife 
and children all in good health, for which mercy 
of God I gave God thanks, as did also my whole 
family. 

All the year 1622 I did nothing but follow the 
Court with petitions, to my infinite charge and 
trouble, and all to little purpose, for I could never 
prevail against my adversaries, who detained all 
my entertainment for the Algiers voyage, both for 
myself, son, and servants ; which cost me 300/. 
setting out, and the expense of the voyage. 

I must not forget that in the beginning of the 
year 1621, before I was two months out of England, 
[through] the malice of Mr. Burrell and some of 
the rest of the Commissioners for the Navy, that 
there were divers master shipwrights of the river 
of Thames and some masters of the Trinity House 
sent down to Chatham to survey the state of the 
Prince ; ^ amongst which Commissioners was, be- 
side old Burrell and his son, my fellow,^ Stevens, 
Graves,^ Dearslye,* Bourne,^ Thomas Brunning of 
Woodbridge, and one Chandler,^ a creature of Mr. 
Burrell's, and divers other mariners, who maliciously 
certified the ship to be merely unserviceable and 
not fit to be continued, and what charge soever 
should be bestowed upon her would be lost, which 
they certified under their hands. But the 24th of 
February succeeding, by special command from his 
Majesty, who well understood their malicious pro- 
ceedings, the selfsame surveyors were again sent 

• See Introduction. 

• Stevens was now a master shipwright, associated with 
Pett at Chatham ; see Introduction. 

• John Greaves ; see note, p. 55. 

• John Dearslye. 

' Robert Bourne, nommated an ' Assistant ' in the 
charter of 1612. 

• Edward. MS. ' Chandelor.' 



1623 THE PRINCE ROYAL 125 

to Chatham and under their hands certified that 
the ship might be made serviceable for a voyage 
into Spain with the charge of 300 pounds/ to be 
bestowed upon her hull and the perfecting her 
masts, which certificate was returned under their 
hands and delivered to his Majesty. Whereupon 
present warrant was granted to have the ship 
docked and fitted for a Spanish voyage ; which 
was accordingly done, and brought into the dock 
the 8th of March, 1623, at Chatham, and was 
launched the 24th day of the same month. 

About the 17th of this month of February, I 
attended at Theobalds the very morning that the 
Prince's Highness and the Lord Duke of Bucking- 
ham took leave of the King to take their journey 
for Spain, being carried so privately that few knew 
of their intent. At their taking horse I kissed 
both their hands and they only gave me an item ^ 
that I should shortly come to sea in the Prince. 

After the Prince and the rest of the Fleet were 
all fitted and prepared to set sail from their 
moorings, the St. George fell down to Gillingham 
with the Antelope, being both appointed to go 
before to Santander with the jewels and other 
provisions. The noble gentleman, my honoured 
friend. Sir Francis Steward,^ commanding in her, 
whom my eldest son, John Pett, attended as one 
of his retinue in that journey, and Captain Thomas 
Love * commanded in the Antelope. 

The 2nd of May being on a Friday, the Prince 
removed from her moorings to St. Mary Creek, 
where she anchored. Thither came down from 

* The estimate was 994/. iis. M. Coke MSS. (Hist. 
MSS.), vol. i. p. 130. * Intimation, hint. 

* See Introduction. — Steward was in command of the 
rear squadron in the Cadiz expedition of 1625. 

* Knighted 1625. 



126 VOYAGE 1623 

London many of the Commissioners of the Navy, 
with Sir Thomas Smith and the Lord Brooke/ 
who all plotted together to have hindered me from 
going the voyage which the King had commanded 
me unto, but their malicious practices were pre- 
vented and their purposes frustrated. 

The 17th day of May I took leave of his Majesty 
in the park at Greenwich and kissed his hand, 
with many expressions of his favour, which was not 
very pleasing to Sir John Coke, then there present. 

The 20th of May, the Prince set sail from St. 
Mary Creek and anchored at Queenborough ; 
the 2ist day we set sail from Queenborough and 
anchored at Whitaker ; ^ 23rd day anchored [at 
the] Gunfleet ; 24th day anchored short [of the] 
North Foreland ; 25th day we came and anchored 
in the Downs, where we rode till the 28th day of 
June, having three several times proffered to go 
on, but were still put room ^ again ; but the 28th 
day, being Saturday, v/e weighed and got as high 
as Fairlight,* where we anchored all the flood and 
so plyed to windward all the ebbs, being fair 
weather. On Tuesday after, being the first of 
July, we came to anchor in Stokes Bay by Ports- 
mouth. The 20th day of August, his Majesty, 
then lying in the New Forest at Beaulieu ^ House, 
embarked himself and train and came on board 
the Prince, then riding in Stokes Bay, accompanied 
with Marquis Hamilton,® the Lord Chamberlain,' 

• Sir Fulke Greville, created Baron Brooke in 1621. 

' Whitaker Spit, between the Swin and the entrance to the 
river Crouch. 

" Obhged to veer, or go large. 

• MS. ' Fayrelye.' East of Hastings. 

• MS. ' Beawlye.' 

• James, second Marquis of Hamilton, a commissioner 
for the marriage of Prince Charles to the Infanta. 

' William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke. 



i623 TO SPAIN 127 

Holderness/ Kellie,^ Carlisle,^ Montgomery,* and 
divers other attendants, who all dined on board 
the Prince ; our Admiral, the Earl of Rutland,*^ 
being absent at London. His Majesty was very 
well pleased, and after dinner, again embarking 
in the barge, lay hovering in the midst of the Fleet 
till all the ships had discharged their great ord- 
nance, and then returned on shore at Calshot 
Castle. 

In the interim of our stay in Stokes Bay I 
procured leave of the Admiral to go to London, 
and the 2nd day of August, being Saturday, I 
met my wife at Lambeth with my son Richard. 
There we lay that night, and the next day took 
oars to Kingston, where we lay till Tuesday 
following, on which day I went to Hampton 
Court to take leave of my honoured lord and 
good master, the Earl of Nottingham, who then 
lay there in his old lodgings, which was the last 
time I ever saw him, being the fifth of August. 
The next day I took leave of my wife and friends 
at Kingston ; she returned home, and myself to 
Portsmouth on board the Prince again. 

The 24th day of August, being Sunday and 
Bartholomew's day, we set sail out of Stokes 
Bay in the afternoon ; the 25th day, the wind 
taking us short ® put us into the grass ' at 

1 Sir John Ramsay, created Earl of Holderness in 1621. 

* Thomas Erskine, created Earl of KeUie in 1619. 
8 James Hay, created Earl of Carlisle in 1622. 

* Philip Herbert, created Earl of Montgomery 1605. 

* Francis Manners, sixth Earl of Rutland. 

* Drawing ahead suddenly and becoming foul ; cf. 
* shorten/ p. 109. 

' This expression is unknown to the dictionaries, and it 
is difficult to conjecture its meaning : it may be a synonym 
for ' bank ' or ' shore/ or for ' seaweed,' which would be found 
in the shallower water near the shore. 



128 VOYAGE 1623 

Weymouth, where we rode till the 26th at night ; 
and thence setting sail with the wind easterly, 
on the 28th day, being Thursday, we came to 
anchor in Plymouth Sound. 

The 2nd day of September, being Tuesday, 
in the morning betimes we set out of Plymouth 
Sound, and by contrary winds we beat it up till, 
the 9th day following, being Tuesday, we made 
the Cape of OrtegaP bearing south-west of us. 
The loth day we lay becalmed, and the nth 
day about 2 of the clock in the forenoon we came 
to an anchor in the river of Santander. 

The I2th day, it pleased God, the Prince and 
all his train came to Santander and presently 
took his barge, being there ready attending for 
him, and came on board the Prince, accompanied 
with all the Spaniards that attended him thither, 
where we all joyfully received him. After some 
stay on board, his Highness resolving to lie at 
Santander Town that night, where provision 
was made to entertain him and his train, he took 
his barge to go back ; whereinto we, being over- 
joyed with his safe arrival, forgot to send either 
master, pilot, or mariner to conduct him to the 
town, being a dangerous rocky way, and the tide 
of ebb bent,^ which runneth there with a very 
swift stream ; which had likely to have proved 
a very dangerous accident, for that at the instant 
of embarking there arose a very great tempest 
of rain and wind and darkness withal, so that 

> N.W. Spain. MS. ' OrtingalL' 

' Apparently ' bent ' was in use at this period in speaking 
of the tide when it had turned and begun to ebb or flow 
with full force. CJ. Luke Ward's narrative (1582) in 
Hakluyt (vol. xi. p. 174) : ' Being at anchor, I manned 
our boat and would have gone aboard the Admiral, but 
could not, the flood was bent so strong.' 



1623 TO SPAIN 129 

the barge could not possibly row ahead ^ the 
tide, whereby she was ia great danger to have 
been driven to sea out of the harbour's mouth, to 
the utter loss of all in her, had not God in mercy 
prevented it by the vigilant care of the captain 
and officers of the Defiance, Sir Sackvill Trevor ^ 
being the commander,^ who seeing the danger 
they were in, veered out casks and buoys with 
lights fastened unto them, by small^warps, of 
which they taking hold, were rowed and haled 
on board the ship, where the Prince with all his 
train were entertained and lodged all this night, 
the weather proving so stormy and rainy that no 
provision from any other ship could be brought 
unto them. 

The 13th day, being Saturday, the Prince came 
on board his own ship and lodged in his own cabin. 

The 14th day, being Sunday, the Prince feasted 
all the Spaniards that accompanied him to the 
waterside, the Cardinal Zapata and his brother, 
who was a grandee, being the chief, with Gondomar * 
and divers others of the King of Spain's servants ; 
whom he feasted with no other provisions than 
such as we brought out of England with us : 
stalled oxen, fatted sheep, venison and all kind 
of fowls and other varieties in abundance, wanting 
no ordnance to welcome them withal, loudly 
speaking every health ; but it was a very foul 

^ I.e. make way against. 

* Brother of Sir John Trevor, and a naval officer of distinc- 
tion ; knighted in 1604. 

3 The captain, or commanding officer. ' Commander ' as 
a substantive rank dates only from 1793. 

* MS ' Gundamar/ Diego Sarmiento d'Acuna, Count of 
Gondomar. He played an important part in the foreign policy 
of Great Britain from 1613, when he was sent to England as 
ambassador to bring James into accord with Spanish poHcy. 
It was Gondomar who secured the execution of Ralegh. 



130 RETURN 1623 

rainy day. Notwithstanding, at their going from 
the ship all the ordnance was discharged in our 
ship, all the rest of the Fleet following in order as 
they passed by to the town of Santander. 

The Rainbow, wherein Sir Henry Palmer 
commanded as captain, and John King, one of the 
four Masters, being master, by neglect of follow- 
ing the Admiral, could not get within the river's 
mouth, but was forced to leeward, where she rode 
three days and nights in such extremity as every 
hour it was expected when she should drive upon 
the shore, which she hardly escaped by God's great 
mercy, and upon the Tuesday after, came safely 
off and anchored under the Prince's stem. 

On Thursday, being the i8th day of September, 
we set sail out of Santander River, the wind some- 
what southerly, from whence we beat it to and 
fro with contrary winds till the 26th day after, 
being Friday, at which time a little before noon 
we had sight of Scilly, which bore north-east of 
us, about some 8 leagues off. 

This day we met 4 Dunkirk men-of-war, very 
well fitted, chased by Holland men-of-war, whom 
the Prince caused to come to leeward, and their 
commanders to come on board ; whom his High- 
ness laboured to have accepted a peaceable course, 
which the Hollanders dui'st not accept, whereupon 
they were dismissed, the Dunkirkers having liberty 
to have the start of the Hollanders, which many 
disliked. 

Saturday all day we plied to and fro, and 
got within some four leagues of the Islands, the 
wind at north-east but fair weather. 

On Sunday a Council of War was summoned, 
wherein was principally propounded his Highness 
landing upon the Island of Scilly ^ in the ketch, 
* MS. ' Sylla.' He means the principal island, St. Mary. 



> 



1623 FROM SPAIN 131 

some pilots of the island being come off unto us, 
but it was generally protested against under all 
the Council's hands, and so were dismissed to 
their charges ; but after supper, beyond expecta- 
tion, order was given to make ready the long boat 
and to call the ketch, and the Prince made choice 
of all the company should accompany him on 
shore, and so about one of the clock after midnight, 
with great danger to his Highness' person and to 
the Lord Duke of Buckingham, they were put into 
our long boat, which was veered astern by a long 
warp, where the ketch, laying the long boat on 
board, and the sea going somewhat high, they 
entered the ketch disorderly, without regard to 
any, but everyone shifting for themselves. Being 
all shipped, the ketch was so over burdened as 
she could make but little way, so that after we 
had taken farewell with the discharge of a volley 
of our great ordnance we tacked into the sea and 
left the ketch to ply into the island, which she safely 
gained by 7 of the morning, and had landed the 
Prince and all his company on St. Mary's Island. 

The next morning our Admiral advised with me 
what course we should take with ourselves, for 
the Prince had commanded Sir Henry Main waring, 
who was Captain under the Admiral, and Mr. 
Walter Whiting, the Master of the ship, to attend 
him in the ketch, I being left purposely to supply 
both their places in their absence. After serious 
consultation with the master's mates and two pilots 
of the island, who all assured us we might safely 
go in, the Admiral resolved on that course, and 
after two or three boards we laid it in quarter 
winds,^ and came to an anchor in the best of the 

1 I.e. the ship first beat to windward, tacking two or three 
times, and then laid her course for the anchorage with the 
wind on her quarter. 



132 RETURN 1623 

road about 2 of the clock afternoon ; the Prince 
and all his train standing upon the lower point 
of land, and welcomed us in as we passed close 
by with much expression of joy and heaving up 
their hats. The Prince and his train lay in the 
Castle 1 four nights. 

On Friday morning, being the 3rd of October, 
we set sail out of Scilly, and on Sunday following, 
being the 5th day, we came into St. Helen's and 
anchored on Nomans Land,2and shipped the Prince 
and his train into our long boat and other ships' 
boats, who were safely landed at Portsmouth about 
II of the clock ; we taking our farewell with dis- 
charge of all our great ordnance, seconded by 
all the Fleet, with general thanksgiving to God 
for our safe arrival, to the joy and comfort of all 
true hearted subjects. 

The 14th day of October, we set sail from St. 
Helen's Point, being Tuesday. The i6th day 
after, being Thursday morning, we came to an 
anchor in Dover Road, where, having leave of the 
Admiral, I went into a fisher boat, and taking in 
my son John out of the St. George, wherein he 
had served the whole voyage under Sir Thomas 
Steward, we landed at Dover, from whence we 
took horse to Chatham, where we alighted at my 
house about 4 of the clock in the evening, finding 
my wife and family in good health ; for which 
great mercies in our preservation in the whole 
journey and safe return we all gave thanks to our 
good God. 

The 24th of May, 1624, being sent for to St. 
James's, I there received from Sir Robert Carr,^ 
by the Prince's Highness' order, a gold chain of 

^ Castle Hugh, near Hugh Town, the capital. 
* The shoal at the entrance to Spithead, north of St. 
Helen's. * Gentleman of the Chamber. 



1624 FROM SPAIN 133 

the value of 104/. in way of reward for my attend- 
ance in the voyage into Spain in bringing his 
Highness home, which chain I was commanded 
to wear one day, and to wait upon the Prince 
to the Parhament, which I accordingly did and 
received very gracious respect from his Highness. 

About this time I was joined Commissioner 
with Captain Love, Captain Edward Giles, and 
Mr. John Reynolds, the Master Gunner of England, 
to take up divers colliers, and to put them out to 
sundry shipwrights to be fitted for men-of-war, 
for which service I never received allowance. 

In the beginning of October this present year, 
happened a wonderful great storm, through which 
many ships perished, especially in the Downs, 
amongst which was riding there the Antelope of his 
Majesty, being bound for Ireland under the com- 
mand of Sir Thomas Button, my son John 
being then passenger in her. A merchant ship, 
being put from her anchors, came foul of her, and 
put her also from all her anchors, by means 
whereof she drove upon the Brakes,^ where she 
beat off her rudder and much of the run ^ abaft, 
miraculously escaping utter loss of all, for that 
the merchant ship that came foul of her,^ called 
the Dolphin, hard by her utterly perished both 
ship and all the company. Yet it pleased God to 
save her, and got off into the Downs, having cut 
all her masts by the board, and with much labour 
was kept from foundering. My son John was 
sent post from the ship to Sir Thomas Button, 
who was presently sent by the Lord Admiral on 
board, and brought warrant for me to attend him 
to the ship, to use the best means we could to save 

^ The sands along the Kent coast off Sandwich. 
2 The narrow part of the ship's bottom near the stern 
post. * MS. * over.' 



134 DEATH OF JAMES 1624 

her. After our coming on board, by placing 
chain pumps into the steward^s room, we kept the 
water easily under, and then fitted a rudder and 
jury masts, by which means she was safely brought 
to Deptford Dock and her defects perfected. 

About the end of December this present year, 
the Prince was docked, to be prepared and fitted 
to sea, meanwhile the Duke of Brunswick ^ came 
to Chatham accompanied with divers of the 
Prince's servants, and went on board the ship in 
the dock. 

The 29th day of January after, the Prince was 
launched, and soon after had her masts set ; and 
divers other ships graved and made ready for 
a voyage to sea. 

The 28th of March 1625, certain news was 
brought to Chatham of King James' death ; and 
the next day after, his Majesty was proclaim.ed 
amongst us in the Navy at the Hill House ; ^ the 
Masters, Boatswains, Gunners, Pursers, and all 
belonging to the Navy were present. 

All April and May I attended at Chatham, to 
prepare the Fleet that was then bound to fetch 
over the Queen. In the latter end of May his 
Majesty came to Rochester, where I presented 
myself unto him in the Dean's Yard and kissed 
his hand and had speech with him, till he came into 
the house, where he dined and I attended him all the 
dinner while. Thence I hasted home, and waited 
liis Majesty's coming by towards Canterbury, who 
alighted at my house and stayed there awhile 

» Duke Christian of Brunswick-Wolfenbiittel. He arrived 
in England on December 20 with letters of recommendation 
from Elizabeth of Bohemia, whose cause he was championing, 
and was the guest of the Prince of Wales. 

» The official residence of the Navy Officers on Chatham 
Hill. 



1 



1625 CHARLES VISITS THE FLEET 135 

and gave me leave to drink his health, and then 
returned to his coach, giving me charge to follow 
him and to hasten on board the Prince, being 
then in the Downs. According to his command, I 
presently took horse and followed him, and lay at 
Sandwich that night, and next day came into the 
Downs ; went on board to the Vanguard, com- 
manded by Captain Pennington, bound for France, 
where I met Sir Thomas Button, Captain Ned 
Giles, and other good company ; there dined, 
and after was set on board the Prince. 

Saturday the 4th of June, his Majesty came 
on board the Prince, riding then in Dover Road, 
where he dined and was safely landed again. 
Yet this evening we let slip and went room ^ 
for the Downs with very foul weather. 

Thursday the 9th of June, we got over to 
Boulogne ^ and anchored in Boulogne Road. 
The loth day we had a great storm, the wind 
nor'th-west, where all our ships drove,^ and we 
brake our best bower and were forced to let fall 
our sheet anchor, which put us both to great 
danger and puzzle * of loss of men and boats, and 
had also one of our men belonging to the steward- 
room drowned. 

Sunday morning, being the 12th day, all 
things prepared fit and the great storm allayed, 
about II of the clock we received our young Queen 
on board, and having a fair leading gale, fitting 
the entertainment of a Queen, we set sail out of 
Boulogne Road about one [of the] clock, and before 
8 had safely landed her and her train at Dover. 

Monday morning I left the ship and went on 
shore at Dover, and missing my horses was forced 

* Bore large, bringing the wind on the beam or quarter. 
- MS. ' BuUen.* ' Dragged their anchors. 

* Predicament. 



136 APPOINTED ON 1625 

to go to Sandwich, where I lay all night, and next 
day hired post horse home. The boatswain of 
the ship, John Handcroft, died so soon as I was 
landed upon the beach. 

The 14th day of July 1625, my eldest son John 
Pett was married to Catherine Yardley, youngest 
daughter to Mr. Robert Yardley, of Chatham, 
deceased. The wedding was kept at our own 
house. 

The 24th of September my wife's mother 
sickened at my house [at] Chatham, and the 4th 
of October she died, and the 6th day, being 
Thursday, she was buried in the chancel of our 
parish church: Mr. Pyham^ made her funeral 
sermon. 

The last part of this Christmas quarter, I was 
posted to and again from Chatham to London 
and Hampton Court, about building of small 
ships and presenting plats * of them, both to the 
King and Commissioners of the Navy, to very 
little purpose and my great trouble and charge. 

In the year '26 I was called to sundry employ- 
ments, the one to have built a new ship at Chatham 
of 300 tons, and Mr. Burrell was to have built 
another, for which I made moulds and sent them 
into the woods by one Thomas Williams, ship- 
wright, 

My son Joseph died in Ireland in February 
this year.^ 

who hewed the frame in the woods, which was 

* John Pyham, Vicar of Chatham. 

• Designs. 

> This has been added at the bottom of the page, where 
it has no connection with the context. In the margin Pett has 
written, 'Son Joseph died in Ireland this year 1625.' 



1627 COMMISSION OF INQUIRY 137 

brought into the yard with an excellent provision 
of long straight timber ; but by the mahce of Mr. 
Burrell the business was hindered, and not suffered 
to go forward, so that the frame was kept in 
the yard till it was good for no use of shipping ; 
but afterward I was employed to build two 
small pinnaces of 70 tons a piece or thereabouts, 
which I performed accordingly at Chatham, my 
son Richard being my principal foreman. They 
were called, the one the Henrietta, the other 
Maria, after the Queen's name. 

Also, the Commissioners of the Navy growing 
to be called in question for their actions, in the 
latter end of this year,i there was a great com- 
mission of Lords and divers other experienced 
captains granted under the Broad SeaP for inquiry 
of their actions, amongst which number I was 
chosen one : much doing was about it, but in the 
end it trenched so far upon some great person- 
ages, that it was let fall and nothing to any purpose 
done in it, but divers of the Commissioners came 
to Chatham, and surveyed the state of the ships 
and other things ; and so in the end of January 
following returned all to London. 

The 14th of February, being Wednesday and 
St. Valentine's Day, my dear wife Ann departed 
this Hfe in the morning, and was buried the Friday 
after in Chatham Church in the evening, leaving 
behind her a disconsolate husband and sad family. 
Not long after, I being at London, my only sister 
then living, Mary Cooper, departed this life the 
fifth of March for very grief of the loss of my dear 
wife. 

This summer, my son John was made captain 
of a merchant ship, and served under Sir Sackvill 

* 12 Dec. 1626. Pett was named last in the list. 
2 I.e. the Great Seal. 



138 SECOND MARRIAGE 1627 

Trevor's command at the taking of the French 
prize called the St. Esprit.^ 

In July, I was contracted to my second wife 
Mistress Susan Yardley, the widow of Mr. Robert 
Yardley, whose daughter my son John had 
formerly married. The i6th of the same month 
we were married at St. Margaret's Church, by 
Mr. Franklyn ; Mr. George Wilson ^ gave her in 
the church. 

The 20th of February, 1627,' the Commissioners 
of the Navy were summoned before the Lords, 
and their commission called in and dissolved, and 
the government of the Navy conferred upon the 
Principal Officers then being, to be carried as in 
former times. 

The 26th of February, attending the Officers 
of the Navy at Sir Sackville Crowe's * house by 
Charing Cross, Sir^ John Pennington came thither 
to acquaint them with a warrant from the Lord 
Duke, directed to him and myself, for present 
bargaining with the yard-keepers' of the river 
for the building of 10 small vessels ' for the enter- 
prise of Rochelle, of some 120 tons a-piece, with 
one deck and quarter only, to row as well as sail. 
The 28th day of the same month we concluded 
our bargains with the several yardkeepcrs and 
drew covenants between us, and delivered them 
imprests® accordingly. In this business I was 
employed till the latter end of July, that the 
ships set sail to Portsmouth. My son John was 
placed Captain in the sixth Whelp, built by my 

> Built by the Dutch, but intended for the Frcndi Navy. 
It was captured in the Texcl and added to the EngHsh Fleet. 

• One of the four Masters Attendant. 

• MS. ' 1637.' 1628 new style. * Treasurer of the Navy. 

• Knighted in 1634. • Shipbuilders. 

' The ten Lion's Whelps. • Pajonents in advance. 



1628 ARRESTED FOR DEBT 139 

kinsman Peter Pett ; having liberty from the 
Lord Duke to make choice for him amongst them 
all, I chose that pinnace before the rest, supposing 
she would have proved best, which fell out after- 
ward clean contrary. 

The 2ist of this month of July, as I was going 
in London to attend the meeting of the Officers 
of the Navy, I was arrested at the suit of one 
Freeman, upon 3 executions for timber delivered 
to the building of Sir Walter Ralegh's ship and 
the two pinnaces built at Ratcliff ^ for the expedi- 
tion of Algier, and was forcibly carried to prison to 
the Counter ^ in the Poultry, where I was lodged 
all night. The next morning, the King and the 
Lord Duke being made acquainted by Sir John 
Pennington with the business, the Lords of the 
Council were twice assembled about my clearing, 
and the care recommended to the Lord Treasurer 
Weston, who employed his secretary, Mr. John 
Gibbons, to see me freed, which was done by a 
habeas corpus to remove me to the Fleet,^ where 
I was carried and there put in bond for my appear- 
ance the first day of Michaelmas term ; so for 
that time discharged, Mr. Gibbons defraying the 
whole charge. A little before this his Majesty 
gave me a blank for making a baronet, which was 
signed by his hand. 

I received warrant from the Lord Duke to go 
to Portsmouth, there to attend the setting out 
of the Fleet ; which accordingly I did, taking my 

» MS. ' Redcliff.' 

» More usually spelt ' Compter ' : one of the debtors' prisons 
attached to the Sheriff's Court ; the last was aboUshed in 

1854. 

» The prison on the east side of Farringdon Street, taking 

its name from the Fleet River ; burnt down in 1666 and in 

1780 ; it was aboHshed in 1842. 



140 MURDER OF BUCKINGHAM 1628 

journey from Lambeth the first of August, accom- 
panied with my son Richard, Wilham Dalton, and 
some other shipwrights. When I came to Ports- 
mouth, by means of some friends I procured a 
convenient lodging in a private house, where 
I lay all the time of my being there, in which I 
saw many passages and the great disaster happen- 
ing unto the Lord Duke. After the mutiny upon 
the Green on Friday in the evening, about the 
execution of a poor seaman that was hanged upon 
a gibbet on the beach, and the next day, being 
Saturday and the 23rd day, about 10 of the clock, 
the Duke was murdered in Captain Mason's ^ house 
by a private * discontented lieutenant called 
Felton, being stabbed with a knife to the heart 
as he was talking with Sir Thomas [left blank 
in MS.) ^ at the parlour door. 

The 4th of September, my son John took leave 
of me in the evening and went on board his ship ; 
whom I never saw after, being unfortunately cast 
away in the return from Rochelle ; both ship and 
men perishing in the sea, as it was supposed 
foundered in the storm, which was a grievous 
affliction to myself, my wife [and] his own wife, 
left great with child at his going to sea. 

The 6th September, the service concluded and 
all the Fleet sent away, I left Portsmouth accom- 
panied with son Richard and returned for Chatham, 
coming thither on Monday the 8th day, finding my 
wife and family in good health, praising God for 
our comfortable meeting. 

/ Treasurer of the Army, with whom Buckingham was 
lodging. 

■ Apparently used in the sense of ' unemployed.* 

■ Colonel Sir Thomas Fryer. The circumstances are 
related in detail by Dr. S. R. Gardiner in his History of England 
from the Accession of Janus /., vol. vi. chap. Ixv. 



i 



1628 IMPRISONED IN THE FLEET 141 

After divers passages and journeys from 
Chatham to London and Hampton Court, to my 
great expense, and could conclude nothing for 
clearing my arrest, I was forced, for saving harm- 
less my sureties in the Fleet,^ to deliver myself 
a prisoner the first day of the term, going thither 
in the evening, taking possession of the chamber 
provided for me with a heavy heart, my son 
Richard accompan3dng me. Afterward, being 
advised by my worthy friend, Captain Pennington, 
who never forsook me in all my troubles, but 
furnished my wants continually, way was made to 
acquaint his Majesty with my case ; who very 
graciously gave order to the Lord Treasurer to see 
me freed from prison, where I continued, not- 
withstanding, six or seven days before I could 
be released and an agreement concluded with 
Freeman for his debt by the Lord Treasurer ; 
which done, I presented myself to his Majesty who 
used me very graciously. 

In this interim I received certain intelligence of 
the great loss of my son John, his ship, and all his 
company, who foundered in the sea about the 
Seames,^ in a great storm about the beginning of 
November ; not one man saved to bring the dole- 
ful news ; no ship near them to deliver the cer- 
tainty, but a small pink belonging to the Fleet, 
that was within ken of her, and saw her shoot 
9 pieces of ordnance, hoping of succour. This 
affliction was the greater for that his dear wife 
was, much about the time of her husband's loss, 
delivered of a son at my house at Chatham, 
having a mournful time of lying in, which son was 
baptized at Chatham Church on Sunday the 23rd 
day, afternoon, called Phineas. The witnesses : — 

* I.e. the prison of that name. 

* Chauss6e de Sein, south of Ushant. 



142 FALL FROM HORSE 1628 

my wife, godmother; myself and good friend, 
Mr. George Wilson, being godfathers. 

Towards the end of December, I was appointed 
by the Officers of the Navy to take charge of 
docking the Vanguard at Woolwich, which I 
presently took order in, to have the dock fitted 
and prepared for that purpose. 

I docked the Vanguard and caused a dam to 
be made without the gates ; then took down the 
gates and wharves within the dam, and made 
all new, both floor, wharves and gates ; which was 
finished in a short time. About this time, riding 
from Woolwich to Greenwich, sent for by Captain 
Pennington, mid way betwixt both, the horse 
gave me a dangerous fall, close by a ditch side 
full of water ; by which I received a great hurt 
upon my right leg and thigh, which was sore 
bruised by the fall, in so much as I had much 
ado to get back again, and was not recovered of 
the hurt in six weeks time, but was forced to use 
crutches. 

About the beginning of June, by Captain Pen- 
nington's procurement I passed the baronet given 
me formerly by the King, for which the Captain 
received for me 200 pounds, which he sent me to 
Woolwich in gold. 

About this time I gave over my house at 
Chatham and surrendered the lease thereof to Mr. 
Isackson,^ the painter, who renewed it for longer 
time with Sir Robert Jackson, then Lord of the 
Manor. 

Towards the end of September, I was employed 
by the Lord Treasurer Weston as a Commissioner 
for his Majesty to the forests of Shotover and 
Stowood, near Oxford, which forests were 
granted from his Majesty by letters patent to 
* Richard, successor to Paul Isackson. 



i629 DEATH OF RICHARD 143 

the Earl of Lindsey ; ^ wherein I discharged my 
duty so effectually as gained me a good opinion 
both from his Majesty and the Lord Treasurer ; 
from which employment I returned to Woolwich 
the 8th day of November, having finished a tedious 
and troublesome business. 

The 27th day of November, it pleased God 
to take from me my dear beloved son Richard, 
who died with me at Woolwich and was buried in 
the church chancel next day after ; being a great 
affliction unto me, by reason he was my eldest son 
then living, being a very hopeful young man, and 
for his years an excellent artist, being trained by 
me to that purpose for making of ships. 

A little after Christmas, I was employed as a 
Commissioner with Mr. Treswell,^ Surveyor of his 
Majesty's Woods, to view certain parks of his 
Majesty : as Ditton Park, Sunning Park and pDlly 
John 3 Park, lying near about Windsor; which 
we despatched in four or five days, and returned 
back to Westminster, and delivered in the account 
and certificate of the business to the Lord 
Treasurer. 

Towards the middle of February, there was a 
resolution by his Majesty and the Lords of the 
Admiralty to make an addition of assistants to 
the Principal Officers of his Majesty's Navy, for 
the better managing of that great business by 
experienced men ; to which purpose Mr. William 
Burrell was nominated as one and myself by his 
Majesty's own appointment was chosen for the 
other, not without some strong opposition which 

1 Robert Bertie, created Earl of Lindsey 1626 ; admiral 
of the second fleet sent to Rochelle in 1628. 

• Robert Treswell. 

3 Foliejon on the modern ordnance map. ' Folly ' 
appears to be a local name for a clump of trees on a hill. 



144 ASSISTANT TO 1630 

could not prevail ; so that there was a letter under 
his Majesty's signet directed to the Officers, 
and ourselves to sit with the Officers, and to 
authorise us to proceed together in all businesses 
concerning his Majesty's Service, which was 
twice read in public court at their meeting in 
Mincing Lane, the 8th day of March 1629, and then 
we took place first with them ; where it was con- 
cluded to begin first with a general survey of the 
whole Navy at Chatham, and all stores within 
and without doors, and to put out by the great, 
as we should hold fitting, the repair of all apparent 
defects in the ships, which was recommended 
wholly to the care of Mr. Burrell and myself ; 
which was effectually performed by us, and the 
works of the ships put to Mr. Goddard,^ one of 
the Master Shipwrights, to be done by contract ; 
which business we fully concluded by the end of 
March, 1630. 

After we had settled all business at Chatham, 
Deptford and Woolwich, Mr. Burrell and myself 
took our journey, the 6th of May, to Portsmouth, 
where we arrived the 8th day after ; taking up 
our lodgings at [the] Dock with the Clerk of the 
Stores,* where Mr. Burrell lay, and myself at the 
Clerk of the Check,' both Mr. Brookes and brothers; 
here we stayed upon despatch of all business con- 
cerning the defects of the ships, surveys, and other 
material business ; which having all ordered, 
settled, and graved the ships, we returned thence 
and came to London the 4th day of June following. 

The 4th of August, there was a great Com- 
mission sent to Portsmouth, to take a view of the 
harbour and the river running up to Fareham,* 
for the removing of his Majesty's ships to a more 

* Henry Goddard. » Francis Brooke. 

» John Brooke. • MS. 'Farum/ 



1630 THE PRINCIPAL OFFICERS 145 

safe place of riding ; all the Principal Officers of 
his Majesty's Navy being Commissioners, together 
with Mr. Burr ell, his Majesty's Masters of the Navy, 
and six of the chief Masters of the Trinity House. 
There was much dispute and contrariety about 
the business, but in the end a fair agreement was 
concluded. Some of the Masters of the Trinity 
House there sickened, which hastened both their 
returns and ours back. In our return home, 
myself was taken very sick at Farnham, where 
Mr. Burrell and myself parted, he staying behind 
about some particular business of his own, but 
we never saw one another after, being the 13th day 
of August. It pleased God that I got home to 
Woolwich that very night very dangerously sick, 
and stirred not out of my chamber in eight weeks 
space, in which interim Mr. Burrell died in an 
inn, as he travelled toward Huntingdon, the end 
of this present month. 

About the 23rd day of November following, I 
was sent again to Portsmouth with a commission 
to search and enquire about the worm which was 
reported to eat the ships in the Road, to their 
endangering and hazard. There were divers 
Master Shipwrights joined with me in the business, 
but upon strict examination upon oath there 
could be no such matter found, but only a rumour 
raised to hinder the keeping of any his Majesty's 
ships in that harbour .^ 

About the end of December his Majesty signed 
my letters patent for the place of a Principal Officer 

* The report, signed by Phineas Pett, Jo. Dearslye, Peter 
Pett, Andrewes Burrell, John Greaves and John Taylor, is 
preserved (S.P. Dom. Chas. I. clxxvi. 8). Mr. Oppenheim 
(Administration, p. 297) points out that * five years later some 
of the same men turned round with " we positively conclude 
that there is a worm in that harbour." ' 



146 A NAVY COMMISSIONER 1631 

and Commissioner of his Navy, and the 19th day 
of January following I had my letters patent 
publicly read at the meeting of the Principal 
Officers of his Majesty's Navy in Mincing Lane in 
London, and accordingly took my place amongst 
them ; the 26th day after, they were publicly 
read before the whole Navy men at Chatham. 

The 23rd of February I brought my wife 
from Woolwich to Chatham in a coach all the way 
by land ; we alighted at son Yardley's door where 
we took up our lodging. 

The first of March I received from Mr. Robert 
Smith, Messenger of the Navy, 8 commissions of 
purveyance and other business concerning the 
Navy under the Broad Seal of England directed 
to me. 

The 2ist day of April, being Thursday, his 
Majesty, accompanied with divers of the lords, as 
the Treasurer ,1 Chamberlain,^ Marquis Hamilton, 
Holland ^ and others, came to Woolwich to see 
the Vanguard launched that day, which was per- 
formed to his Majesty's great content. I enter- 
tained them in my lodgings with wine, cakes and 
other things, which were well accepted. His 
Majesty commanded me into the barge with him, 
purposing to have landed at Deptford to have seen 
the St. Denis,* newly repaired in dry dock, but the 
rain hindered his landing, and I was taken out of 
his Majesty's barge into a pair of oars. On Friday 
morning was launched the Victory, lying above 
the Vanguard in the same dock [at] Woolwich. 

» Richard Weston, created Baron Weston in 1628, and 
Earl of Portland in 1633. 

• The Lord High Chamberlain was Robert Bertie, Earl of 
Lindsey ; the Lord Chamberlain was Philip Herbert, Earl of 
Pembroke, who had succeeded his brother, William. 

■ Henry Rich, ist Earl of Holland, beheaded 1649. 

• A prize of 1625 taken into the Navy. 



^ 



i63i CHARLES VISITS CHATHAM 147 

On Frida3^ being the 13th of May, I shipped all 
my goods and household stuff from Woolwich in 
one Starland's hoy, which were all safely landed at 
his Majesty's new dock [at] Chatham the next day. 
On Monday, the i6th day, I brought myself and 
family into my lodgings at the new dock. 

Wednesday, being the 15th day of June, all the 
ships in the Navy at Chatham being completely 
trimmed in all points, rigged, and all their sails 
at yards, and ordnance on board, his Majesty, at- 
tended with divers lords, came to Strood ^ about 2 
o'clock afternoon, where the Officers of the Navy 
attended his Highness with barges and boats, and 
being embarked rew ^ down the river on board the 
Prince, and from her on board all the ships riding 
in that [place]. At his Majesty's embarking, the 
ships did orderly discharge their ordnance. The 
King went to his lodging at the Crown, Rochester. 

Next morning betimes, his Majesty took 
his barge again, and went on board the rest of 
the ships riding in the upper reach, beginning 
with the Lion, being the uppermost ship ; so to the 
rest in order, observing the course and order of 
the discharging their ordnance as the day before ; 
then landed at the old dock and viewed all the ord- 
nance upon the wharves ; then walked on foot to 
the new dock, by the way taking notice of the 
ropehouse and storehouses without the dock gates ; 
then came into the yard and viewed the stores 
and houses ; after came into my lodgings, where 
he stayed a pretty while ; then went to the top of 
the hill on the back side, where his Majesty stood 
to see the ordnance fired from the ships ; from 
thence walked back to the old dock, where his 

» MS. 'Strowde.' 

' A very late example of this form of the past tense of 
*row.* 



148 CHARLES AT PORTSMOUTH 1631 

Highness took his barge to Rochester, by the way 
hovering to observe the trained-band placed in 
two battahons and skirmished in warlike manner, 
to his Majesty's great content. His Majesty 
landed at Rochester and went to dinner ; then 
called for the Officers of the Navy, giving * them 
many thanks for their care and pains ; then took 
his coach to Gravesend, thence up by water to 
Greenwich. 

Monday morning, being the 25th of July, I 
took my journey from Chatham towards Ports- 
mouth, riding through Sussex. We came to 
Portsmouth [the] 27th day at night and lodged 
at the Queen's Head. We were sent to provide 
and prepare all the ships riding at Portsmouth in 
manner as they were at Chatham, to entertain 
his Majesty, resolved to view them all ; which was 
accordingly performed. 

The second of August, being Tuesday, his 
Majesty came to Portsmouth accompanied with 
divers lords, and presently took boat and went on 
board each several ship, from thence treatably * 
returning, and the ships saluting him with their 
ordnance. His Majesty was landed by six of 
the clock and went directly to the Governor's 
house, where he was lodged, and called for supper 
as soon as he came. Next day I attended his 
Majesty for order for removing the ships, which 
presently was done by his Majesty's own mouth ; 
and waiting at dinner, his Majesty commanded 
me to attend the Lord Treasurer and others, to 
transport them into the Isle of Wight and bring 
them back ; which I carefully performed in his 
Majesty's pinnace, the Maria, appointed for that 
purpose, and safely landed him from the Cowes at 
Titchfield Haven, being attended with one of the 

» MS. ' given.' « Deliberately. 



i 



1633 WOOLWICH AND DEPTFORD 149 

Whelps. I returned to Chatham from Portsmouth 
the loth of August after. 

The 25th of this month, being Thursday, my son 
John's wife, lost in the sixth Whelp, was married 
to Edward Stevens,^ a shipwright, in Chatham 
Church, the wedding being at my house in the 
new dockyard, where we gave entertainment to 
all his friends till Monday after, when they returned 
for London. 

In 2 the beginning of this year, 1632, I was com- 
manded from his Majesty to assist my son Peter in 
the building a new ship at Woolwich, which was begun 
in February, being of the burthen 0/800 tons and ton- 
nage; most part of the frame and provisionsbeing made 
in the forests of Shotover and Stowood, Oxfordshire ; 
my son had the oversight of the work. About the 
Sth of June, his Majesty came to Woolwich to see the 
work, where I entertained him afterwards in my 
lodgings and attended his Majesty to Deptford in his 
own barge, where he landed to view the other new ship 
built by Mr. Goddard. 

The soth day of January, 1633, the new ship at 
Woolwich was launched, the Kings Majesty being 
there present, standing in my lodgings. It proved 
a fair day and good tide, so that the ship was put out 
without strain of tackle, which much contented his 
Majesty, who soon after took his barge and returned 
to Whitehall. The ship was named the Charles 
after his own name. 

The next day the new ship at Deptford built by 
Mr. Goddard was launched, the King and Queen's 
Majesties being present, and was called after the 
Queen s name, Henrietta Maria. 

By the beginning of March, the Henrietta being 

» Son of Edward Stephens, late Master Shipwright. 
Imprisoned in 1626 for disrespect to Pett and Trevor. 
* The passage in italics is wanting in the original MS. 



150 THE CHARLES 1633 

come to ride at Woolwich by the Charles, both being 
ready fitted to set sail for Chatham, his Majesty was 
pleased to come down in his barge on board theCharles, 
We presently weighed with both ships and set sail 
with the wind at south-west and better ; his Majesty 
went in her a little beneath"^ Barking Creek, and 
then took his barge and returned, we taking leave 
after the manner of the sea with our voices and 
whistles, and the Kings trumpets upon the poop. 
By low water we were got beneath the Nore a good 
distance, and there anchored all night, and the next 
flood we turned up as high as Oakham Ness ^ and 
there anchored, and on Monday after came over the 
chain. 

The 22nd of March, I was appointed to make a 
journey to Portsmouth to take survey of all the busi- 
ness there, both on float and on the shore. Mr. 
Edisbury,^ Mr. Goddard, Mr. Goodwin * the Master, 
Mr. Apslyn,^ and our clerks going along with us. 
We took our journey from London on Friday 
morning, and came to Portsmouth on Sunday after- 
noon. It was the 6th of April following before I 
returned to home to Chatham. The 11th day, son 
Peter first time took his journey to Woodbridge in 
Suffolk to see Mrs. Coles eldest daughter. 

The 15th of June, 1633, / went a journey to 
Portsmouth from Chatham, through part of East 

* Below. * MS. Ockum. In the Medway. 

» Kenrick Edisbury, alias Wilkinson, who in 1626 was 
Paymaster of the Navy, succeeded Sir Thos. Aylesbury as 
Surveyor of the Navy in December 1632 and died in 1638. 
Mr. Oppenheim pronounces him * perhaps the most observant 
and energetic of the chief officers.' 

* John Goodwin, Master Attendant at Portsmouth. 

* Nathaniel Apslyn. In 1626, when Carpenter of the 
Red Lion, he was recommended by Pett for the post of Assist- 
ant Master Shipwright, and was appointed in that capacity 
at Chatham. 



1633 VISIT TO PORTSMOUTH 151 

Kent, accompanied with Sir Henry Palmer, Captain 
William Hawkridge, newly returned from captivity} 
our clerks and servants, Saturday and Sunday 
night we lay at Buckwell,^ at Captain Moyles, whose 
wife was sister to the Lady Palmer, Monday we rode 
to one Sir William Campion's, where we were very 
kindly entertained till Wednesday morning ; thence 
taking leave we rode to Lewes to dinner ; thence to 
Shoreham,^ where we lodged that night; thence to 
Chichester, there dined; then to Portsmouth where 
we stayed four days to despatch business there ; 
which done, we came thence to Gtiildford ; so to 
London ; and the 26th day, being Wednesday, I came 
home to Chatham. 

The ^th of July, 1633, being a Friday, I began a 
journey from Chatham by sea into Suffolk in the 
little Henrietta pinnace commanded by Captain 
Cook, one of the Master Attendants of his Majesty's 
Navy, accompanied with young Mr. Henry Palmer, 
Mr. Isackson, son Yardley, cousin'^ Joseph, my 
sons Peter and Christopher, man Charles Bowles, 
and George Parker.^ We set sail from Gillingham 
in the morning, having a fair gale at south-west. 
We anchored against Harwich, between two and 
three of the clock, afternoon, and from thence shipped 
ourselves and company in boats for Ipswich, arriv- 
ing there afore 6 in the evening, and lodged at the 
Angel Inn, which was then kept by my cousin Bar- 

^ Hawkridge is said to have accompanied Button in the 
voyage of 1612. In 16 19 he was in command of an expedi- 
tion in search of the North-West Passage which proved a 
failure. Subsequently he was captured with his ship and 
cargo, valued at ;f20oo, by the pirates of Algiers and held to 
ransom. See Christy, Voyages oj Foxe and James (Hakluyt 
Soc). 

^ Near Wye, on the main road from Ashford to Canterbury. 

3 MS. 'Shorum.' ^ * Nephew. 

* Master Carpenter of the St. Denis in 1632. 



152 VISIT TO WOODBRIDGE 1633 

wick. On Saturday morning we were horsed to 
Woodhridge on hackneys, whither we came about 11 
of the clock and were lodged at the Crown. After 
dinner we went to visit Mrs. Cole and her daughters, 
with whom we had large discourse about the match 
of her daughter with my son Peter, and found our 
propositions entertained, I having great liking to the 
maid. Sunday, we and our train dined and supped 
at Mrs. Coles. Monday, we invited mother and 
daughters and Mr. Fleming to dine with us at 
our inn, whither came to us divers of our friends 
to whom we gave the best entertainment the place 
could afford. In the afternoon we had private 
conferences together, and concluded the match and 
contracted the parties with free consent on both sides ; 
we supped this night at Mrs. Coles. Tuesday 
forenoon, having despatched all our business, we 
took our journey by horse to Landguard Point ^ 
accompanied with Mistress Cole, her daughters, 
and other their friends and neighbours, whom we 
entertained a while on board our pinnace, and 
there resolved the day of marriage ; thence we 
accompanied them on shore, saw them horsed, 
and so took leave. My son and some other of our 
company accompanied them to Woodbridge, being 
overtaken with a mighty storm of rain, thunder 
and lightning all the way. All the next day prov- 
ing very foul and wet weather, the wind contrary, 
and my son and his company not returned (who 
came not to us till almost 3, afternoon) we con- 
cluded to stay till next morning in the road. My- 
self and most of our company went on shore to 
Harwich and there lay that night. 

Thursday morning we came on board betimes 
and set sail, and that tide came up as high as 
Bishop Ness in our river of Medway, where we 
* MS. ' Langer.' At the entrance to Harwich harbour. 



1633 BROWN PAPER STUFF 153 

anchored and had boats meet us from Chatham, in 
whom we embarked, and were safely landed at the 
new dock about seven, Friday morning, 12th July, 
giving God thanks for our prosperous voyage and 
safe return. 

About the middle of this month, my son 
Peter had order to prepare moulds for a frame of 
a new ship of 500 tons, to be built by him at 
Woolwich, and was assigned to have the timber of 
out Stowood and Shotover in Oxfordshire. 

About this time also, Sir Henry Palmer and 
myself were deeply questioned about making sale 
of brown paper stuff ^ which we claimed as a 
perquisite to our places, and by the information of 
Mr. Edisbury, our fellow officer, to Sir Jonn Coke. 
The information was presented with a great deal 
of malice, and his Majesty was made acquainted 
withal ; but it pleased God that their malice 
took no effect, the King giving us a free discharge, 
only we repaid the moneys received for the 
commodity to the Treasurer of the Navy for his 
Majesty's use. 

The 3rd day of September, my son Peter came 
to Chatham accompanied with Mr. Sheldon ^ and 
Mr. Francis Terringham, and the next morning 
we embarked ourselves at the new dock, accom- 
panied also with Mr. Bostock, cousin Joseph, and 
son Christopher, and all our provisions, and came 
on board the Henrietta pinnace at Gillingham, 
where Captain Cooke attended us ready to set 
sail ; from whence with a prosperous gale, the 
wind at south-west and very fair weather, we 
came to anchor before Harwich about six of the 
clock. All our company went on shore to Harwich, 
where we lodged that night, and the next day 

1 Old cordage, used for manufacture into brown paper. 
» Francis Sheldon, Clerk of the Check at Woolwich. 



154 ARRESTED FOR DEBT 1633 

from thence took our journey to Woodbridge, 
where we were joyfully received and entertained 
by Mistress Cole^ and her friends. On Sunday 
following, being the 8th day of September, my 
son was married to Mistress Cole's daughter in 
Woodbridge Church after the sermon. On the 
Thursday after, all my company took leave at 
Woodbridge and came to our ship riding at 
Harwich, where we lodged that night, and on 
Friday morning embarked ourselves and set 
sail ; having the wind fair, we got up as high as 
Oakham, where we anchored and took boats to 
St. Mary Creek, where we landed and walked 
home on foot, giving God thanks for our prosperous 
voyage and safe return. 

The 8th of December, being Sunday, lying at 
my lodging in Mincing Lane, London, as I was 
going to church in the forenoon, I was set upon 
by six sergeants,* who arrested me at the suit of 
my sister Pett,^ widow to my brother Peter ; by 
whom I was used uncivilly, but after they were 
told by Sir Henry Palmer they would be called 
to account for abusing the King's servant they 
let me go ; which turned me afterward to a 
great trouble and suit in law, to my great 
charge. 

In the month of February were launched the 
Unicom at Woolwich, built by Mr. Boate,* and 
the next spring following was launched the James 
out of Deptford Dock, built there by my nephew, 
Peter Pett; the King's Majesty being in person 

* The wife of Thomas Cole, who was one of the witnesses 
at the Inquiry of 1610 (supra, p. 57). Thomas Cole owned 
the Manor of Woodbridge, which by 1649 came into Peter's 
possession. See Copinger, Manors oj Suffolk, vol. iv. p. 328. 

■ Bailiffs. » Sec Introduction. 

« Edward Boate, Master Shipwright. 



1634 BROWN PAPER STUFF 155 

present at both places, where I attended his 
Highness all the time of that business. 

The 22nd day of the same month, Sir Henry 
Palmer * and myself were commanded to attend 
the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, to 
answer the great information prosecuted against us 
by the malice of Secretary Coke by intimation of 
Mr. Edisbury, newly made Surveyor of the Navy, 
for selling the old brown paper stuff as perquisites 
of our places ; we were not called in till the even- 
ing ; none but Mr. Fleming ^ and myself appeared. 
Sir Henry Palmer purposely absenting himself. 
There were present at [the] council table. Earl 
Dorset,^ Sir Henry Vane,* Secretary Coke and 
Secretary Windebank.^ 

Mr. Secretary Coke delivered his Majesty*s 
pleasure, with despiteful aggravation of the fact 
and the dangerous precedent^ to others. The 
conclusion was that his Majesty's command was 
we should be suspended our places. We were 
not suffered to make any reply, but dismissed 
and referred to his Majesty's further pleasure. 
On the Monday after, I attended to speak to his 
Majesty so soon as he was ready in his withdrawing 
chamber, where his Majesty was pleased to call 
me to him ; and before all the lords there present 
and my professed enemy, Secretary Coke, his 
Majesty used me very graciously, with large 

* Comptroller of the Navy since 1632 ; son of the Comp- 
troller of the Navy of the same name who died in 1611. 

* Denis Fleming, Clerk of the Acts. 

3 Edward Sackville, 4th Earl, one of the Commissioners 
of the Admiralty appointed after the death of Buckingham. 

* The elder (1589-1655), then Comptroller of the Household 
and Privy Councillor. 

» Sir Francis Windebank (1582-1646), joint-Secretary of 
State with Sir John Coke, 1632. 
« MS. 'president.' 



156 MODEL FOR THE PRINCE 1634 

expression and protestation of the continuance 
of his future favour and continued encourage- 
ments ; which though Secretary Coke Hked not, 
yet he made great show of his well wishing to me 
in his Majesty's presence ; but notwithstanding 
all this, I repaid the moneys I had received for 
my share, being 86 pounds, to the Treasurer of 
the Navy for his Majesty's use, out of my yearly 
entertainment. 

About the middle of March, my son brought 
his wife and his mother, with their family, from 
Woodbridge to my house at Chatham, where 
they all stayed with us till the 23rd of April 
following, and then went all to Woolwich, where 
my son was employed upon the building of his 
Majesty's ship the Leopard. 

The 22nd of June was finished a little ship, 
being completely rigged and gilded, and placed 
upon a carriage with wheels ^ resembling the sea ; 
was enclosed in a great case of deals and shipped 
for London in the Fortune Pink, and was out of 
her taken into a wherry and carried through bridge 
to Scotland Yard and from thence to St. James*, 
where it was placed in the long gallery and pre- 
sented to the Prince, who entertained it with a 
great deal of joy, being purposely made for him to 
disport himself withal. 

The 26th of June, his Majesty came to Wool- 
wich in his barge to see the frame of the Leopard, 
then half built ; and being in the ship*s hold his 
Highness, calling me aside, privately acquainted 
me with his princely resolution for the building 
of a great new ship, which he would have me to 
undertake, using these words to me : — ' You have 
made many requests to me, and now I will make 
it my request to you to build this ship,' com- 
» MS. ' whelles/ 



i63S MODEL OF GREAT SHIP 157 

manding me to attend his coming to Wanstead 1 
where he would further confer with me about it. 

The 29th October, the model made for the 
great new ship was carried to Hampton Court 
and there placed in the Privy Gallery, where, 
after his Majesty had seen and thoroughly per- 
used, he commanded us to carry it back to White- 
hall and place it in the Privy Gallery till his 
Majesty's coming thither ; which was accordingly 
performed. 

In March, 1635, the nth day, his Majesty 
came to Woolwich to see the launching of the new 
ship built there by my son Peter, the which ship 
I caused to have her masts set in the dock and to 
be completely rigged and ten pieces of ordnance 
placed in her, with her sails at the yard. The 
ship being launched betimes, she was, by his 
Majesty's command, called the Leopard by Sir 
Robert Mansell. After the ship was clear out of 
the dock, his Majesty came on board and there 
stayed almost one hour. We hoped to sail her 
whilst his Majesty had been on board, but the 
wind came northerly, that we could do no good 
to lead it to our moorings. At his Majesty's 
parting away in his barge we gave nine pieces 
of ordnance. 

In the midst of April, his Majesty was graciously 
pleased to renew my privy seal for my pension of 
40/. per annum, payable in the Exchequer, with 
order for all my arrears due upan it. The 8th 
of May following, my son Peter received the same 
arrears, being one hundred pounds. 

The 14th of May, I took leave of his Majesty 

at Greenwich, with his command to hasten my 

journey into the north, to provide and prepare 

the frame and timber and plank and trenails 

» MS. ' Waynstead.' A royal manor. 



138 VOYAGE TO 1635 

for the great new ship to be built at Woolwich ; 
and having despatched all warrants and letters 
concerning that business and some imprests of 
moneys for travelUng charges, I took leave at 
Woolwich and came to Chatham, leaving my 
son to see all the moulds and other necessaries 
to be shipped in a Castle ship, taken up for that 
purpose, to transport all our provisions and work- 
men to Newcastle and to send the ships to take 
us in at Queenborough. 

The 2ist of May, my son with his wife, mother, 
and sisters, and rest of their company, being come 
to us to Chatham and in readiness, we, accom- 
panied with cousin Joseph*s wife and mine own 
company, we took leave at Chatham in the morn- 
ing and repaired by our boats to Queenborough, 
where the ship was in readiness ; where we em- 
barked ourselves, intending to have set sail presently, 
but the wind chopping to east and north-east, we 
could not stir that tide, but rode till the morning ; 
then weighed and set sail and got down as low 
as the Blacktail Sand,^ where we anchored all 
the flood. At high water, being about 3 [o']clock 
afternoon, we weighed again and plyed down 
beneath the Spits and there anchored all that 
night. Saturday morning we weighed and set 
sail again, and the next day by five afternoon we 
came to an anchor against Harwich and landed 
all our passengers bound for Woodbridge, who 
got thither that night ; and the next myself and 
rest of my company went for Woodbridge, where 
we stayed till Tuesday afternoon and then returned 
to Harwich to our ship. Wednesday forenoon, 
we set sail from Harwich, and Thursday morning 
we came into Yarmouth Road, where we anchored, 

» On the edge of the MapHn, six miles east of Shoe- 
buryness. 



1635 YORKSHIRE 159 

went on shore and dined, and after dinner returned 
on board and set sail, plying our course till 
Saturday morning. Being got within twenty 
leagues of Newcastle, the wind took us short, 
and we put room and were landed, not without 
some danger, at Scarborough where we lay that 
night, and our ship put room for Bridlington.^ 

Sunday morning we got horse with some 
difficulty and rode to Whitby,^ where we were 
kindly entertained and lodged at one Captain 
Foxe's ^ house, then lying sick. There we found 
much kindness at the hands of one Mr. Bagwell, 
a shipwright and yardkeeper ; this was the 31st 
of May. Monday morning we parted thence 
and came to Guisborough, a great market town, 
where we baited. From thence we went to 
Stockton,* where we found but mean entertain- 
ment, being lodged in the Mayor*s house, being 
a poor thatched cottage.^ On Tuesday we came 
to Durham, where we baited ; from thence we 
came to Newcastle about five of the clock, lodging 
this night at the posthouse, where we were very 
homely used ; but the next day we removed thence 
to Mr. Leonard Carr's house, where we were very 
well accommodated and neatly lodged, in which 
house we lay all the time of our abode at New- 
castle ; this was the 3rd of June, 1635. 

After our coming to Newcastle and that ^ 
lodged ourselves conveniently, we advised together 
how to proceed in our business, [that] no time 
might be lost ; and first viewed the places from 
whence we were to make choice of our frame and 

1 MS, ' Burlington.' « MS. ' Whytebye.' 

» Luke Foxe, the Arctic navigator. He died at Whitby 

in July. * M.S. ' Stockdone.' 

« Stockton had fallen into decay during the sixteenth 

century. • Sic, 



i6o JOURNEY IN THE 1635 

other provisions, which were Chopwell Woods* 
and Brancepeth Park,^ a good way from one 
another. 

Then, having marked such trees as were fittest 
our purpose, our workmen were disposed of to their 
several charges, and began to fell, square, and 
saw with all the expedition we could. That 
work being settled, my son carefully followed that 
business whilst I myself attended the Lord Bishop 
of Durham^ with my commission and instructions, 
whom I found wonderfully ready and willing to 
give all furtherance to us, assisted by other 
knights and gentlemen. Justices of the Peace in 
the county ; who with all care and diligence took 
order with the country for present carriage. God 
so blessed us in our proceedings that in a short 
time as much of the frame was made ready as laded 
away a great collier belonging to Woodbridge, 
which was safely landed at Woolwich ; and as 
fast as provisions could be made ready, they were 
shipped away. That from Chopwell Woods was 
laded from Newcastle ; that which came from 
Brancepeth, from Sunderland. 

Having ordered all our business, both for 
carriage, moneys, and all other needful things to 
set forward the business, leaving my loving son 
Peter to oversee all, I took my leave of my friends 
at Newcastle the 22nd day of July, being Wednes- 
day, and came to Durham where we lodged that 
night at the posthouse. Next morning I waited 
upon my Lord of Durham, with whom I dined, 
and after dinner took leave and returned to my 
lodging. 

» MS. ' Chopple.' On the Derwent, six miles south-west 
of Newcastle. 

• MS. ' Bramespeth.' On the Wear, four miles south-west 
of Durham. » MS. 'Duresme.' 



1635 NORTH OF ENGLAND i6i 

Friday morning, being the 24th day, I parted 
from Durham accompanied with my son Christo- 
pher, Charles Bowles,^ and the guide. We met, 
also bound our way towards London, three 
Scottish gentlemen and their attendants, who very 
kindly accepted of our company, and we rode 
together to Northallerton where we lodged that 
night at the postmaster's. Next day we rode 
to York and lodged at the postmaster's. Sunday, 
we stayed at York all the day, myself being enter- 
tained at dinner by Sir Arthur Ingram * and at 
night by Alderman Sir William Allison. 

Monday morning, 27th day, we rode to dinner 
to Wentbridge, thence to Doncaster to bed. 
Tuesday we rode to Tuxfard,^ where we dined ; 
thence to Newark upon Trent, there lodged this 
night. 

Wednesday morning we rode from Newark to 
Grantham * where we dined ; thence to Stamford, 
where lodged this night. 

Thursday, bein^ the 30th day, we rode from 
Stamford to Huntingdon, and there dined and 
met there my old acquaintance and noble friend. 
Sir Oliver Cromwell. After dinner we took horse 
again, and at Huntingdon town's-end the Scottish 
gentlemen and we parted ; they took their way 
for London, myself and company for Cambridge, 
where I lodged at the Falcon and visited Emmanuel 
College, where I had been a scholar in my youth. 
I Friday, being last of July, after I had visited 
Trinity College and some others, I rode from 
Cambridge to Bury in Suffolk, where we only 
baited, and rode that night to Stowmarket, 

> ji Pett's clerk. 

* Comptroller of Customs for Port of London ; one time 
Secretary of the Council of the North. 

» MS. ' Tuckesford.' * MS. ' Grantum.' 



i62 JOURNEY HOME TO CHATHAM 1635 

coming thither very wet, having rained very hard 
all that afternoon ; there we lay that night. 
From thence rode next morning to Ipswich, drank 
only at the Greyhound Inn, and thence came to 
Woodbridge, ahghting at sister Cole's about eleven 
of the clock, being the first of August. 

I stayed at Woodbridge till Tuesday, the 4th 
of August ; thence taking leave, I rode to Witham 
to bed ; from thence next morning taking horse 
I came to Gravesend ferry ; there passing over 
my horses I stayed their coming, and then taking 
horse again I came home to my house about 
4 clock afternoon, in safety and health, giving 
God thanks for our safe meeting after eleven weeks 
absence from thence. 

The 4th November, being Tuesday, it pleased 
God to send my son Peter safely to Woolwich, 
where we met together to our great comfort ; 
and so gave order for proceeding in our business. 

The 2ist day of December, the keel of the great 
new ship was laid in his place upon the blocks 
in the dock ; most part of the frame and other 

I)rovisions came safely to Woolwich and were 
anded in the Yard. 

The i6th day of January, his Majesty, accom- 
panied with divers of the lords, came to Woolwich 
to see part of the frame and floor of the ship laid. 
At that time his Majesty gave order to myself 
and son to build two small pinnaces out of the 
wastes of the great ship. 

The 28th day of March, his Majesty came 
again to Woolwich, accompanied with the Pals- 
grave,^ his brother Duke Robert,^ and divers 
other lords, who all stood in the windows of my 

* Charles Lewis, the second son of Frederick and EUzabeth, 
born in 161 7. Frederick had died in 1632. 
« Prince Rupert. 



X637 ROYAL VISIT TO WOOLWICH 163 

lodgings to see the two pinnaces launched, which 
was performed to their great content, and named 
the Gre3^hound and Roebuck. 

About ^ the loth of April, his Majesty's ship 
called by the name of the Anne Royal, bound 
for to be Admiral of the narrow seas, and anchor- 
ing in Tilbury Hope, being unmoored,^ the ship 
winding up ' upon the flood, came foul of her 
own anchor, which pulled out a great part of 
her keel abaft the mast ; and so, in sinking, over- 
threw so suddenly that some of the company 
were drowned, amongst whom was the master's 
wife and one other woman. Myself, am^ongst 
others, was commanded by his Majesty to give 
my assistance for weighing of her, which cost 
much trouble, great charge and no small danger 
to them that travelled * about it ; which was after- 
wards objected to them as a great fault, and were 
rewarded with a bitter check from the Lords. 
The ship was weighed, and carried to Blackwall, 
and put into the East India Dock about the loth 
of August. 

The 3rd of February, his Majesty came 'to 
Woolwich by water, accompanied with the Prince 
Elector 5 and divers other lords, where he 
thoroughly viewed all the works of the ship 
without ; and then went on board and seriously 
perused all the ship within board, both aloft and 
in the hold, being very well satisfied in all points ; 
and then retired himself into my lodgings, where 

* It was the 9th. 

* I.e. not moored, having only one anchor down. 
' Swinging round with the tide. 

* Obsolete form of * travailed ' ; laboured. 

^ Charles Lewis, whom, on p. 162, he called the Palsgrave. 
The title of Elector was, however, not formally accorded to 
him until the Peace of Westphalia, in 1648, when the Lower 
Palatinate was restored. 



i64 DEATH OF WIFE, SUSAN 1637 

he stayed till flood, and then took his barge and 
returned to Whitehall. 

Tuesday, the 25th of April, my daughter 
Martha was married unto John Hodierne, some- 
times my servant.^ She was married at Chatham 
Church, accompanied with the best sort of our 
neighbours, who were entertained in the garden 
under a long tent, set up for that purpose, where 
they ate, dined, and supped. 

On the 2ist day [of] July, being Friday, I 
brought my wife from Woolwich to Chatham 
in a coach, having been very ill some weeks 
before. We brought her safe to my house, and 
the next day she was to our thinking very cheerful, 
and was visited by divers our good neighbours, 
but on Sunday she grew very ill, and continued 
worse and worse all that night. About 3 clock, 
Monday morning, she fell into a sweet sleep and 
so like [a] lamb quietly departed this life, and 
the Wednesday afternoon following was buried 
in Chatham Church, accompanied with the better 
sort of all the neighbours about us ; Mr. Vaughan, 
our Minister, preached at her funeral. 

Tuesday, being the 29th August, proved a 
very wet, rainy day, but the shipwrights of the 
river, which were warned to help to strike the 
ship upon the ways, being come together, we 
set on the business, and by God's blessing the 
ship was struck by eleven of the clock without 
harm to any man, which we accounted a great 
mercy of God. 

Monday, the 25th of September, was the day 

» Apprentice. In 1633 he was recommended by Pett for 
the post of Master Carpenter of the Charles on the ground 
that he had wrought upon the same throughout her being 
built, and was also * a pretty mariner.' S. P. Dom. Chas. /., 
ccxxxi. 45. 



1637 LAUNCH OF THE SOVEREIGN 165 

peremptorily appointed by his Majesty for launch- 
ing the great ship ; and accordingly all things 
were prepared in readiness for performance 
thereof. His Majesty, accompanied with the 
Queen and all the train of lords and ladies, 
their attendants, came to Woolwich, for the most 
part by water, landing at the dock stairs about 
12 of the clock, and went directly on board the 
ship, where they stayed about one hour, and 
thence retired into our rooms, prepared and 
furnished for their entertainment. About 2 of 
the clock the tackles were set taut and the 
ship started as they heaved, till the tackles failed 
and the water pinched,^ being a very poor tide, 
so that we gave over to strain the tackles and 
began to shore the ship. Then his Majesty with 
the Queen took their barge and returned to White- 
hall, being very sorry the ship could not be 
launched. We attempted two or three tides 
afterward to no purpose ; it was then con- 
cluded to let the ship sit till the next spring,^ 
sitting so easily and safely that she could take 
no hurt. 

After, it was resolved the ship should lie till 
the spring after, which was about the 12th or 
13th October following. In the interim many 
malicious reports were raised to disable the ship, 
and to bring as much disgrace upon me as malice 
itself could possibly invent ; all proceeding from 
the Masters of the Trinity House and other rough- 
hewn seamen, with whom William Cooke, one of 
the four Masters of his Majesty's Navy, enviously 
adhering to pleasure Secretary Coke, and Mr. 
Edisbury, then newly made Surveyor of his 
Majesty's Navy, all professed enemies to the 
building of the ship, and more to myself, joined 
* Became too shallow. ■ Spring tide. 



i66 LAUNCH OF THE 1637 

together to cast what aspersions upon both as far 
as they durst (for fear of the King's displeasure) ; 
but the time of the spring drawing on, there was 
a meeting called by Sir Robert Mansell's means 
at Woolwich of such Trinity House Masters as 
were formerly employed on the business, with 
the Officers of the Navy, to resolve of the certain 
day and time of launching, which was generally 
concluded to be on Sunday following, being the 
14th October, and that I should not attempt 
to stir the ship before ; but on the Saturday 
night tide, the wind chopping up for westerly, 
and a fair night in hand promising a great tide 
to follow, I caused the two Masters of the Navy 
there attending to be ready, commanding all we 
could on the sudden get together to attend us, 
contrary to the mind of Mr. Cooke, who was very 
unwilhng to meddle with the ship in the night, 
though Mr. Austen,^ the more resolute man, was 
very willing to take the benefit of the first oppor- 
tunity to launch. The tide came in so fast that 
the ship was on float by three-quarters flood, which 
I perceiving thought it fit to command the ship 
to be heaved oif, the night being fair and calm ; 
which accordingly was presently performed, and 
the ship brought into the channel and from thence 
by several warps conveyed safely to her moorings 
by high water ; keeping lights with reed ^ all 
alongst the shore till the mooring cables were 
taken in and made fast to the bitts ; which 
success with much thankfulness we acknowledged 
an especial mercy of God towards us. This done, 
I presently dispatched a messenger to Sir Robert 
Mansell at Greenwich, who came with all speed 
on board us, and according to his Majesty's 

* MS. ' Austyne ' \ Thomas Austen. 
■ Burning reeds. 



1638 SOVEREIGN OF THE SEAS 167 

commandment gave the name to the ship and 
named her the Sovereign of the Seas. The next 
morning the company of the Trinity House 
Masters and others appointed to attend the 
launching, came according to the appointment to 
give their attendance, but finding the ship already 
launched, and at her moorings in the midst of 
the river, they seemed to be much discontented 
that they were so disappointed and prevented, 
which they expressed as far as they durst. 

This morning Sir Robert Mansell rode away 
post to the King, lying then at Hampton Court, 
and acquainted his Majesty with our proceedings, 
who was wonderfully pleased with it. 

The week following we reared the sheers to 
set the masts, which was performed with much 
safety and expedition, and all the masts set 
within fourteen days ; and so soon as the rigging 
could be in some reasonable complete manner 
fitted, and sails brought to the yards, the ship 
was removed from Woolwich to Erith, by reason 
there was a greater depth of water to ride in. 
His Majesty had been on board of her before she 
went thence. 

The I2th of May, 1638, the Sovereign set 
sail from Erith to Greenhithe,^ where she anchored 
to take in her ordnance and provisions. The 
6th of June after, his Majesty, accompanied with 
the Queen, Duchess of Chevreuse,^ Duke and 
Duchess of Lennox,^ with divers other lords and 
ladies more, came on board the ship at Green- 
hithe, where they dined to their great content. 

1 MS. ' Grenhyve.' 

« MS. ' Shevarees.' Marie de Rohan ; exiled from France 
in 1626. 

* James Stuart, 4th Duke ; created Duke of Richmond, 
1641. 



i68 ROYAL VISIT 1638 

At their going from the ship, we gave them 17 
pieces of ordnance. 

The loth of February before, I received par- 
ticular warrants from his Majesty at council table, 
being himself there present, for bringing the 
ship from Chatham to Woolwich dock ; which 
was by my care speedily performed, and the 
ship safely dry docked, the 21st day of March 
following. 

About the 12th of July, the Sovereign weighed 
from Greenhithe and anchored a little beneath 
Gravesend, where she rode till the King's Majesty 
came on board her, which was upon the 21st day 
of July, being Saturday, coming down in his 
barge, and rowed some part of the way against 
the tide. In the time of his being on board, his 
Majesty observed the condition of the ship as 
she now rode ready to sail, vidt. the draught of 
water, the distance of the ports of the lower tier 
from the water, number of the ordnance, and 
all other circumstances to her complete furnish- 
ing ; wherewith he was so well satisfied and 
pleased that he parted from her with as much 
expression of content and satisfaction as we could 
expect from him, to the general comfort of us 
all. 

Before his Majesty took barge I had placed 
my then wife, Bylande,^ daughter Ann,^and many 
other gentlewomen, my special friends, in the 
great cabin to kiss his Majesty's hand, and pre- 
vailed with his Majesty to walk aft into the cabin, 
where his Highness most graciously gave each 

> Married on 7th January. On p. 1 71 his wife's father's 
name is given as ' Etherington ' ; her Christian name was 
Mildred. The use of two forenames was practically unknown 
at this period j evidently she had been married before. 

■ Wife of Christopher Pett. 



1638 VOYAGE IN THE SOVEREIGN 169 

of them his hand to kiss. His Majesty then took 
his barge, and at his going from the ship we gave 
him 72 pieces of great ordnance. I then with 
my wife and friends went on shore and took the 
coach and came directly home. 

Thursday, 2nd of August, I took leave of my 
wife and friends at Chatham after supper ; so 
rode to Gravesend, thence on board the Sovereign 
and lay on board in mine cabin, being the first 
night I lodged in her. 

Friday, my son Peter came on board from 
Woolwich ; then about 10 of the clock we weighed 
from Gravesend, and stood down beneath Hole 
Haven, and there anchored that night, being 
little wind. 

Saturday morning, 4th August, we weighed 
from Hole Haven and stood down beneath the 
buoy of the Gunfleet, where we anchored all 
that night. 

Sunday we came to an anchor right before 
Margate town, where we rode till Thursday morn- 
ing following, then weighed and set sail with the 
wind at west ; but coming about the Foreland 
we met the wind so far southerly as put us to go 
without the sand, and blew so much wind as we 
could bear our topsails but half mast high, so 
that we could not possibly weather the South 
Sand Head ; ^ the tides running also dead, we 
were forced to anchor in 32 fathom and there rode 
that night, which proved reasonable fair. 

Friday morning, the 20th August, we weighed ; 
having the benefit of a whole tide of ebb, we 
weathered the South Sand Head and stood in 
right thwart of Dover ; but neither the town nor 
Castle took notice of us. So we put room into 
the Downs and anchored as near Sir John Penning- 
» The south end of the Goodwin Sands. 



170 VOYAGE IN THE SOVEREIGN 1638 

ton, then riding Admiral, as we conveniently 
could do, being about 8 of the clock in the morn- 
ing ; we were saluted by the Admiral and all the 
ships in the road, whom we answered again, giving 
the Admiral 21 pieces. This done we went on 
board the Admiral, Sir John Pennington, to 
whom we were continual guests while we stayed 
in the Downs. - 

Wednesday morning, being the 15th of August, 
we set sail out of the Downs, the wind at south 
and sometimes south-west. We turned to [and] 
fro with very foul weather till we came as high 
[as] thwart of Shoreham, or thereabouts (the 
Garland attending us, who was not able to keep 
way with us) ; which course we held till Saturday 
the i8th day [of] August ; then finding in that time 
we had sufficient trial of the condition and work- 
ing of the ship in all respects, and having but a 
small proportion of victuals to stay out longer, 
we resolved to bear up again for the Downs ; 
which accordingly was done, and about 3 clock, 
afternoon, we anchored close to the Admiral, 
Sir John Pennington entertaining us on board his 
ship all the time we rode by him. 

Tuesday morning, the 21st of August, I took 
leave of the Sovereign and the Admiral, and went 
on shore at Deal, where I found my man attending 
ready with my horses, being the night ^ before 
come thither, where I presently took horse and 
rode directly to Canterbury, having visited Sir 
Henry Palmer by the way. I baited some hour 
or more at Canterbury, and took horse again and 
came home to my house [at] New Dock * a little 
after four in the afternoon ; giving God hearty 

« This word is lost, the margin being torn away ; these six 
words are not in the Harleian copy. 
* Chatham. 



1638 DEATH OF WIFE, MILDRED 171 

thanks for my safe return, finding my wife, 
family and friends in a reasonable health. 

The 28th of August, the Sovereign came safe 
to her moorings at St. Mary Creek, being Tuesday. 

The 8th of September my dear wife sickened, 
taken with a violent fever, being then great with 
child. 

The 19th of September, being Wednesday, be- 
tween 8 and 9 clock in the morning, she departed 
this life in a most Christian manner, surrendering 
up her spirit into His hands that gave it her ; 
the next day after, being Thursday, she was 
buried in a seemly manner in Chatham Church, 
close by the side of my first wife, leaving me a 
sorrowful and disconsolate husband. 

Within few days after, deceased also my wife's 
one ^ sister and next neighbour, wife to Mr. John 
Short, Clerk of the Check to his Majesty's Navy.^ 
They sickened together, she also being with 
child, and knew not of one and tother's death. 
Soon after died Mr. Etherington, their own father, 
at Mr. Short's house, who came thither purposely 
to visit them. 

After I had a little passed over this great and 
sudden affliction, I prepared myself to go for 
London ; and having set all things in order, on 
Thursday morning, the 27th of September, 1638, 
I took leave of my family at Chatham and rode 
to Gravesend, thence took boat to Woolwich where 
I stayed one night, and next day, accompanied 
with my son Peter, we went by water to Kingston, 
where we took up our lodging in a private house, 
the inns being full. The next day, being Sunday, 
we went by water to Hampton Court, where we 
presented ourselves to his Majesty, who was 
pleased to use us very graciously, where we spent 
* Perhaps intended for * own.' « At Chatham. 



172 VISIT TO LORD ADMIRAL 1638 

that whole day, at night returning by water to 
our lodging at Kingston. 

Next morning, my son and myself rode to 
Sion,^ to wait upon the Lord Admiral, and was 
presently commanded by him to hasten to Chat- 
ham to prepare barges and boats to be sent to 
Dover for the receiving on shore the Queen 
Mother,^ expected to arrive and land there 

{Here the manuscript ends.) 

* Sion House at Brentford, the seat of the Duke of 
Northumberland, who had been appointed on 13th April to 
act for the young Duke of York, declared Lord High Admiral 
for life at the Council on i8th March. 

* I.e. of France. Marie de Medicis, widow of Henri IV. 
and mother of Queen Henrietta Maria ; she landed at Harwich 
on i8th October. 



APPENDICES 

I 

Grant to Phineas Pett. 26th April 1604 
(In Latin) 
[Pat. Roll 1646] 

The King ^ to all to whom etc. greeting. Whereas 
our dearest Sister Elizabeth late deceased Queen of Eng- 
land by her letters patent under the great seal of England 
bearing date at Westminster the twenty-third day of 
January in the twenty-sixth year 2 of her reign gave and 
granted for herself her heirs and successors unto Mathew 
Baker and John Addey Shipwrights and to the longer 
liver of either of them among other ^ things a certain 
annuity or annual rent of twelve pence sterling a day : 
to have and to receive yearly the said annuity or annual 
rent of twelve pence sterling a day to the aforesaid 
Matthew Baker and John Addey and their assigns and 
to the longer liver of either of them from the Feast of the 
Nativity of the Lord then last past before the date of the 
same letters patent during the natural life of the same 
Mathew Baker and John Addey and the longer liver of 
either of them from her Treasury and that of her heirs 
and successors at the Receipt of the Exchequer at 
Westminster of herself her heirs and successors at the 

1 In the enrolment this is given simply as * Rex ' ; in the 
original the commencement would be * Jacobus Dei Gratia/ 
etc. 

2 23 Jan. 1584 

8 I.e, the office of Master Shipwright with its emoluments. 









174 APPENDIX I X604 

hands of the Treasurer and Chamberlain of her her heirs 
and successors there for the time in being at the four terms 
of the year namely at the Feast of the Annunciation of 
the B.V. Mary of St. John the Baptist of St. Michael the 
Archangel and of the Nativity of the Lord in equal 
portions. And whereas also our same dearest Sister 
Elizabeth by other letters patent under the great seal of 
England bearing date at Westminster the twenty-ninth 
day of July in the thirty-second year of her reign ^ gave 
and granted for herself her heirs and successors to Joseph 
Pett Shipwright another annuity or annual fee of twelve 
pence a day of lawful money of England ; to have hold 
and receive unto the same Joseph Pett and his assigns dur- 
ing the natural life of the same Joseph Pett from the Trea- 
sury of her her heirs and successors at the Receipt of the 
Exchequer at Westminster by the hands of the Treasurer 
and Chamberlain there and from time to time existing, 
as by the several said letters patent more plainly doth 
appear. Which said Mathew Baker and John Addey 
and Joseph Pett to this day remain alive and to this 
present have and enjoy the said several annuities by 
virtue of the several letters patent aforesaid. Know 
ye that we of our special grace and sure knowledge 
and mere motion also in consideration of the good true 
and faithful service to us done and hereafter to be done 
by our beloved and faithful subject Phineas Pett now 
serving our dearest son Henry Prince of Wales both in 
the building of the ships of us our heirs and successors 
and in his attendance on our marine affairs and causes 
have given and granted and by these presents for ourself 
our heirs and successors do give and grant to the same 
Phineas Pett that annuity or annual fee of twelve pence 
sterhng a day of good and lawful money of England out 
of the two above named annuities whichever first after 
the date of these presents by death resignation surrender 
or composition of any one of the aforesaid Mathew 
Baker and John Addey and Joseph Pett or in any other 
manner shall have become vacant or determined or shall 
hereafter become vacant or cease. To have hold enjoy 

» 29 July 1590. 



1604 APPENDIX II 175 

and receive the said annuity or annual fee of twelve pence 
a day as is in manner aforesaid vacated or determined or 
shall hereafter determine to the aforesaid Phineas Pett or 
his assigns for the term of the natural life of the same 
Phineas immediately from the time at which either of those 
annuities shall first become vacant or determine as afore- 
said from the Treasury of us our heirs and successors 
at the Receipt of our Exchequer at Westminster by the 
hands of the Treasurers and Chamberlains of us our heirs 
and successors there from time to time in being at the 
four terms of the year namely at the Feast of St. Michael 
the Archangel the Nativity of the Lord the Annunciation 
of the B.V. Mary and the Nativity of St. John the Baptist 
in equal portions to the aforesaid Phineas Pett or his 
assigns during the natural life of the same Phineas Pett 
annually to be paid the first payment thereupon com- 
mencing at that feast of the aforesaid feasts which first 
and nearest shall fall after one of the two separate afore- 
said annuities of twelve pence a day shall become vacant 
or determined in the mode and fashion above specified. 
Although express mention etc. In witness etc. Witness 
the King ^ at Westminster the 26th day of April. 

By writ of Privy Seal. 



II 

Petition of Shipwrights for Incorporation (?)i578 

(No signatures or date) 

[S.P. Dom., Eliz., ccxxvii. 63] 

To the right honourable the Lords of her Majesty's 
most honourable Privy Council. 

In most humble and reverent wise do complain 
unto your honours as well the M*^. Shipwrights of her 
Majesty's Ships, as also all other of the same art, that 
take charge over any of that faculty, be it in ships, 

* In the original this would be * meipso ' ; myself. 



176 APPENDIX III 1605 

boats, barges, or any such like vessels, both appertaining 
to her Majesty or her Highness* subjects, specially within 
the liberty of the Thames and other places near adjoining 
to the same. In the which place, as all kind of vessels 
are greatly increased, so are the artificers hkewise aug- 
mented, only in number, but less in skill, whereby such 
as do use them are not only deceived but also the work 
greatly endangered. Besides their manners are mutinous 
even in her Majesty's service, and their exactions intoler- 
able amongst her Majesty's subjects. These and many 
other enormities, which daily increase to the great grief 
of many her Majesty's good and honest subjects, may 
bring the art to a ruinous state. 

In tender consideration of the premises we humbly 
pray your Honours to be a mean unto her Highness that a 
Corporation may be granted in such reasonable form as 
her Majesty's learned Council shall allow of, and be 
thought meet for us ; whereby her Majesty in her own 
Navy shall be more safely and dutifully served, the 
whole State through the Realm better furnished, and 
we daily bound to pray to Almighty God both for her 
Majesty and your Honours' most happy and prosperous 
estate. 

Ill 

Charter to Shipwrights, 22nd April 1605. 

[Pat. Roll. 1684] 

[Parts in italics abbreviated to save space"] 

James &c. To all to whom these presents shall come 
greeting. Whereas we are credibly informed as well by 
our right trusty and well-beloved cousin and councillor 
Charles Earl of Nottingham, High Admiral of England 
and Captain General of our Navy Royal as also by our 
principal officers of our said Navy how slenderly and 
deceitfully as well our own ships and barges as also other 
ships boats pinnaces and like vessels of our merchants 
and other our subjects used in continual service and traffic 
are made land wrought to the great loss danger and 



i6o5 APPENDIX III 177 

prejudice of us and our said subjects and also of the great 
and wasteful charge and expense which we do from time 
to time bear and sustain in building and repairing our 
own ships and pinnaces which are and have been the 
chiefest and greatest defence of this our Realm from the 
assaults of such enemies as have practised the over- 
throw of the same. We weighing the manifold dangers 
losses and hindrances which may and are likely more and 
more to ensue thereof if speedy remedy be not therefore 
had and provided, and to the end that the fittest and ablest 
shipwrights and workmen may from time to time as 
cause shall require be made known unto our principal 
officers of our Navy and to be employed for wages for 
the building repairing and making of our own ships and 
pinnaces as also may have the oversight of all such other 
workmen as shall from time to time be employed or shall 
intermeddle in building of other ships pinnaces or vessels 
for other our merchants and subjects for the further 
more better and continual service of us our Realm and 
sub j ects. Know ye therefore that we intending to provide 
for the better strengthening of this our Realm with 
shipping for the defence and service thereof and to the 
intent that as well our self as also our merchants and 
other our subjects may from time to time hereafter be 
furnished stored and supplied with skilful shipwrights 
and workmen of that kind to work upon our Navy 
and other ships and vessels for the better suppressing of 
deceits and other abuses which may hereafter be prac- 
tised by divers persons which shall take upon them 
without sufficient skill and knowledge to make or repair 
ships pinnaces and other vessels to the great danger 
and hindrance as well of our self as of divers other our 
loving subjects, of our special grace certain knowledge 
and mere motion have given granted constituted and 
ordained and by these presents for us our heirs and suc- 
cessors do grant constitute and ordain that all and every 
person and persons being shipwrights or carpenters using 
the Art or Mystery of building and making of ships within 
this our Realm of England and Dominion of Wales shall 
be from henceforth forever one body corporate and 
body politic in matter deed and name by the name of 



178 APPENDIX III 1605 

Master, Wardens and Commonalty of the Art or Mystery 
of Shipwrights of England. . . . [To be] one Master 
and four Wardens and twelve Assistants ... do 
assign name ordain and constitute our well-beloved sub- 
ject Mathew Baker our servant and ancientest Master 
Shipwright to be the first Master . . . Joseph Pett 
and William Bright two other of our Master Shipwrights, 
Edward Stephens of Limehouse and Nicholas Symonson 
of Ratcliffe in the county of Middlesex Shipwrights to 
be the first four Wardens. . . . John Adye of Deptford 
in our county of Kent, Phineas Pett of Chatham in our 
county of Kent, John Apslyn of our said town and 
county, Peter Pett of Wapping in our county of Middlesex, 
Nicholas Cley of Redriff in our county of Surrey, Thomas 
Cole of Woodbridge in our county of Suffolk, Robert Wil- 
kinson of Ipswich in our county of Suffolk, James Russell 
of Southwark in our said county of Surrey, John Head 
of our City of Bristol, Esau Whitehead of our town of 
Southampton in our county of Southampton, Thomas 
Dymocke of Horsey Downe ^ in our said county of Surrey 
and Thomas Pryme of Yarmouth in our county of 
Norfolk, Shipwrights, to be the first and present twelve 
Assistants. . . . 

[Power to hold and dispose of real property ; to plead 
and defend in any Court; to have a common seal.] 

[To meet in a] convenient house or hall for their use 
to be by them provided within the City of London or 
Suburbs ^ of the same or within five miles of the said 
City . . . Nicholas Rabye Gent, to be the first and 
present Clerk. . . . 

[Power to meet in their hall and] to entreat consult 
determine constitute ordain and make any Constitutions 
Statutes Laws Ordinances Articles and Orders whatsoever 
. . . touching or concerning the good estate rule order 
and good government of the said Master Wardens and 
Commonalty . . . and in what Order and manner the 
said Master Wardens and Commonalty . . . and all other 
person and persons using the said art or mystery within 

^ Horsleydown, below the Tower, on the opposite shore. 
• MS. ' Subberbes.' 



i6i2 APPENDIX IV 179 

this Realm of England or Dominion of Wales shall 
demean and behave themselves [with power to punish 
offenders. . . . Power to] view search and survey all and 
every the Works and Workmanship of all and every 
person or persons whatsoever making working or building 
or which hereafter shall make work or build any manner 
of ships, pinnaces or other vessels and all manner of 
timber and wood appointed provided and fitted for the 
building of ships . . . [Ships found to be] falsely 
and deceitfully and untruly made wrought and builded 
[timber, wood, &c. to be put in safe custody and complaint 
made to Justices of Peace. . . . [Power to] buy and pro- 
vide in any the places beyond the seas all such timber 
planks masts deals spars and wood and also all pitch, 
tar, rosin and oil as they shall think necessary and con- 
venient for the building or repairing of ships pinnaces 
or other vessels [and bring same to England or Wales on 
payment of custom and other duties. Since the Master 
Wardens and Commonalty] are to be as occasion shall be 
offered employed and attendant upon the Navigation of 
Us [etc., the said Master Wardens and Commonalty shall 
not] be enforced put placed or impannelled in or upon any 
Assises Juries Inquests or Attaints whatsoever [nor] be 
pressed or enforced to serve ... as land soldiers. . . . 

[Power to elect Beadles to gather fines penalties &c. and 
distrain. Power to hold land, tithes &c^ 

Witness ourself at Westminster the two and twentieth 
day of April. 

By writ of Privy Seal. 



IV 

Charter to Shipwrights, 6th May 1612 

[Pat. Roll 1951] 

[The first nineteen lines as in the Charter of 1605.] 

. . . if speedy remedy be not therefore had and provided, 
and intending to provide for the strengthening of these 
our Kingdoms and Dominions with sufficient shipping 



i8o APPENDIX IV 1612 

for defence and service thereof, and to the intent that 
as well ourself might from time to time be furnished 
stored and supplied with the fittest and ablest ship- 
wrights and workmen for the building making and 
repairing of our own ships pinnaces and other vessels 
as also that our merchants and other our subjects might 
also in their works and buildings from time to time be 
stored and supplied with skilful and sufficient ship- 
wrights and workmen, and for the better suppressing 
of deceits and abuses of divers persons which should 
take upon them without sufficient skill and knowledge 
to make or repair any ships boats pinnaces or other 
vessels, to the great danger and hindrance as well of 
ourself as of divers other our loving subjects. We did 
by our letters patent under the great seal of England 
bearing date the two and twentieth day of April in the 
years of our reign of England France and Ireland the 
third and of Scotland the eight and thirtieth incorporate 
the Company of Shipwrights and the persons being 
shipwrights or carpenters using the art or mystery of 
buUding and making of ships within our realm of England 
and Dominion of Wales by the name of Master Wardens 
and Commonalty of the art or mystery of Shipwrights 
of England, and did grant unto them by our said charter 
or letters patent divers privileges liberties and im- 
munities mentioned and contained in the said letters 
patent tending to the reformation of the said abuses and 
deceits. And whereas divers defects and imperfections 
have been since by experience found to be in the said 
charter as well in the extent thereof to what persons 
it should extend as also in the want of sufficient authority 
and means to govern and order the said corporation 
and the men and members thereof and the affairs of 
the same and the shipwrights workmen apprentices 
and servants using the said art and for want of power 
and means to reform prevent order and correct many 
contempts misdemeanours deceits and offences in the 
said art or mystery and the matters and things thereunto 
appertaining and to punish stubborn obstinate and 
disobedient persons of that profession, whereby great 
and manifold errors deceits and inconveniences are still 



x6i2 APPENDIX IV i8i 

practised and continued to the great hindrance of the 
navigation of this Kingdom the often loss and hazard 
of men's lives and goods and the special prejudice of 
our own service and the Commonwealth, know ye that 
we for reformation amendment and supply of the defects 
and imperfections aforesaid and for redress of the said 
great and manifold errors enormities deceits and in- 
conveniences, at the humble petition of the said Master 
Wardens and Commonalty, and for the great desire 
we have that good and convenient laws orders and 
ordinances should be established and used in and about 
the said Corporation and Company and the said art 
and mystery, and for the advancement of the good 
estate of the shipping and navigation of this Kingdom 
to the good service both of ourself and the Common- 
wealth, have of our especial grace certain knowledge 
and mere motion granted constituted and ordained, 
and by these presents for us our heirs and successors 
do grant constitute and ordain, that all and every person 
and persons being shipwrights caulkers or ship-carpenters 
or in any sort using exercising practising or professing 
the art trade skill or mystery of building making trimming 
dressing graving launching winding drawing stocking or 
repairing of ships carvels hoys pinnaces crayers ketches 
lighters boats barges wherries or any other vessel or 
vessels whatsoever used for navigation fishing or trans- 
portation within or about our realm of England and 
Dominion of Wales or of making trimming or repairing 
of masts tops pullies pumps for ships oars or any other 
instruments or appurtenances of wood thereunto belong- 
ing or any other carpentry work whatsoever belonging 
to or used occupied or employed in or about any ships 
pinnaces or other vessel or vessels above mentioned 
or in any sort appertaining to shipping sailing rowing 
stocking launching or navigation shall from henceforth 
for ever be and shall be taken and accompted to be one 
body corporate and politic in matter deed and name 
by the name of Master Wardens and Commonalty of the 
art or mystery of Shipwrights of Redrith in the County 
of Surrey and them by the name of Master Wardens 
and Commonalty of the art or mystery of Shipwrights 



i82 APPENDIX IV 1612 

of Redrith in the County of Surrey We do for us our 
heirs and successors really fully and wholly erect make 
ordain create incorporate constitute and declare by 
these presents one body corporate and politic in matter 
deed and name. And ... the said Master Wardens 
and Commonalty of the said art or mystery of Ship- 
wrights of Redrith aforesaid shall from henceforth have 
perpetual succession, and . . . shall be at all times here- 
after a body corporate and politic able and capable in 
deed and in law to have hold occupy possess enjoy and 
retain all and singular usages customs liberties privileges 
immunities jurisdictions franchises pre-eminences benefits 
profits and commodities whatsoever to them heretofore 
granted or belonging or hereafter to be granted or to be 
belonging or incident requisite or fit to or for them or 
for such a corporation to have and enjoy of what kind 
nature or quality soever they shall be to them and their 
successors for ever. 

[Power to hold and dispose of lands and other properties ; 
to sue and he sued ; to have a common seal.] 

And further we will and for us our heirs and successors 
we do grant by these presents, that from henceforth 
for ever there be and shall be one Master three Wardens 
and sixteen Assistants of the said corporation art or 
mystery of Shipwrights of Redrith aforesaid to be con- 
stituted and chosen in such manner and form as hereafter 
in these presents is expressed and specified. And for 
the better execution of the premises and also for the 
good rule and government of the Master Wardens and 
Commonalty of the art or mystery of Shipwrights afore- 
said from time to time forever we have assigned named 
ordained and constituted . . . our well-beloved subject 
Phineas Pett our servant and ancient Master ShipwTight 
to be the first Master of the said art or mystery of Ship- 
wrights, willing that the said Phineas Pett be and shall 
continue Master of the said art or mystery from the day 
of the date of these presents until the morrow after the 
Feast of Saint Bartholomew the Apostle now next 
ensuing and then and from thenceforth until some other 
}ncr{ and sufficient man of the said art or mystery of 
Shipwrights aforesaid be elected and sworn to execute 



i6i2 APPENDIX IV 183 

the said office of Master of the said art or mystery of 
Shipwrights of Redrith aforesaid according to the ordin- 
ances and provisions in these presents expressed and 
limited, if the said Phineas Pett shall so long live, unless 
the said Phineas Pett shall happen in the mean time for 
some misgovernment or other just cause to be removed, 
whom for such just cause we will and ordain to be re- 
movable according to the form herein expressed. And 
also we have assigned ordained named and constituted 
. . . our well-beloved subjects William Burrell Nicholas 
Simonson and Thomas Dymock three other shipwrights 
to be the first three Wardens of the art or mystery of 
Shipwrights aforesaid. . . . And moreover for the better 
assistance and counsel of the said Master and Wardens 
in and about the execution of their several offices, we 
have assigned named ordained and constituted . . . 
our well-beloved subjects Mat hew Baker William Bright 
Edward Stephens Nicholas Clay John Apslyn Peter 
Pett Thomas Jenkins John Graves Robert Bourne 
James Marsh William Hedger Thomas Wells William 
Picks John May Edmond Jordon and Richard Watford 
to be the first and present sixteen Assistants of the 
said art or mystery, willing that they the said [names 
as before] and all other assistants of the said art or mystery 
for the time being shall be and continue Assistants of 
the said art or mystery of Shipwrights of Redrith afore- 
said for and during theii' natural lives and shall from 
time to time be aiding counselling and assisting unto the 
said Master and Wardens for the better government 
rule and direction of the said Master Wardens and 
Commonalty of the said art or mystery and every member 
thereof, unless they or any of them shall be removed 
from the said place of assistant or assistants for some 
misdemeanour or other just cause, whom for such just 
cause we likewise will and ordain to be removable accord- 
ing to the form herein also expressed. And for the better 
establishment of this our good intention and purpose 
and for the perpetual and constant continuance direction 
rule and government of the whole body of the said 
art or mystery and every member thereof we will and 
ordain that on the morrow next after the said Feast 



i84 APPENDIX IV 1612 

of Saint Bartholomew the Apostle yearly hereafter the 
Master Wardens and Assistants of the said art or mystery 
of Shipwrights aforesaid for the time being or the greater 
part of them for that intent and purpose to be assembled 
at or in their common house or hall shall elect choose 
and nominate one person who hath formerly been Warden 
of the said art or mystery to be Master of the said art 
or mystery for the next year then following, and shall 
at the same time and place elect choose and nominate 
out of the said Assistants three that shall likewise be 
Wardens of the said art or mystery, which said Master 
and Wardens so as aforesaid nominated elected and 
chosen shall be and continue Master and Wardens of the 
said art or mystery unto the end and term of one whole 
year then next ensuing and further until some other 
Master and Wardens shall be respectively elected and 
preferred and chosen thereunto, they and every of them 
first taking a corporal oath upon the Holy Evangelist 
before the Master and Wardens being their last pre- 
decessors or any two of them or before the assistants 
of the said corporation art or mystery or the greatest 
part of them for the due execution of their several offices 
respectively, and also the oath commonly called the 
Oath of Supremacy, which oaths we do by these presents 
give power and authority to the said Master and Wardens 
for the time being or any two of them or to the said 
Assistants or the greater part of them to minister and 
take of the said person or persons so elected accordingly, 
and then every such Master Warden and Wardens so 
removed shall then instantly be chosen and elected 
to be Assistant or Assistants and so to remain Assistant 
or Assistants in the room and place of him or them that 
shall be so chosen out of the said Assistants to be Master 
Warden or Wardens, first taking his or their corporal 
oath or oaths. . . . 

[Power to majorities to remove Master, Wardens, or 
Assistants for misdemeanour and elect others in vacancies 
caused by removal or death.] 

[Fine not exceeding lol. for refusing or neglecting the 
office of Master or Warden, or not exceeding 20 nobles in 
case of the office of Assistants.] 



i6i2 APPENDIX IV 185 

And . . . there shall or may be from henceforth 
for ever in all and every convenient and needful place 
and places of our kingdom of England and dominion 
of Wales one or more honest sufficient and skilful person 
or persons of the said art or mystery which shall be 
and shall be called the deputy or deputies of the Master 
Wardens and Assistants of the said Corporation art or 
mystery, to be from time to time hereafter elected 
nominated and appointed by the said Master Wardens 
and Assistants or four of them, whereof the Master and 
one of the Wardens of the said corporation art or mystery 
for the time being to be always two, and to continue 
in the place or places of deputy or deputies of the Master 
Wardens and Assistants of the said corporation art or 
mystery for the time being from the time of their said 
election for the space of one whole year next ensuing 
or until he be for some just cause removed and some 
other of the said corporation art or mystery be elected 
nominated and sworn to the said office or place of 
deputy or deputies according to the true intent and 
meaning of these presents. . . . And we will ordain 
and command that every person that shall be from 
henceforth named and chosen to be deputy or deputies 
to the said Master Wardens and Assistants during the 
time that he or they or any of them shall continue in his 
or their office or offices place or places of deputyship do 
and shall from time to time employ the uttermost of his 
and their endeavours abilities and skill in the due execu- 
tion of this our charter and letters patent and of every 
branch article and thing therein contained and of all 
good and wholesome laws orders and ordinances which 
at any time hereafter shall be made and constituted 
by the said Master Wardens and Assistants in every 
respect according to the true intent and meaning of the 
same and of these presents, and in all other causes matters 
and things concerning the good and welfare of the said 
art and mystery, and that they the said deputies for the 
time being and every of them shall be from time to time 
accomptable to the said Master Wardens and Commonalty 
and their successors for all sums of money profits and 
commodities by them or any of them to be collected or 



i86 APPENDIX IV 1612 

received by reason or in respect of his said office or 
offices place or places of deputy or deputies, and shall 
further before he or they execute or undertake the same 
office or place of deputy or deputies take a corporal 
oath ... for the true and due execution of the said 
office and place, and also the oath commonly called the 
Oath of Supremacy. . . . And ... if any person or 
persons so named or elected to be deputy or deputies 
to the Master Wardens and Assistants of the said cor- 
poration art or mystery for the time being as aforesaid 
shall accept the same office and deputation and then 
after shall wilfully and obstinately without good and 
just cause or excuse refuse to attend or execute the 
same, so as no person so nominated be compelled against 
his will to hold such place of deputation above the 
space of two years together, that then the said Master 
Wardens and Assistants or the more part of them shall 
or may impose upon every such person so refusing to 
exercise the said office or place after such acceptance 
thereof as aforesaid a reasonable fine not exceeding 
twenty nobles, to be levied and paid to the use of the 
said corporation. And further we will and by these 
presents ... do grant unto the said Master Wardens 
and Commonalty and their successors that they . . . 
and their successors shall and may have take and enter- 
tain one honest and discreet person in manner and 
form hereafter in these presents expressed to be nominated 
and chosen which shall be and be called the Clerk of the 
said corporation art or mystery of Shipwrights. And 
we have assigned made constituted named and ordained 
. . . our well-beloved subject and servant Richard 
Newman gent, to be the present Clerk of the said cor- 
poration art or mystery, to be and continue in the said 
office during the term of his natural life, unless he for 
some misdemeanour shall be removed or dismissed or 
shall surrender the same . . . [with power to company 
to choose successor]. [Power to] name and appoint any 
other inferior Officers Ministers and Members as shall 
be needful and expedient in to or for the said corporation 
art or mystery or the good government and affairs 
thereof [and to remove them]. [Power to] admit receive 



i6i2 APPENDIX IV 187 

and take in whatsoever person or persons being our 
natural born subjects as well within this our realm of 
England as in other our Dominions and places being 
under our obeisance and not otherwise which would be 
and are or shall be willing and desirous to be of the said 
corporation as a member or members thereof, and that 
all and every person and persons so to be admitted received 
and taken in by the said Master Wardens and Assistants 
or the more part of them shall from the time of his or 
their admission be called and accompted a brother and 
member or freeman of the said Corporation in deed and 
in name . . . [and power to remove them]. And to the 
intent that as well our self our heirs and successors as 
also all our merchants and other our subjects may from 
time to time hereafter be better furnished stored and 
supplied with cunning skilful and sufficient Shipwrights 
and workmen of that kind for the making building 
and repairing of ships pinnaces and other vessels, and 
for the avoiding suppressing or preventing as much as 
in us lieth of the manifold abuses and deceits therein 
daily practised and committed by such persons as are 
altogether unskilful, having never been trained or brought 
up as apprentices in the said art or mystery according 
to the laws and statutes of this our realm of England, 
we do therefore . . . will and grant to the said Master 
Wardens and Commonalty of the said art or mystery 
of Shipwrights of Redrith and to their successors forever 
that every Freeman of the said company shall and may 
from time to time hereafter have take and keep one 
or more apprentice or apprentices to be trained and 
brought up under him in the said trade art or mystery 
of Shipwright, and that every such apprentice shall be 
by covenants bound by and to his master that shall 
entertain him as aforesaid duly and truly to serve him 
as his apprentice for and during the full space and term 
of seven years at the least, and to be ordered and used 
to all intents and purposes according to the custom 
of the city of London, and that the same covenant of 
apprenticeship be made by writing indented and re- 
gistered or enrolled at their common hall before them- 
selves in their said corporation by their Clerk or his 



i88 APPENDIX IV 1612 

sufficient deputy or deputies for the time being, and 
that such enrolment shall be good and effectual in the 
law to all intents and purposes against us our heirs and 
successors and against all other person or persons what- 
soever, any law statute custom or usage to the contrary 
in any wise notwithstanding. Willing and by these 
presents for us our heirs and successors straitly charging 
and commanding . that no shipwright caulker or ship- 
carpenter or any other being a Freeman of the said 
company and using exercising practising or professing the 
said trade skill art or mystery of building making trimming 
dressing graving launching drawing stocking or repairing 
of any ships pinnaces or other vessel or vessels whatso- 
ever for navigation or traffic shall or may at any time 
or times hereafter receive have entertain or keep any 
apprentice or other servant being not already free of 
the said Corporation or not having served with some 
other shipwright in the same trade, to be used exercised 
trained or brought up under him in the said trade art 
or mystery as aforesaid except he first cause every such 
his servant or apprentice to be bound unto him by in- 
denture for the said term of seven years at the least or 
for so many years as together with the years which he 
hath served in the said trade as aforesaid shall make up 
the number of seven years, and do likewise cause his 
said indenture of apprenticeship to be registered or 
enrolled before the Clerk of the Company or his deputy 
for the time being as aforesaid within one month next 
after the taking thereof, upon pain of our heavy dis- 
pleasure and of such fine or other punishment as by 
the laws and statutes of this realm or by the laws and 
ordinances already made or hereafter to be made by the 
said Master Wardens and Assistants of the said art or 
mystery for the time being or the greater part of them 
according to the true intent and meaning hereof shall 
or may be infficted upon him or them that shall offend 
therein. [Power to] assemble convocate and congregate 
themselves together at or in their common hall or house 
being now at Redrith in the County of Surrey or in any 
other place or places for the same convenient, and then 
and there to keep Courts and consultation for the said 



t6i2 APPENDIX TV 189 

corporation art or mystery and the affairs thereof, and 
the perquisites issues and profits of the said Court or 
Courts so to be held and kept to leave take and perceive 
to and for the use of the said Corporation for the better 
maintenance and preservation thereof, without any ac- 
compt to be made or rendered to us our heirs or successors 
in that behalf. [And power] then and there to treat 
consult commune determine and agree amongst them- 
selves or with any other person or persons whatsoever, 
of upon and concerning the good estate benefit conver- 
sation and wholesome rule government and ordering 
of the said Corporation art or mystery and the men 
apprentices workmen workmanship and all other the 
affairs and things to the same belonging or thereupon 
in any wise depending, and at in and upon such their 
assemblies meetings and conferences to make ordain 
and constitute such and so many good wholesome and 
reasonable laws statutes articles constitutions orders 
and ordinances whatsoever as to them or the greater 
part of them being then and there present, whereof 
the Master and one of the Wardens for the time being 
to be always two, shall seem reasonable necessary meet 
and convenient for touching or concerning the premises, 
and for the better advancement performance and con- 
tinuance of the same, and also for the better directing 
how and in what order and manner the said Master 
Wardens and Commonalty and all other person and 
persons using the said art or mystery within our said 
realm of England or Dominion of Wales shall demean 
and behave themselves as well in all and singular matters 
and things touching or concerning the said art or mys- 
tery or any thing thereunto appertaining as also in 
their several offices functions ministries and businesses 
touching or concerning the said art or mystery as afore- 
said, and the same laws orders articles and constitutions 
so made or any of them to put in use and execute accord- 
ingly, and at their will again to revoke alter or change 
when and as often as occasion shall thereto require. 
\The Regulations, &c., when] entered and registered in 
some public book to be kept for that purpose . . . shall 
be holden as laws ordinances and statutes amongst them 



igo APPENDIX IV 1612 

to be put in use and execution, and shall bind all persons 
of the said Corporation art or mystery and all shipwrights 
and workmen of that profession in any place port haven 
or town within our said realm of England and dominion 
of Wales, as well the subjects of the same our realm 
and dominions as strangers and aliens for and during 
the time of their being in or upon any part of our said 
realm coasts or dominions or any creeks or harbours of 
the same, to observe obey and perform the same from 
time to time in all things as the same ought to be, upon 
the pains penalties and punishments in the same to be 
imposed inflicted and limited so always as the said 
laws statutes articles orders ordinances pains penalties 
and punishments and every of them be agreeable to 
reason and justice and not contrary or repugnant to 
the laws statutes rights or customs of this our realm 
of England, nor derogatory to the jurisdictions and 
pre-eminences of the Lord High Admiral of England for 
the time being or to the Court of Admiralty of England 
or the Judges Register or Marshall of that Court for the 
time being or any of them. [Power to impose] pains 
penalties punishments fines amercements and forfeitures 
. . . and for default of payment ... to distrain the 
goods and chattels of such offender and the same to 
keep till they shall be satisfied or otherwise to bring 
their action for the same according to law. And ... all 
and singular fines forfeitures sum and sums of money 
whatsoever due or hereafter to be due and received by 
reason of the said decrees orders or ordinances shall 
be to the use commodity and sole benefit and behoof 
of the said Corporation without any accompt or other 
thing therefore to us our heirs or successors to be yielded 
paid rendered made or done in that behalf, and without 
any let trouble molestation or interruption of any person 
or persons whatsoever for the same. [Powers] by writing 
under their common seal ... to ask levy have receive 
and take in all and every place and places within our 
said realm of England and Dominion of Wales as well 
of every Master Workman Shipwright or other person 
or persons that shall hereafter make or build or cause 
to be made or built any new ship or ships vessel or 



i6i2 APPENDIX IV 191 

vessels of the burthen of one hundred ton or more or 
less all and singular such profits dues duties fees allow- 
ances sum and sums of money whatsoever after such 
rate and in such manner and form as at any time or 
times heretofore themselves or their predecessors by 
any name or names of corporation by under or by 
force and virtue of any former charter or letters patent 
by them or any of them given or granted or by any 
other lawful and reasonable way or means have or 
ought to have received had taken or enjoyed the same 
by way of tonnage quarterage poundage or otherwise, 
and also all and every such fines amercements penalties 
sum and sums of money as shall be by force and virtue 
of these our letters patent or any their laws orders 
ordinances statutes or jurisdictions already made or 
hereafter to be made for the good government of the 
said company assessed or imposed upon any person or 
persons whatsoever . . . [and] to enter and distrain 
any the goods and chattels of the person or persons so 
offending denying or withholding the same in any place 
or places whatsoever where the same goods and chattels 
or any of them shall or may be found . . . and . . . 
to sue for and recover the same dues duties allowances 
fines amercements penalties impositions sum and sums 
of money in any of our Court or Courts of Record . . . 
And to the end that the secret of the said art or mystery 
and the manner of our English building and new making 
of ships pinnaces and other vessels should for more 
strength and safety of our realms and kingdoms be 
kept secret to and within ourselves and our said realms 
and dominions and altogether unknown to aliens and 
strangers of other Nations, our will and pleasure is and 
we do by these presents for us our heirs and successors 
straitly charge and command that no person or persons 
whatsoever of the said art or mystery of Shipwrights 
do at any time or times hereafter directly or indirectly by 
any ways or means whatsoever presume or attempt to 
discover or make known to any foreigner or stranger 
not being a natural born subject of us our heirs or 
successors or not being naturalised or indenized nor to 
any other person or persons not being free and sworn of 



192 APPENDIX IV i6t2 

and to the said Corporation nor being a sei-vant or 
apprentice to the said art or mystery the secrets of the 
said trade art or mystery or the special manner of our 
English building or new making of ships pinnaces or 
other vessels as aforesaid, nor do take any alien or stranger 
born being not naturalised or indenized to be his or their 
apprentice or servant, upon pain of our high displeasure 
and of such further punishment as by the laws and 
statutes of this realm or the ordinances and laws so 
made or to be made by the said Master Wardens and 
Assistants or the greater part of them as aforesaid can 
or may be inflicted upon such offender or offenders for 
the same. And to the end our will and pleasure herein 
may be the better observed and performed and the 
offender punished we do further by these presents give 
and grant [power to] impose upon every such offender 
a reasonable fine according to the quality of his offence 
at the discretion of the said Master Wardens and Assistants 
or the more part of them, the same fine to be forfeited 
and paid by the person or persons so offending to the 
sole benefit use and behoof of the said Corporation for 
the better maintenance and upholding of the same and 
relieving of the poor of the said Corporation. [Power] 
to examine and punish by fine or such other correction 
as the quality of the offence shall deserve and require 
every person which shall unlawfully depart or go away 
from his work after he hath been hired or agreed withal 
for wages before the time or times of his retainer or 
retainers be expired, or shall be found to grow mutinous 
stubborn or disobedient or in any way a provoker seducer 
or enticer of any other to any mutiny or disobedience 
to the hurt injury or likelihood of hurt or injury of the 
said Corporation or of the good government and order 
therein or of any service whatsoever, and also to examine 
hear and order all and every the complaints of or 
against any shipwright or other workmen of the said 
Corporation art or profession or of or against any of his 
or their joiu-neymen apprentices or servants. And of 
our more ample grace certain knowledge and mere 
motion and for the better suppressing and reformation 
of the deceits and abuses first above mentioned [power 



i6i2 APPENDIX IV 193 

given] to and for the said Master and Wardens or any 
two of them for the time being and also to and for any 
two of the said Assistants or other two persons being 
skilful or which hereafter shall be skilful in the said art 
or mystery being thereunto deputed and authorised 
by writing under the common seal of the said Master 
Wardens and Commonalty, first taking his or their 
corporal oath or oaths upon the Evangelist ... for the 
due execution of their said offices or places ... at all 
convenient time or times, taking with them if need so 
require a constable or any other his Majesty's officer or 
officers of the city town or place, to search view and 
survey all manner of timber wood and other stuff pro- 
vided prepared and fitted for the building making or 
repairing of any ships pinnaces or other vessels in any 
place or places whatsoever within our realm of England 
and dominion of Wales or in either of them, and also 
to search view and survey all and every the works and 
workmanship of all and every person and persons what- 
soever in making working building or repairing . . . 
any manner of ships pinnaces boats or other vessels 
whatsoever within our said realm of England and dominion 
of Wales or either of them, and that it shall and may be 
lawful to and for the said Master and Wardens or any 
two of them or their deputies so authorised as aforesaid 
all and singular ships pinnaces boats and other vessels 
hereafter to be buflt to view search and survey, and 
such of them whereof the timber work at the time of 
such search shall not be fully finished and which at the 
time of such search view or survey so to be made as 
aforesaid shall be found to be so insufficiently falsely 
and deceitfully made wrought or repaired as they must 
needs be by that means dangerous to such as shall 
use or employ them, to arrest and stay until the same 
shall be reformed amended repaired and made fit for 
navigation. And our further will and pleasure is that 
if the said persons before by these presents authorised 
to make such search as aforesaid or any of them shall 
happen to find any sappy wood red wood or other in- 
sufficient wood or timber to be put into any ships pinnaces 
or other vessels or hewn wrought and fitted for that 



194 APPENDIX IV 1612 

purpose, that then the said persons or any of them shall 
forthwith charge and warn the makers or owners of 
such ships pinnaces or other vessels forthwith to take 
away the said sappy wood red wood and other insufficient 
wood and timber and to supply the same with other 
sufficient timber and wood. And if within convenient 
time after such charge and warning given as is aforesaid 
the said sappy wood red wood and other insufficient 
wood and timber be not taken away and the same supplied 
with other good and sufficient timber and wood as is 
aforesaid, that then it shall and may be lawful to and for 
the said Master and Wardens or any two of them or 
any two of the said Assistants or any such deputy or 
deputies as aforesaid to take and deface all such sappy 
wood and red wood and all and singular such other 
timber and wood which upon any such search and view 
and after convenient admonition and warning given 
to take the same away and to supply it with better and 
more sufficient wood and timber they shall find to be 
put in or apparently intended to be put into any ship 
pinnace or other vessel or hewn and cut out or wTought 
for that purpose, manifestly tending to the prejudice 
and damage of us our heirs and successors or of any 
other our loving subjects merchants and mariners whose 
goods and lives are hazarded and often lost by reason 
of such ill stuff, the use of all which sappy and red wood 
and other insufficient stuff we do hereby for us our 
heirs and successors strait ly prohibit and restrain to be 
used or employed in any sort in or upon any ship or 
other vessel. [Power] to impose and inflict such punish- 
ment upon every offender in that behalf either by fine 
or imprisonment or both of them as by the laws or 
statutes of this realm or by any laws or ordinances 
to be made by the said Corporation as is aforesaid 
shall or may be imposed or inflicted upon them 
for their offences in that behalf or otherwise that the 
said Master and Wardens or any two of them or such 
other person or persons so authorised as aforesaid and 
which upon such search shall find any of the deceits 
and abuses aforesaid shall complain thereof to some 
Justice or Justices of Peace within that place or county 



i6i2 APPENDIX IV 195 

where such deceits and abuses shall be found. And 
we do . . . straitly charge and command all and 
every our Justice and Justices of the Peace whatsoever 
to whom any such complaint or complaints shall so be 
made as is aforesaid that they and every of them shall 
by all good and lawful ways and means examine and 
find out the truth of the said complaints abuses and 
deceits, and if upon due examination thereof they shall 
find that any such abuses and deceits have been com- 
mitted as aforesaid, that then they cause the party or 
parties so offending to be indicted or otherwise punished 
for such his and their abuses and deceits either before 
our Justices of Peace in the county where the same 
abuses and deceits shall be committed and found at their 
Sessions of the Peace or before the Justices of Assize 
of the same county or before any other lawful judge or 
judges, to the end that the said person or persons so 
offending may receive such condign punishment as by 
the laws and statutes of this realm can or may be in- 
flicted upon him or them for his or their offence or offences 
in that behalf. And ... we do . . . straitly charge 
and command the said Master Wardens and Assistants 
of the said art or mystery and their successors for the 
time being that once in every month at the least such 
search be made as is aforesaid, and that the authority 
hereby in that behalf to them given be put in due execu- 
tion without any respect of persons or partiality what- 
soever. Provided always nevertheless and our will and 
pleasure is that neither the Master nor Wardens of the 
said art or mystery for the time being or any their deputy 
or deputies so authorised to search as is aforesaid shall 
not by colour of these letters patent meddle with or do 
anything to the hindrance stay or prevention of any 
ship pinnace or other vessel that is or shall be at the 
time of such their search as aforesaid ready to go 
forth for an intended voyage or journey or the master 
owner mariners sailors or other officers of the same, 
any thing in these presents to the contrary thereof in 
any wise notwithstanding. [Power] to buy and provide 
in any the places beyond the Seas all such timber planks 
masts deals spars and wood and wooden stuff and also 



196 APPENDIX IV 1612 

all pitch tar rosin and oil as they shall think necessary 
and convenient for the building or repairing graving 
or fitting of ships pinnaces or other vessels, and the 
same so bought and provided shall and may from time 
to time for ever hereafter bring or cause to be brought 
into this our realm of England and dominion of Wales 
or any part or place thereof and the same discharge 
and lay on land, paying to us our heirs and successors 
the full Custom poundage and other duties due or which 
hereafter shall be due to us our heirs or successors any 
law statute custom proclamation or any other matter 
cause or thing to the contrary notwithstanding. And 
whereas for the better maintenance of navigation and 
encouragement of our loving subjects to increase shipping 
within this our realm there is and hath been of ancient 
time an allowance given by us and our predecessors of 
five shillings sterling for every ton of any new builded 
ship to be rated according to the burthen of the said 
ship did contain in burthen one hundred tons or upwards 
in ton and tonnage, which laudable custom we being 
pleased to continue, and finding it also convenient as 
well for the avoiding of abuses that might be offered 
in rating and setting down the tonnage of the said ships 
and otherwise as also that the builder might have his 
right and due allowance of tonnage, to appoint some 
person or persons of knowledge and experience for the 
surveying and overseeing of the true rates and tonnage 
in that behalf, we did by our letters patent under our 
great seal of England bearing date the four and twentieth 
day of April in the third year of our reign give and grant 
to John Grent gent, for and during his natural life the 
office and place of surveyor of the tonnage and burthen 
of all new builded ships of the burthen above mentioned 
or upwards from time to time within this our realm of 
England, together with the wages and fee of twelve 
pence by the day of lawful money of England for the 
exercising of the said office or place, together with all 
and singular other fees profits commodities and allow- 
ances whatsoever to the same place or office in any wise 
due incident or appertaining, with a proviso or clause 
therein contained that the said John Grent in the rating 



i6i2 APPENDIX IV 197 

and setting down of the tonnage and burden of the said 
new builded ships from time to time should use the 
advice and assistance of one of our shipwrights to be 
nominated and appointed by our High Admiral of 
England for the time being, and that all and every such 
bill of tonnage as should be presented to us to be signed 
for the said allowance of five shillings upon every ton of 
the burden of the said ship should be first allowed under 
the hand of the said surveyor and signed by the said 
Admiral or his deputy for the time being as hath been 
accustomed. And whereas by our letters patent bearing 
date the eight and twentieth day of January in the fourth 
year of our reign we did grant or mention to grant unto 
Humfrey Jobson gent, for and during his natural life 
the reversion of the said office or place of surveyor of 
the tonnage and burden of all new builded ships of the 
burden of one hundred ton above mentioned or upwards 
from time to time within our realm of England next 
after the death forfeiture or surrender of the said John 
Grent, together with the wages and fee of twelve pence 
a day for the exercising of the said office and place and 
all and singular other fees profits commodities and 
allowances whatsoever to the same place or office in 
any wise due incident or appertaining, as in and by the 
said two several letters patent more at large appeareth, 
and whereas of late we have been much wronged de- 
frauded and abused in that sundry of the said ships for 
want of exact viewing surveying and measuring have 
been overrated in their burden and tonnage, whereby 
we have, been charged with the payment of a greater 
allowance than in truth we ought to have been, know ye 
therefore that we reposing a special trust and confidence 
in the faithfulness experience care and honest and true 
circumspection of the Master Wardens and Commonalty 
of the said art or mystery of Shipwrights, and to the 
end that we our heirs and successors may not at any 
time from henceforth in like sort be defrauded wronged or 
abused, do of our especial grace certain knowledge and 
mere motion give and grant to the said Master Wardens 
and Commonalty and to their successors for ever the 
office function and place of surveyor of the tonnage and 



198 APPENDIX IV 1612 

burden of all new builded ships of the burden of one 
hundred ton above mentioned or upwards from time to 
time within this our realm of England, together with the 
said wages and fee of twelve pence by the day and all other 
fees profits commodities and allowances whatsoever to the 
said office or place in any wise due belonging incident or 
appertaining. And them the said Master Wardens and 
Commonalty and their successors we do by these presents 
for us our heirs and successors nominate ordain make and 
appoint surveyors of the tonnage and burden of all new 
builded ships from time to time within this our realm of 
England and dominion of Wales, to have hold exercise and 
enjoy the said office function and place and also to have 
receive and perceive the said wages and fee of twelve 
pence by the day immediately when and from and after 
such time as the estate and interest estates and interests 
granted or mentioned to be granted to the said John Grent 
and Humfrey Jobson respectively by death surrender 
forfeiture or other occasion cause or means whatsoever 
is are or shall be void ended or determined. And when- 
soever the said office or place shall first happen or become 
void unto the said Master Wardens and Commonalty 
and to their successors forever, and for the better and 
more exact examination judging and finding out from 
henceforth of the true burden and tonnage of every ship 
and vessel that is or shall be capable of or intended to 
have or require the said allowance, we do hereby for 
us our heirs and successors ordain decree grant limit and 
appoint and also straitly charge and command the said 
Master and Wardens for the time being by themselves or 
their deputies being honest skilful and sufficient persons 
as well to go on board every such ship and vessel and 
there to view and discern whether she be sufficiently and 
substantially built as is fit and required in that behalf, 
that is to say with two orlops at convenient distances 
strong to carry ordnance aloft and alow with her fore- 
castle and half deck close for fight, as also to cause every 
such ship and vessel to be brought on ground and by 
from and according to an exact measure taken of her 
length breadth depth and draught in water so to rate and 
set down the true burden and tonnage thereof and to 



i6i2 APPENDIX IV 199 

certify the same by letters testimonial under the common 
seal of the said Corporation and the hands of the said 
Master and Wardens of the said art or mystery for the 
time being as they will ever after be ready upon their 
oaths and allegiance to approve the same. And our 
will and pleasure is and we do by these presents for 
us our heirs and successors straitly prohibit charge 
and command that no person or persons whatsoever 
shall or may at any time or times hereafter be capable 
of or presume to take receive and demand the said 
allowance of five shillings a ton as aforesaid until such 
due measuring rating and certificate be first had and made 
as aforesaid, willing and requiring as well our Lord High 
Treasurer and Lord High Admiral of England and our 
Treasurer and Chancellor of our Exchequer as also 
the said John Grent and Humfrey Jobson and all other 
persons whom it may concern to take notice of our 
will and pleasure in this behalf, any former grant pro- 
vision limitation custom or usage to the contrar}^ hereof 
in any wise notwithstanding. And moreover for the 
better maintaining strengthening and upholding of the 
said Corporation and the suppressing and reforming 
as well of the manifold errors deceits and abuses practised 
in the said profession art and mystery as also of the 
disorders and misdemeanours of divers wilful stubborn 
and disobedient persons of the said profession art or 
mystery, which can very hardly by any other means 
be redressed restrained or reformed, and for the better 
continuing settling and establishing of good order dis- 
cipline and government amongst them for the especial 
of our own service and the general benefit of all our 
loving subjects as well merchants as others, we do . . . 
give and grant to the said Master Wardens and Common- 
alty and their successors for ever by these presents that 
if any person or persons now practising using or professing 
or which hereafter shall practise use or profess the said 
art or mystery or any thing thereunto appertaining 
shall wilfully or obstinately oppose or resist the order 
rule and government of the said Master W^ardens and 
Assistants of the said art or mystery for the time bemg, 
or shall refuse to obey or to submit him or themselves 



200 APPENDIX IV 1612 

to this our charter or letters patent and to such whole- 
some laws orders ordinances and institutions as are or 
shall be made by force and virtue thereof as aforesaid, 
tending to the good service of Us and our Common- 
wealth and to the good estate and preservation of the 
said art or mystery, or shall not well and honestly carry 
behave and demean him and themselves towards the 
Master Wardens and Assistants of the said art or mystery 
for the time being and their deputy or deputies or other 
inferior officers respectively according to the true intent 
and meaning of these presents, but after due and con- 
venient warning notice or admonition given to him or 
them in that behalf shall still wilfully and obstinately 
persist persevere or continue in any wilful stubborn 
obstinate or disobedient course tending to the hurt 
and prejudice of us our heirs and successors or of any our 
loving subjects or the order rule and government afore- 
said, either by insufficient negligent or deceitful working 
or not performing of his or their duties or by purloining 
or embezzling of stuff, by unlawful or disorderly de- 
parture from his or their work after he or they have been 
hired, and such like, or shall do or commit any act or 
acts directly or indirectly to the prejudice or hindrance 
of the said Corporation or the good estate and pro- 
ceedings thereof, either by wilful absenting him or 
themselves from the common hall and meetings upon 
due warning, or by denial of ordinary and just duties, 
or shall by mutinies combinations conspiracies or any 
such like wicked and unlawful course or practice persist 
or continue in the wilful breach neglect or contempt 
of this our charter or any thing herein contained or 
any law ordinance or institution made by force of these 
presents, that then in all and every or any of these 
cases before mentioned it shall and may be lawful to 
and for the said Master Wardens and Assistants or any 
three of them, whereof the Master and one of the Wardens 
to be always two, severally to correct and punish such 
offender or offenders according to the quantity and 
quality of his or their offence or offences according to 
the laws and ordinances of the said Corporation and 
according to the laws and statutes of the realm in that 



i6i2 APPENDIX IV 201 

behalf respectively. And whereas the greatest number 
of the workmen and other persons employed in the 
trades aforesaid are so very poor needy and of mean 
condition as no pecuniary mulct can take hold of them, 
and likewise so rude and disordered as no ordinary or 
civil censure can move them to yield obedience to rule 
or government, and therefore some sharp and severe 
correction and restraint must necessarily be used towards 
them in many cases, therefore our will and pleasure is 
and we do by these presents will and ordain that if any 
person or persons now using or which shall hereafter 
use or exercise within the said realm of England or 
dominion of Wales the said art trade or mystery of 
Shipwrights or other the works or trade aforesaid shall 
obstinately resist and withstand the government of the 
said Master Wardens and Assistants or their lawful de- 
puty or deputies, and shall after admonition and warning 
given unto them or any of them in that behalf wilfully 
persist in such disobedient course either by deceitful 
working or by unlawful departure from their work after 
they have been hired and within the time or times of 
their retainer, or shall by combination conspiracies or 
other unlawful practices seek to overthrow destroy and 
bring into contempt the powers privileges and authorities 
by these presents given and granted to the said Master 
Wardens and Commonalty and their successors for the 
universal benefit and good of our said realm dominion 
and subjects, that then or in such cases the Lord Admiral 
of England for the time being upon complaint and proof 
thereof made to him shall take the body or bodies of 
all and every such notorious offenders and keep them 
under arrest until they shall conform themselves and 
reform what they have done amiss as aforesaid. And 
forasmuch as a great part of the said art or mystery are 
continually for the most part employed and attendant 
upon the service and navigation of us our heirs and 
successors, we therefore ... do will and grant . . . 
that the said Master Wardens and Commonalty or any 
of them or their or any of their successors shall not at 
any time or times hereafter be informed put placed 
or impanelled in or upon any assizes juries inquests 




202 APPENDIX IV 1612 

or attaints whatsoever before any judges justices or 
commissioners of us our heirs or successors out of the 
cities to\Mis boroughs parishes or places where they 
or any of them do or shall happen to dwell, unless they 
have lands or tenements lying out of the said cities 
towns boroughs parishes or places by reason whereof 
they or any of them ought to be charged, nor shall at 
any time be pressed or enforced to serve us our heii's 
or successors as land soldiers, but do absolutely and 
freely discharge them and every of them from any such 
ser\dce or attendance. And we do further by these 
presents for us our heirs and successors straitly charge 
and command all and every sheriffs bailiffs and other 
officers of us our heirs and successors, that they and 
every of them do from time to time forbear to put or 
impanel any of the said Master Wardens and Commonalty 
or any their deputy or apprentices in or upon any such 
juries or inquests as is aforesaid, contrary to our said 
meaning and intent, upon pain of our displeasure and 
of such pains penalties and imprisonments as by the 
law^s of this our Realm can or may be inflicted or im- 
posed upon them or any of them for their contempt in 
doing contrary to our royal pleasure and command- 
ment in that behalf. And whereas the Master Wardens 
and Commonalty of the said art and mystery of Ship- 
wrights of Redrith aforesaid and their and every of their 
deputies and apprentices being continually for the most 
part charged and chargeable to be ready and provided 
at an hour's warning upon divers services and employ- 
ments as well at the sea for the necessary defence and 
safety of our realms and kingdoms and for the use and 
employment of our merchants for continuance and 
increase of trade and commerce with foreign nations 
for the benefit and profit of us and our subjects, as also 
to give attendance within our kingdoms for the new 
building repairing and trimming as well of the ships 
pinnaces and vessels of us our heirs and successors as 
of the ships pinnaces and vessels of our merchants and 
subjects, therefore our will and pleasure is that if it 
shall happen the said Master Wardens and Commonalty 
or other persons which by the true intent and meaning 



i6i2 APPENDIX IV 203 

hereof are and ought to be discharged from such service 
upon juries and inquests shall by sheriffs bailiffs and 
other officers ignorantly or wilfully be put and impanelled 
to serve upon juries and inquests contrary to our true 
intent and meaning in that behalf in certain our former 
letters patent granted and also in these presents renewed, 
and that any of the said persons being absent from their 
houses and places of habitation at such times as they 
were or shall be summoned or warned to appear upon 
any such juries or inquests could not nor cannot plead 
nor alledge the said former letters patent nor these 
presents or the privileges and authorities hereby given 
and granted unto them for their discharge in that behalf, 
whereby divers issues lines and amercements are many 
times returned against them contrary to our true intent 
and meaning, w^e do therefore grant . . . unto the said 
Master Wardens and Commonalty and to their successors 
forever that if any issues fines or amercements shall be 
returned forfeited or imposed by or upon any of the 
said person or persons of the said Corporation trade art 
or mystery for and in respect of not doing or not per- 
forming of any the said services or other things whereof 
they are hereby exempted or freed or mentioned to be 
exempted or freed, that then the same person or persons 
his and their heirs executors administrators and assigns 
and every of them and all his and their lands tenements 
goods and chattels shall be forever freed and discharged 
of and from the said issues fines and amercements and 
every of them, and we do require and command the 
Barons of our Exchequer that in respect of the poverty 
of many that are to be relieved in this case they give 
them all expedition and ease in their proceedings and 
pleadings for their discharge in that behalf. And because 
this Corporation of Shipwrights hath been principally 
instituted and made for the maintenance and increase 
of navigation and for the better and more substantial 
making building and repairing of ships and also for the 
training up and instructing of shipwrights ship-carpenters 
labourers and w^orkmen to make them more ready able 
and skilful for service, all wliich things do very greatly 
concern the defence safety wealth and profit of our self 



204 APPENDIX IV 1612 

our kingdoms and subjects, therefore we do not only 
straitly charge and command all and every person or 
persons which are or shall be of the Commonalty of this 
Corporation that they do dutifully submit themselves 
to such good and wholesome laws statutes and ordinances 
as shall be hereafter ordained and made by virtue of 
these letters patent for the government rule order and 
direction of this Corporation and of all the members 
thereof, but we do also straitly require charge and 
command all Masters Wardens Assistants deputies and 
other the principal officers of this incorporation now 
being and that hereafter shall be, that they and every 
of them in their several offices and places do carefully 
diligently and circumspectly look to the due and severe 
execution of all such laws statutes and ordinances so 
to be made as aforesaid, that the same may be truly 
performed and accomplished according to the tenor and 
true meaning of the same, upon pain of our heavy dis- 
pleasure and indignation and of such punishment and 
imprisonment as by our laws may be inflicted on them 
and every or any of them, wherein our meaning is to 
extend the greater punishment upon such as having 
offices and places of trust and charge committed unto 
them shall by wilfulness negligence remissness partiality 
or otherwise offend themselves or suffer others to offend 
in those things whereof they ought to be the reformers 
and redressers and at whose hands we expect to receive 
and have amendment and reformation of all offences 
that shall be committed by any others in that behalf. 
And forasmuch as the poverty of Ship\\Tights and persons 
belonging to the said Corporation is now much more 
increased than in former times and not able to be relieved 
supported and maintained by the duties and revenues 
of the said Corporation wliich heretofore they have had 
or were enabled to have, being so small in yearly value, 
therefore and to the end the said Master Wardens and 
Commonalty and their successors may be from hence- 
forth the better enabled from time to time to bear and 
sustain their charges and expenses drawn and occasioned 
by reason of the Corporation and to relieve and maintain 
the poor of the same, we have . . . given and granted 
. . . unto the said Master Wardens and Commonalty 



i6i2 APPENDIX IV 205 

of the said art or mystery of Shipwrights of Redrith 
aforesaid and to their successors, especial licence and 
free and lawful faculty power and authority that they 
and their successors forever shall and may not only have 
receive and purchase to them and their successors forever 
to their own proper use and behoof as well of us our 
heirs and successors as of any other person or persons 
whatsoever manors messuages land tenements rectories 
tithes rents reversions services and other hereditaments 
whatsoever which are not held of us our heirs and 
successors in chief or by knight's service nor of any other 
by knight's service, so always that the same manors 
[&c.'\ by the said Master Wardens and Commonalty or 
their successors so to be received purchased obtained or 
had as aforesaid do not exceed the clear yearly value 
of forty pounds by the year above all charges deductions 
and reprises, the statute of lands and tenements not 
to be put in mortmain or any other statute act or ordin- 
ance provision restraint or any other matter cause or 
thing whatsoever to the contrary notwithstanding. And 
further ... we do give and grant special license and 
full and free power and authority to any and every 
of the subjects of us our heirs and successors and to all 
and every body and bodies corporate and politic and 
other person or persons whatsoever and to every of 
them ; that they and every of them shall and may give 
grant bequeath assign or by any ways or means whatso- 
ever alien devise or assure unto the said Master Wardens 
and Commonalty and to their successors forever any 
manors [&c., as before, with same limitations]. And 
finally we do by these presents for us our heirs and 
successors straitly charge and command as well the 
Lord Admiral of England for the time being and also 
the Judge of our Admiralty and principal officers of our 
Navy and all Vice- Admirals Marshals Serjeants and 
other officers of our Admiralty as also the Lord Mayor 
of our City of London and the Sheriffs Justices Constables 
and other officers and Ministers of the said city for the 
time being, and also the several Mayors of our cities 
of Bristol and Rochester and of our towns of Yarmouth 
Plymouth Dartmouth Ipswich Southampton Wood- 
bridge Hull and Newcastle respectively for the time 



2o6 APPENDIX IV 1612 

being and all other Mayors Sheriffs Justices of Peace 
Bailiffs Constables and other officers and ministers of 
us our heirs and successors whatsoever within our said 
realm of England and dominion of Wales, that they and 
every of them be from time to time and at all times 
hereafter helping aiding and assisting to the said Master 
Wardens and Commonalty and to their successors and 
to every and any of them for the time being and to 
every of their deputy or deputies officer or officers for 
the time being forever, as well in and for such search 
view and survey so to be made as aforesaid as also for 
and in the execution of all and singular grants ordinances 
laws constitutions and orders herein contained or here- 
after upon or by virtue of these presents to be allowed 
and approved in all things according to the true intent 
and meaning of the same, upon pain of our high dis- 
pleasure and as they will answer the contrary. And 
these our letters patent or the enrolment thereof shall be 
good and effectual in the law to the said Master Wardens 
and Commonalty and their successors to all intents 
constructions and purposes against us our heirs and 
successors forever, any Act of Parliament statute law 
provision proclamation restraint or other matter cause 
or thing whatsoever to the contrary thereof in any 
wise notwithstanding. Provided always that these our 
letters patent or anything therein contained shall not 
in any wise extend or be constructed to extend or be 
prejudicial to our Cinque Ports or to the liberties or 
members of the same or of any of them or to any juris- 
diction power or authority of the Lord Warden of the 
Cinque Ports for the time being which he hath or in 
any wise or sort he ought or may lawfully use exercise 
or claim to or with the office of the Lord Warden of the 
Cinque Ports or of any other office or offices belonging 
incident or appertaining to the said office of the Lord 
Warden of the Cinque Ports, any grant power privilege 
matter or thing before in these presents contained to the 
contrary thereof in any wise notwithstanding. Although 
express mention &c. In witness whereof &c. Witness 
our self at Westminster the sixth day of ^lay. 

per breve de privato sigillo. 



i6ii APPENDIX V 207 



V. 

New Building the Prince Royal at Woolwich 
[Pipe Office Declared Account No. 2249] 1 
[N.B. — Spelling and 7ttimerals modernised] 

Mathew Baker, one of his Majesty's Master Ship- 
wrights, for his pains and charges in many journeys 
between Deptford and Woolwich during the time of the 
new building of his Majesty's ship the Prince Royal, by 
special command from the Lord Treasurer and the Lord 
Admiral of England ...... 10/. 

Robert Beake and Paul Isackson, painters, for paint- 
ing and gilding his Highness' ship the Prince Royal with 
fine gold and divers colours wrought and laid in oil, 
finding at their own charge all manner of stuff and work- 
manship : viz. the beakhead three times primed and 
stopped ; his Majesty's arms and badges, with divers 
beasts, and the Prince's arms all gilded with fine gold 
and wrought in oil colours . . . 62/. 6s. 8^. 

For both the sides, and all the carved work on both 
the sides, as well on the backside as foreside, three times 
primed and stopped ; with his Majesty's whole arms and 
badges on the two upper strakes ; the Prince's arms and 
badges on the third strake ; the great mask head on the 
fourth strake ; all the foresaid arms, with very much 
other work, and the lower strake all gilded and wrought 
in oil colours 190^ 

For the galleries, three on each side, priming three 
times ; the low^er galleries with his Majesty's beasts and 
badges ; the third with the like and very much other 
work ; all gilded and wrought in oil colours . . 100/. 

For the upright in the stern with his Majesty's whole 
arms and badges ; on the first, second and third galleries 
on the stern, with his Majesty's arms and beasts, and 
the Prince's also ; on the lower counter two great mask 
heads three times primed and stopped, all gilded and 
laid in oil colours 140/. 



2o8 APPENDIX V 1611 

For all the bulkheads, the first in the poop, the second 
afore the Master's cabin, the third afore the Prince's 
cabin, the fourth and fifth in the waist ^vith the bell- 
house, the sixth and seventh afore the forecastle, thereon 
some of his Majesty's badges and much other work, 
three times primed and stopped, gilded and wrought in 
oil colours ....... 45/. los. 

For all the timbers within the board, and all the 
plansers^ afore and abaft, double primed and stopped 
and laid in oil colours ...... 10/. 

For the galleries within board, primed and stopped 
and laid in oil colours . . . . . .6/. 

For the Prince's lodging cabin, very curiously wrought 
and gilded with divers histories, and very much other 
work in oil colours ..... 164/. 

For the state cabin, gilded and very curiously wrought 
with divers histories, and much other works, wrought in 
oil colours and varnished ..... 90/. 

For the room abaft the stateroom, wrought overhead 
and on each side with sundry figures in oil colours . 15/. 

For the Master's cabin wrought and varnished, with 
his mate's cabins, primed and laid in oil colours iios. 

And for all the works under the half deck, double 
primed and stopped, with very much works, and up the 
stairs to the half deck, all laid in oil colours . . 40/. 

In all 868/. 6s. M. 

Sebastian Vicars, for carved works by him wrought 
and performed aboard his Highness' ship the Prince, 
lately new built at Woolwich. That is to say, in the 
beakhead for carving the George, 20/. ; the trailboard, 
10/. ; the sideboard, 16/. ; of two boards for the half rail 
between the planchers, 9/. ; of 14 brackets for both, 
13/. 6s. 8i. ; of two lions for the half rail, 50s. ; of a 
serpent for the tacks, 13s. 4^. ; of two great mask heads 
for the two hawsers, and of two fish heads for steadying 
the main knee, 30s. ; for carving the sides without board, 
viz : of 104 brackets along the sides without board, 
12/. 6s. M, ; of 47 compartments in the lower strake, 

» Elsewhere spelt ' Planchers ' and * Plansters,' now 
usually spelt ' Planeshears.' The planks covering the tops 
of the timbers and forming a shelf below the gunwale. 



i6ii APPENDIX V 209 

110s. ; of 14 great lion heads for the round ports, 10/. ; of 
12 Prince's badges in the middle strake, 12I. ; for carving 
9 compartments in the same strake, iios. ; of the King's 
badges on the sides without board, 22I. ; of one pair of 
the King's arms and another of the King's and Queen's 
together, 15/. ; of four terms ^ on either side the arms, 75s. ; 
of four ports, two in the bow and two in the quarter 
abaft, with four taff rails, iios. ; of 4 scuttles of windows, 
4/. ; of 8 trophies in the upper strake, iios. ; of 14 
brackets in the narrow strake and 12 compartments, 
55s. ; and of four hansing pieces in the waist, ^^s. ^d. ; 
for carving the two sides in the lower gallery, 20/. ; 
of 26 brackets, 61. ; of 12 supporters under the galleries, 
61. ; and of the frieze round about, 81. ; for carving of 
6 panels with stories on the middle of the gallery, 18/. ; 
of 16 arches, 60s. ; of ten great terms, 10/. ; of 14 little 
terms, 61. los. ; of two great badges of the Prince's, 
SI. ; of four of the Prince's letters, 25s. ; of ten Dragons 
for supporters, loos. ; of two great arches within the 
galleries, 13s. ^d. ; and of four hansing pieces, 40s. ; 
for the carving the two sides on the upper gallery, 15/. ; 
of the ten brackets, 40s. *, of eight beasts, 70s. ; of ten 
taffraik, 25s. 8d. ; for carving of four great terms in 
the stern, 61. ; of three great arches, 60s. ; of two great 
lions' heads, 33s. 4^. ; of the rudder head and tiller, 
20s. ; of the planks cross the stern, 61. 13s. ^d. ; of the 
frieze, 4I. ; of seven brackets, 33s. 4^. ; of two dragons, 
40s. ; of seven pendants, 68s. ; of eight terms, yl. los. ; 
of six arches, 25s. ; of the Prince's badges, 4/. ; of two 
letters on either side of the badge, i6s. ; of two pieces 
of Victory and Fame, yl. ; of the plank cross the stern 
in the upper gallery, yl. ; of six brackets, 25s. ; of six 
beasts, 66s. 8^. ; and of five taffrails, 15s. ; for carving 
the King's arms ten foot wide in the upright, 22/. ; and 
of two pyramids with two boys sitting on the top showing 
for Peace or War, 61. ; for carving four terms for the 
doors in the forecastle, 35s. ; of a frieze round about, 
35s. ; of four terms and four cartowes,^ 55s. ; and of two 

^ Terminal pieces. 

2 Cartouches ; modillions or corbels. 



210 APPENDIX VI 1631 

hansing pieces, 40s. ; for carving of six terms and six 
cantlappers ^ and two arches for the doors in the fore- 
castle within board, 61. ; of three orpins,^ 73s. ^d, ; 
of six brackets, 15s. ; of four badges of the King's, 60s. ; 
and of the bellhouse and knights' heads, 56s. 8d., for 
carved work in the bulkhead abaft, viz. of six terms and 
six cantlappers, 61. ; of four cantlappers and six arches 
to give light under the half deck, 35s. ; of seven brackets 
and six compartments in the narrow frieze, 35s. ; for 
carving twelve arches on both the sides of the half deck 
and of 28 brackets, yl. ; for carving of six terms for three 
doors and six cantlappers with three arches on the quarter 
deck, 9/. ; of two terms and two cantlappers, 30s. ; 
and of two hansing pieces and the knights' heads, 30s. ; 
and for carving two orpins and two brackets on the 
roundhouse, 20s. ; and of two hansing pieces, 20s. In 
all 441Z. 4^. 

VI 

Petition to the Admiralty 

S.P. Dom., Chas. I, cxciv. 47] 

Noble Sir, — I have nothing to tender you for many 
favours received from you but the return of my thanks, 
and particularly for this last courtesy about the petition 
delivered against me which I have, herein enclosed, 
returned together with my answer, desiring you to be 
pleased it may be both presented and read to the Lords 
Commissioners, whose order herein I shall with all 
humble submission assent unto, not doubting of your 
careful favour herein, which I shall study to requite 
with my best acknowledgments, beseeching you to be 
pleased so far to mediate for me that the plaintiff may not 
have power from their lordships to bring disgrace upon 
me, whereby his Majesty's service may suffer as well as 
myself, by giving leave to have me intercepted when I 
am to attend the ordinary meeting of the principal 

* I.e. cantilevers, or projecting brackets. 
' Harpins or ribbands. 



I 



i63i APPENDIX VI 211 

officers of his Majesty's Navy, within the city, where they 
wait for advantage. So leaving myself to your care I take 
leave and rest 

At your service, 

Phineas Pett. 
Chatham, 22nd June, 163 1. 

I pray, sir, be pleased to return me word by this 
bearer when his Majesty is to go to Portsmouth. 

[Endorsed) To my honoured friend Edward Nicholas, 
Esquire, Secretary to the right honourable Lords Com- 
missioners of the Admiralty of England these 

Westminster. 



47 1. 

To the right honourable the lords and other Com- 
missioners of the Admiralty of England. 

The humble answer of Phineas Pett, his Majesty's 
servant, to the petition of Lewes Tayte, smith. 

I do acknowledge I become debtor ^ to this petitioner 
for ironwork delivered to the building of a new ship 
called the Destiny, built by me for Sir Walter Ralegh, from 
whom I could never receive satisfaction for the said work 
by 700/., which I was forced to venture with him in 
his voyage, wherein he failing, and at his return the ship 
seized into his Majesty's hands, I suffered the loss of 
the whole debt. 

I was contented to give this petitioner my bond for 
payment of his debt, notwithstanding my great loss, 
some part whereof was orderly paid, and the rest I 
should have easily satisfied had not a greater loss presently 
befallen me, through the occasion of building two small 
ships for the expedition of Algiers, wherein I sustained 
(by the overworks, and charge of the journey wherein 
I served as Captain in one of those ships) the loss of 
above 900/., towards which I could never hitherto recover 
one penny satisfaction. 

^ MS. ' detter.' 



212 APPENDIX VII 1623 

By these two great losses suddenly befalling me, almost 
together, I was utterly disabled either to satisfy the 
debts arising from these businesses, or to raise means to 
maintain myself and poor family. 

Notwithstanding I have out of the little remnants of 
my poor fortunes paid above 500/. of these debts within 
the space of 6 years, which I never so much as drank for, 
and I do yearly still contribute the better half of my 
small means towards the satisfying the rest as carefully 
as I can. 

I have often entreated this petitioner's patience, as 
knowing his abilities better able to forbear than others, 
interested as himself in the same business, he having 
also made more gain by his commodities than any other. 
Always tendering satisfaction to him as I could take of 
other debts, to the utmost my fortunes would extend 
unto, and am very ready and willing yearly to pay unto 
him such a sum as your lordships in your honourable 
considerations of the premises, and my present fortunes, 
shall order me to do. Humbly submitting myself to 
your Lordships' favourable construction. 

Phineas Pett. 



VII 

[Stowe MS. 743 f. 50] 

Right Honourable, — My most humble services 
presented. 

Lest I should be the last in expressing my duty and 
humblest service, being so infinitely obliged to your most 
noble favours, I rather choose to incur the censure of 
presumption, than the just imputation of ingratitude, 
being hopeful for the first to procure your honourable 
pardon, for the last it is beyond the plea of all excuse. 

Please your lordship to understand that since your 
posting from Tiballs, receiving direction for making ready 
the Prince, I brought her into dry dock at Chatham, 
there thoroughly searched her, and strengthened her in all 
suspected places, new made and repaired all her masts. 



1623 APPENDIX VII 213 

and launched her again within fourteen days, and have in 
all points been so careful to prepare all rooms for state, 
ease, convenience, and ornament, as I hope will give your 
lordship as much content as can be in any ship contrived. 

The cook room is by a powerful command (against 
my consent) removed from the old place in hold into the 
forecastle, in which I was much overborne, having had 
the experience of the conveniency thereof, in my personal 
service in former transportation. 

The Prince is at present in such forwardness as if there 
be no other wants she may be at sea in fourteen days, 
and is now taking in her beer and other provisions. 

All the fleet are in the same readiness, the George 
and the Antelope making all possible haste to get to sea, 
and this is the account of the business here under my 
charge, which in all humbleness I held my duty to present 
your lordship. 

Were it not that I intend to wait upon your lordship 
in the great ship, I would have procured his Majesty's 
leave to have come with Sir Francis Steward. I hold 
myself very unhappy to be from, attending your lordship 
in any sea service. 

Thus humbly craving your lordship's honourable 
construction of this my presumption, and pardon for my 
boldness, which I cannot but do in zeal of my service, 
praying God to send your lordship increase of honour, 
health, happiness, and a prosperous return, in all humble- 
ness I kiss your lordship's hand and ever remain, 
Your lordship's creature, 

Phineas Pett. 

Chatham, 10th April 1623. 

To the Right Hon^ Lord Marquis of Buckingham, 
Lord High Admiral of England, give these. 



214 APPENDIX VIII 1634 



VIII 

Protest ot Trinity House against the Building 
of the Sovereign 

[S.P. Dom. Chas I. cclxxiii. 25] 

Right Honourable, — Being informed that his 
Majesty is minded to build a great ship of these dimen- 
sions (namely) 124 foot by the keel, in breadth 46 and 
for draught in water 22 foot, these strange and large 
dimensions gave us cause to fall into discourse, and in our 
discourse fell on these particulars following, namely : 

That a ship of this proportion cannot be of use, nor 
fit for service in any part of the King's Dominions ; and 
as unfit for remote service : our reasons — 

First, there is no port within this kingdom (the Isle 
of Wight only) that can in safety harbour this ship, then 
it followeth, if she be not in port then is she in continual 
danger, exposed to all tempests, to all storms, that time 
shall bring. In a desperate estate she rides in every 
storm : in peril she must ride, when all the rest of her 
companions (his Majesty's ships) enjoys peace, rides quiet 
and safe in port : for example, we have the Prince in her 
voyage to Spain for his Majesty in foul weather, when all 
the fleet harboured in the Port of Plymouth, the Prince 
she only might not, for she could not, she too big, her 
draught too much, the wild sea must be her port ; in 
the Sound of Plymouth must she ride, her anchors and 
cables her safety. If either of them fail, the ship must 
perish, 4 or 500 men must die, and the King must lose 
his Jewel ; and this will be the state of this ship. 

That she cannot harbour is her great draught in 
water, and less in draught she will not be, but could she 
be made to draw less water, yet anchors and cables must 
hold proportion, and behig made, they will not be man- 
ageable, the strength of man cannot wield nor work them, 
but could they do it, yet the ship little bettered in point of 
safety, for we are doubtful whether cables and anchors 

\ 



1634 APPENDIX VIII 215 

can hold a ship of this bulk in a great storm, for we have 
more in our seas to add stress to cables and anchors than 
the wind and foaming sea. We have strong tides which 
strains both cables and anchors equal to wind and sea, 
besides the particulars there are many things which must 
concur ; for if either fail, the rest hold not, for example 
if the cables fail, the anchors are of no use, if the anchors 
fail, then neither cable nor anchor is serviceable, nay if 
the ground be not good then is all the rest to no purpose, 
so that if either of these fail all is lost, the ship lost with 
all her provisions, the men lost, and it may be some 
great and noble Peer in her. 

Thus far so much as may concern the safety of this 
ship being built. 

Now for the force of this ship ; it will not any way 
hold proportion with her bulk or burden, for the aim 
must be for three tier of ordnance, the lower tier which 
must carry the greatest ordnance and be of greatest 
force must lie of necessity so low that in every gale of wind 
the ports must be shut in, or else the ship will be in great 
danger, or sink as did the Mary Rose in King Henry the 
VIII's time at Portsmouth. 

Or if you will lay them at 5 or 5| foot, then must the 
third tier lie at that height as not to be serviceable, nay 
this third tier will rather endanger the quality of the 
ship (as the too high building hath in some of the king's 
ships lately built, made them unfit for any good service). 
Therefore three tier of ordnance must not be, neither 
can the art or wit of man build a ship well conditioned 
and fit for service with three tier of ordnance. 

But if it be force that his Majesty desireth, then shall 
he do well to forbear the building of this ship, and with 
the same cost or charge to build two ships of 5 or 600 ton 
a piece, either ship to have 40 pieces of good ordnance, 
and these two ships will be of more force and for better 
service and will beat the great ship back and side. 

These particulars. Right Honourable, falling within 
the compass of our discourse we held it our duty to his 
Majesty to impart the particulars unto you, and with 
your wisdom to leave them either to impart them unto 



2i6 APPENDIX VIII 1634 

the king, or otherwise as it shall seem best unto your 
wisdom. And so we rest, 

Your honour's ever at command, 
T. Best. 
Walter Coke. 
Ro. Salmon. 
From Ratcliff, 
(^th of August 1634. 

To the Right Honourable Sir John Coke, principal 
Secretary to His Majesty. 



[Nok. — This protest should be compared with the memor- 
andum, attributed to Ralegh, in which Prince Henry is 
advised against the building of he Prince Royal. See 
E. Edwards, Life of Sir Walter Ralegh, Vol. II, p. 330.] 



APPENDIX IX 



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APPENDIX X 



X 

The Arms of Pett 

The arms granted to Peter Pett in 1583 were :— 
Or, on a fesse .gules between three roundels sable, a 
lion passant of the field. 




And for a crest : Out of a ducal coronet, or, a demi- 
pelican wings expanded argent. 

Several impressions of Phineas Pett's seal displaying 
these arms, without the crest, are preserved on his letters 
in the State Papers. 



INDEX 



ABINGTON 

Abington, Mr., 23 

Adams, Mr., 2 

Adams, William, 56 n., 57 «. 

Addey, John, master ship- 
wright, xxiii, II, 173, 174, 
178 

Admiral, Lord High, xxvii, 
xxxv-xxxvii, 205 

Admiralty, Committee of, 
xxxvii, xxxix 

— Court of, xxxvi 

— judge of, XXXV, xxxix, 
Ixxxix, 205 

— Lords Commissioners, xxxv, 
Ixxxvi, xcix, 155, 211 

— officers of, 205 
Adye. See Addey 
Alabaster, Mr., lix 
Alexander, Mr., 23, 97, 98 
Algiers, expedition against, 

Ixxxiii, 122, 124, 139, 211 

Alice Holt, 30 

Allison, Sir William, 161 

Andrews, Lawrence, 57 

Anne of Denmark (Queen), 
visit to ships at Chatham, 
29 ; launch of Prince Royal, 
80-81 ; mentioned, 76 

Antwerp, 72 

Apsley, Sir Allen, victualler of 
the navy, 104 

Apslyn, John, 178, 183 

Apslyn, Nathaniel, assistant 
master shipwright, 150 



BAKER 

Arches, Court of, 14 

Arundel, Earl of, 89 

Austen, Thomas, master atten- 
dant, 166 

a Vale, John, boatswain, Ivii, 
19, 86 

Aylesbury, Thomas, xlii, xc ; 
secretary to Nottingham, 
104; surveyor of navy, 150 w. 



Bacon, Sir Francis, Ixiw., 103 

Bagwell, Mr., 159 

Baker, James, xx, xxi, xxii 

Baker, Mathew, master ship- 
wright, grants to, xxii, xxiii, 
xxiv ; emoluments, xxviii ; 
master of Shipwrights Com- 
pany, XXX ; instruction given 
to Phineas, liii ; letter of 
Phineas to, liii ; Phineas' 
opinion of, Iv ; his opinion 
i of Phineas, Ixvii ; report on 
Prince Royal, Ixxv ; MS. on 
shipbuilding, Ixxix, Ixxxi ; 
Phineas attempts to serve 
him, 3 ; rebuilds Triumph, 
6 ; employs Phineas, 6 ; 
builds Repulse, 6 ; employs 
Phineas and assists his 
studies, 7 ; maUcious envy 
of, II ; reversion of post to 
Phineas, 23 ; envious enemy, 
24 ; Golden Lion and Swift- 



220 



INDEX 



BAKER 

sure at Deptford, 29 ; com- 
mission of inquiry, 33 ; com- 
bines against Phineas, 38, 

43 ; evidence before inquiry, 

44 ; inquiry before James at 
Woolwich, 48, 55, 60 ; cen- 
sured by James, 63 ; ap- 
pointed to survey materials 
for Prince Royal, 68 ; re- 
builds Red Lion, 68 ; Way- 
mouth relates intrigue, 74 ; 
rebuilding Merhonoitr, 112 ; 
sickness and death, 112 ; 
mentioned, 173, 174, 178, 
183, 207 

Barbary, voyage to, 5 

Barker, Mr. 15, 20 

Barking Creek, 150 

Barwick, Mr., cousin, 151 

Beake, Robert, 207 

Beaulieu, 126 

Bend, midship, 59 n. 

Bent, 128 

Bertie, Robert. See Lindsey 

Best, T., 216 

Bingley, Sir Richard, surveyor 
of the navy, 92 ; survey at 
Chatham, 92-3 

Birchington, 85 

Bishop Ness, 152 

Blackheath. 83 

Blacktail Sand, 158 

Blackwall, 21, 34, 93, 163 

Blankenberghe Sconce, 109 

Bludder, Sir Thomas, victualler 
to the navy, before Commis- 
sion of Inquiry, 34 ; inquiry 
at Greenwich into abuses, 
69 

Bl3rth, Prior of, xvi 

Boate, Edward, master ship- 
wright, Ixxx, 154 

Bodman, Thomas, asst. master 
shipwright, 17 



BRYGANDIN 

Bonanza, 26 

Bond, WilUam, xvii 

Borough, William, comptroller 
of navy, xxiii w. ; house at 
Limehouse, 9 

Bostock, Mr., 153 

Boulogne, 135 

Bourne, Robert, 124, 183 

Bowles, Charles, 151, 161 

Bradshaw, Captain Robert, 106 

Brakes, The, 133 

Brancepeth Park, xcviii, 160 

Bridlington, 159 

Briggs, Henry, inquiry at Wool- 
wich, Ixxxii, 59 and n. 

Bright, — , senr., shipwright, 
Ixx 

Bright, Wm., master ship- 
wright, succeeds to Chapman, 
xxiv ; emoluments, xxviii ; 
his opinion of Phineas, Ixix ; 
report on Prince Royal, Ixxv ; 
envy of, 11, 24 ; the Com- 
mission of Inquiry, 33 ; com- 
bines against Phineas, 38, 
43 ; evidence before inquiry, 
45 ; inquiry before James at 
Woolwich, 48, 55, 60 ; cen- 
sured by James, 63 ; Way- 
mouth relates intrigue, 74 ; 
mentioned, liv «., 178, 183 

Bristol, 178, 205 

Bromadge, Robert, 57 

Brooke, Francis, clerk of stores 
at Portsmouth, 144 

Brooke, John, clerk of check 
at Portsmouth, 144 

Brooke, Lord. See Greville, 
Sir Fulke 

Brooke, Wm., 78 

Btunning, Thomas, 124 

Brunswick, Duke of, visits 
Chatham, 134 

Brygandin, Robert, xvii 



INDEX 



221 



BUCK 

Buck, Sir Peter, clerk of the 
check at Chatham, 3 ; clerk ! 
of the ships, 3 n., 55 n. ; I 
knighted, 3 «. ; mentioned, 
15 ; the commission of in- j 
quiry, 33 | 

Buck, Thomas, the Commission 
of Inquiry, 33 ; inquiry j 
before James at Woolwich, 

55 

Buckingham, Duke of, Lord 
High Admiral, visit to 
Chatham, 120 ; obtains 
blank patent of baronetcy 
for Phineas, 121 ; journey 
to Spain, Ixxxviii 125 ; lands 
in Scilly Islands, 131 ; re- 
lease of Phineas from prison, 
139 ; mentioned, 133, 138, 
139 ; murder, 140 ; letter 
to, 212 

Buckwell, 151 

Bull, Richard, shipwright, xxi, 
xxii, xxiii 

Bull, Wm., master gunner of 
England, fires salute at 
Woolwich, 35, 36 

Burgess, Mr., master of Resist- 
ance, 26 

Burghley, Lord, lord treasurer, 
model for, 7 ; house at 
Theobalds, 8 

Burrell, Andrewes, 124, 145 

Burrell, Wm., master ship- 
wright, emoluments, xxviii ; 
principal master workman 
of East India Co., 39 ; the 
inquiry at Woolwich, Ixxxi, 
56 n., 57 ; ships built for 
East India Co., 75 ; proposal 
to build ship in Ireland, 95 ; 
Commissioner of Inquiry 
(161 8), Ixxxiii, cii, 119; 
enemy of Phineas, 119, 120 ; 



CARR 

builds Happy Entrance and 
Reformation, 121 ; Algiers 
committee, 122 ; malice of, 
124, 137 ; made assistant 
to the principal officers, 143 ; 
repair of ships, 144 ; Ports- 
mouth Harbour, 145 ; men- 
tioned, 55 n., 136, 183 ; 
death, 145 

Bursledon, xlvi 

Bury, 12, 161 

Button, Captain Sir Thomas, 
cii ; the Commission of In- 
quiry, 34, 67 ; inquiry into 
abuses at Greenwich, 69 ; 
ship for N.W. Passage, 95 ; 
return to England, 112 ; 
captain of Antelope, 133 ; 
mentioned, 37, 97, 135 

Button, Mrs., 37, 67 

Bygatt, Wm., 55 

By land, Mildred, married to 
Phineas, 168 n. ; presented 
to Charles, 168; death, 171 



CaDZAND, III 

Caesar, Sir Julius, Ixi n. 

Cales (Cadiz), Ixi, 26 

Calshot Castle, 127 

Cambridge, Emmanuel College, 
2, 161 ; The Falcon, 161 ; 
Trinity College 161 ; men- 
tioned, lii, 59 

Camphire, no 

Campion, Sir William, 151 

Canewdon, 2 

Cant, The, 94 

Canterbury, 170 

— Archbishop of, loi ; visits 
Prince, 115 

Carlisle, Earl of, 127 

Carpenter, master, xvi, xix 

Carr, Leonard, 159 



222 



INDEX 



' CARR 

Carr, Sir Robert, 132 
Cassant Point, iii 
CateroU, Thomas, 57 
Caulker, xix 

Cecil, Sir Robert. See Salis- 
bury 
Cecil, William. See Burghley 
Chadwick; Charles, 2 
Chaloner, Sir Thomas, Ixxxii, 

59, 89 

chamber, 35 

Chandler, Edward, 124 

Channel (EngUsh), 109 

Channel (Queen's), 108 

Chapman, Richard, master 
shipwright at Deptford, 
grant to, xxiv ; Phineas 
bound apprentice to him, 
liii, 3 ; death, xxiv, 3 

Charing Cross, 114, 138 

Charles I, Duke of York, 76, 
81 ; Prince of Wales, visits 
Woolwich, 114 ; journey to 
Spain, Ixxxviii, 125 ; at 
Santander, 128-30 ; rescue 
by Defiance, 129 ; en- 
deavours to make peace 
between Dunkirk and 
Holland men-of-war, 130 ; 
lands in Scilly Islands, 131 ; 
lands at Portsmouth, 132 ; 
gives Phineas gold chain, 

132 ; attends Parliament, 

133 ; proclaimed King at 
Chatham, 134 ; visits 
Rochester, 134 ; visits Prmc^ 
Royal at Dover, 135 ; plans 
of ships, 136 ; release of 
Phineas from prison, 139, 
141 ; gives Phineas blank 
patent for baronetcy, civ, 
139 ; creates Phineas an 
assistant principal officer, 
143 and n. ; principal ofi&cer, 



CHATHAM 

145 ; launch of Vanguard, 

146 ; visit to ships at Ports- 
mouth, 148 ; visit to Charles, 
150 ; brown paper stuff, 
153 ; launch of Unicorn 
and James, 154 ; suspends 
Phineas and others, xc, 155 ; 
favour to Phineas, 155 ; 
visit to Leopard, acquaints 
Phineas of intention to build 
Sovereign of the Seas, xci, 
156-7 ; renews privy seal for 
Phineas, 157 ; visits to Wool- 
wich, 162-63 ; salvage of 
Anne Royal, 163 ; attempted 
launch of Sovereign, 165 ; 
directs Mansell to name her 
Sovereign of the Seas, 166 ; 
visits ship, 167 ; orders ship 
from Chatham to Woolwich, 
168; visits her at Gravesend 
and expresses satisfaction, 
168 ; Phineas and Peter 
visit, 171 

Charles Lewis (afterwards 
Elector Palatine), 162, 163 

Charles, Prince (afterwards 
Charles II), model for, 156 

Chatham, mentioned, passim ; 
Queen's House on the hill, 
2 ; manor, 15 ; survey of 
navy, 78 ; visit of Prince 
Henry, 88-90 ; of his suite, 
98 ; church, 100, 105, 120, 
137, 141, 148, 164, 171 ; 
preparations for transport 
of Lady EUzabeth, 103 ; 
visit of Nottingham 104, 
III ; of King of Denmark, 
114 ; the Brook, 116 ; Com- 
mission of Inquiry', 119; 
visit of Buckingham, 120 ; 
survey of Prince, 124 ; 
Charles proclaimed at Hill 



INDEX 



223 



CHATHAM 

House, 134 ; survey of ships, 
137 ; general survey of navy, 
144 ; visit of Charles, 147 ; 
Sovereign at, 168 

Chatham dockyard, surrendered 
to Parliament, xcix ; mutiny, 
18 ; storehouses, 17, 20, 
147 ; old dock, 89, 147 ; 
pinnaces built, 96, 137 ; new 
dock, 120, 147, 152 ; Prince 
Royal docked, 125, 134, 212 ; 
Phineas' house in new dock- 
yard, 149, 170 ; launch of 
Sovereign, 165-6 

Chelsea, 8, 102 

Chester, Mr., Prince Royal 
inquiry at Woolwich, 54 

Chevreuse, Duchess of, 167 

Chichester, 151 

Child, Mr., 10 

Chopwell Woods, xcviii, 160 

Cinque Ports, 116, 206 

Clay, Nicholas, shipbuilder, re- 
port on Prince Royal, Ixxv ; 
the Commission of Inquiry, 
33 ; inquiry before James 
at Woolwich, 49, 55, 60 ; 
mentioned, 178, 183 

Cleve, Sir Christopher, 121 

Clifton, John, purser, the Com- 
mission of Inquiry, 33 ; in- 
quiry before James at 
Woolwich, 5$ 

Clynker, xvi, xix 

Coke, Sir John, secretary of 
state. Commission of Inquiry, 
119 ; dislike of Phineas, 
126, 155 ; brown paper stuff, 
I53» '^55> 156; mentioned, 
xxvi, 165, 216 

Coke, Walter, 216 

Cole, Katharine, Peter visits, 
at Woodbridge, 150 ; match 
discussed, 152 ; married, 154 



CROMWELL 

j Cole, Mrs., arrangements for 
' marriage of daughter, 152 ; 
marriage of daughter, 154 ; 
mentioned, 150, 162 
Cole, Thomas, ^j, 154 n., 178 
Collier, Christopher, 116 
Collins, George, Ivii ; action- 
at-law against Phineas, 18 
Commission of Inquiry (1608), 
Iviii et seq. ; procured by 
Northampton, 32 ; its pro- 
ceedings, 33-4, 38-70 
(1613), Mansell objects 

to. III 

(1618), Ixxxiii, Ixxxix » 

appointed, 118; Phineas 
to assist, 119 ; works at 
Chatham, 120 ; plot 
against Phineas, 120 ; sur- 
vey of Prince Royal, 124 

(1626), xxxix n. ; sur- 
vey of ships, 137 ; dissolved 
138 

Commissioners of the navy. 
See Navy Commissioners 

Committee of Public Safety, 
xcix 

Commons, House of, Ship- 
wrights' Co., xxxvi, xxxviii 

Cooke, William, master attend- 
ant, 151, 153, 165, 166 

Cooper, Mary. See Pett 

Cooper, Mr., death, 117 

Corbett, John, Ixi n., Ixxvii 

Cork, 4, 5, 6 

Cotton, Sir Robert, Iviii n.; 
Ixi w., Ixiii, Ixxvii 

Council. See Privy Council 

Council of State, xxxviii 

Cowes, 123, 148 

Cranfield, Sir Lionel, 118 

Crompton, Sir Thomas, 1x1 n. 

Cromwell, Sir Oliver, visit to 
Chatham, 29 ; re-names Ark 



224 



INDEX 



CROMWELL 

Royal as Anne Royal, 37 ; 
mentioned, 89 ; Phineas 
visits, 161 
Crowe, Sir Sackville, treasurer 
of the navy, 138 



Dagenham, 19, 20 

Dal ton, William, 140 

Dartford, 112 

Dartmouth, 205 

Dawes, John, 56 

Day, Jonas, 55 n. 

Deal, 170 

Dearslye, John, 124, 145 n. 

Denmark, King of (Christian 
IV), visit to Chatham, 28 ; 
visit to Woolwich and 
Chatham, 114 

Deptford, 80-112, 144 

Deptford Dockyard, xlvii, 
Ixxxiii ; site, i ; Golden 
Lion and Swiftsure docked 
at, 29 ; Red Lion launched, 
68 ; mentioned, 84 ; Happy 
Entrance and Reformation 
built, 121 ; Antelope docked, 
134 ; St. Denis at, 146 ; 
launch of Henrietta Maria 
in presence of King and 
Queen, 149 ; James launched, 

154 
Deptford Strond, derivation 

of name, i 
Diggens, Nicholas, 56 and n., 

57 «• 
Ditton Park, 143 
Doderidge, Sir John, Ixi n. 
Doncaster, 161 
Dorset, Earl of, commissioner 

of Admiralty, 155 
Dover, 25, 172 ; castle and 

pier, 116; road, 132, 135; 

town and castle, 169 



ENGLAND 

Downs, the, Ixxxiv, 116, 123, 
126, 133, 135, 169, 170 

Drake, Sir Francis, 6 

Drown devil, 71 «. 

Dublin, visit to, 5 ; Divelinge, 
5 n. 

Duck, David, shipwright, Iviii ; 
friend and neighbour, 19 ; 
yard at GiUingham, 24 ; 
chooses trees at East Bere, 
28 ; inquiry at Woolwich, 
57 ; mentioned, 93 

Duckett, Sir George, possessor 
of the MS., ix 

Duller, 94 n. 

Dunkirk, pirate, 16 ; men-of- 
war, 130 

Dunwich, xlvi 

Durham, 159, 160, 161 

— Bishop of, xcviii, 160 

Dymocke, Thomas, 178, i^t, 



Earl Marshal, xxxvi 
East Bere, 27, 28 
East Country Merchants, xxxvi 
j East India Company, Ixxxiii 
I East India Dock, 163 
I Edisbury, Kenrick, 150 ; in- 
I forms against Phineas and 
SirH. Palmer, 153, 155 ; sur- 
I veyor of navy, 155, 1O5 
I Edmondes, Michael, 56 
I Ehzabeth, Princess, mentioned, 
76, 81, 162 «. ; visit to Wool- 
wich, 77 ; marriage and festi- 
vities, 102-3 ; transporta- 
tion to Holland, 103-10 ; 
at Margate, 108 ; lands at 
Flushing, 109 ; at Middel- 
burg, no 
Ehzabeth, Queen, 10, 18, 60 
Elye, John, 57 
England, 177, 178, 179 



INDEX 



225 



ERITH 

Erith, 123, 167 

Essex, Earl of, Phineas desires 

to follow, 8 
Etherington, Mr., 171 
Eye, xliv 



Fairlight, 126 
Fareham, 144 
Farnham, 145 
Felton, John, 140 
Feme, Sir John, 123 
Fleming, Denis, Clerk of the 
Acts, brown paper stuff, xc, 

155 

Fleming, Mrs., 152 

Flim-flam, 39 

Floor, of ship, 37 

Flushing, 72, 109, no, in 

Folly John Park, 143 

Foxe, Captain Luke, cii, 159 

France, 91 

Frankly n, Rev. Mr., 138 

Frating, xlviii 

Frederick, Elector Palatine, 
marriage to Lady Ehzabeth, 
102 n,, 103 ; transporta- 
tion to Holland, 103-10 ; 
at Margate, 108 ; lands at 
Flushing, 109 

Freeman, Mr., sues Phineas for 
debt, Ixxxvi, 139, 141 

Fryer, Colonel Sir Thomas, 140 

Fuller, Rev. Thomas, xlii 

Fuller, Thomas, 56 

Furring, Ixviii 



Gad's Hill, 113 
Gawdy, Sir Bassingbourn, xlv 
Geare (Geere) Captain, 54, 107 
Geere, Michael, 54 n. 
Geere, William, 54 n. 



GRKENHITHE 

George, Prince of Denmark, xl 

Gibbons, John, 139 

Gibbons, William, mate and 
purser of Resistance, 26 ; 
master, 78 ; North-west 
Passage, cii, 97 

Gibraltar, 123 

Giles, Captain Edward, captain 
I of Spy, 122 ; mentioned, 133, 
I 135 

I Gillingham, Iviii, 17, 24, 94, , 
i 104, 105. Ill, 125, 151, 153 

Glemham, Edward, captain, 4 

Goddard, Henry, master ship- 
wright, xxvi, xcix, 144, 150 ; 
builds Henrietta Maria, 149 

Gofton, Sir Francis, 119 

Gondomar, Count of, 129 

Gonson, Benjamin, 3 ». 

Goodale, Edvrard, master car- 
penter of Gallion Constance, 4 

Goodwin, John, master attend- 
ant, 150 

Goodwin, John, professoi of 
mathematics, 14 

Gore, The, 85, 123 

Gore End Road, 91 

Grantham, 161 

Grass, 127 

Graves, Thomas. See Greaves, 
John 

Gravesend, 21, 26, 85, 87, 89, 
90, 91, 93. 95. 99, III. 113, 
114, 116, 123, 148, 168, 169, 
171 

— ferry, 162 

Greaves, John, report on Prince 
Royal, Ixxv ; the Commis- 
sion of Inquiry, 33 ; inquiry 
before James at Woolwich, 
55 ; survey of Prince, 124 ; 
worm at Portsmouth, 145 n. ; 
mentioned, 183 

Greenhithe, 20, 167, 168 



226 



INDEX 



GREENWICH 

Greenwich, school at, 2 ; Court 
at, 14 ; inquiry at, 68 ; Park, 
126 ; mentioned, 25, 82, 
84, 91, 95; 98, III, 142, 148, 
157, 166 

Grene, Ralph atte, xvi 

Grent, John, 196 

Grif&n, John, 116 

Griffin, Robert, 116 

Greville, Sir Fulke (Lord 
Brooke), treasurer of the 
navy, Ivi, Ixv ; disfavour of, 
II, 15, 17; favour of, 18; 
chancellor of the exchequer, 
117 ; plots against Phineas, 
126 

Groyne (Corufia), Ix, 25, 26 

Guildford, 151 

Guisborough, 159 

Gunfleet, iii, 126, 169 

Gunter, Edmund, xci n. 



Halfway tree, 87 

Hamilton, Marquis of, 126, 146 

Hamon, Christopher, 116 

Hampton Court, 92, 127, 136, 
141, 157, 167, 171 

Hampton, Thomas, 57 

Handcroft, John, boatswain 
of Prince Royal, 136 

Harling, xlv 

harten, 106 

Harwich, xlvii, 151, 152, 153, 
154, 158, 172 n. 

Hawkridge, William, cousin, 
cii ; 116, journey to Ports- 
mouth, 151 ; Arctic explora- 
tion and capture by pirates, 
151 n. 

Hawkridge (niece), 120 

Hawkyns, Sir John, last 
voyage, 6 

Head, John, 178 



HERBERT 

Hedger, William, 183 
' Hendon, 28 

I Henrietta Maria, Queen, trans- 
portation to England, 135 ; 
I launch of ship named after 
I her, 149 ; attempted launch 
of Sovereign, 165 ; visits 
ship, 167 
! Henry VHI, shipwrights under, 
i xvii ; annuity granted, xx 
I Henry, Prince, Ixvi ; small 
I vessel for, 21 ; visits ship, 
21 ; receives Phineas as liis 
I servant, 23 ; visit to 
' Chatham, 29 ; model pre- 
sented to, 31 ; visit to 
Woolwich, 34-6 ; inquiry 
before James at Woolwich, 
' 52, 61, 62 ; encouragement 
of Phineas, 50, 60 ; satis- 
faction at result of inquir3^ 
66 ; launch of Red Lion, 68 ; 
pardons Waymouth, 75 ; 
feast and tournament at St. 
James's, 76 ; visit to Wool- 
wich, 76, 77 ; gives Phineas 
a buck, 78-9 ; launch of 
Prince Royal, 81-4 ; visit 
to, 86 ; visit to Chatham, 
88-90 ; to Gravesend, 90 ; 
dissatisfaction at survey 
made at Chatham, 92 ; 
proposal to build ships in 
Ireland, 95 ; pinnace for, 96 ; 
his trust in Phineas, 97 ; 
intention to provide for 
him, 98 ; sickness and 
death, 100 ; funeral, loi .* 
mentioned, 25, 27, 63, 72, 

73. 75. 87. 174 
Hep worth, xlv 
Herbert, Sir Arnold, 121 
Herbert, Philip. Sec Mont- 
gomery 



INDEX 



237 



HERBERT 

Herbert, William. See Pem- 
broke 

Heyward, Samuel, 122 

Heywood, Thomas, xlii 

Highwood Hill, 9, 10, 17, 19, 20, 
28, 117 

Hobart, Sir Henr^% Ixi n. 

Hodierne, John, 164 

Hoggekyns, John, xvi 

Holborn, Robert, shipwright, 
xxi 

Holder, xvi, xix 

Holderness, Earl of, 127 

Holding, John, timber keeper 
at Chatham, 15 

Hole Haven, 93, 169 

Holland, no 

Holland, Earl of, 146 

HoUiday, William, 55 w. 

HoUond, John, c 

Hone, Dr., 14, 16 

Hopton, xliv 

Horsleydown, 178 

Howard, Charles. See Notting- 
ham 

Howard, Henry. See North- 
ampton 

Howard (Lord) of Effingham. 
See Nottingham 

Howard, Lord Thomas, lord 
chamberlain, requests James 
to restrain Phineas from 
quarrelling with the in- 
formers, 65 ; mentioned, 23 

Howard, Lord William, Vice- 
Admiral in Anne Royal, 105 

Howell, Rev. Mr., assists Phin- 
eas to enter Emmanuel Col- 
lege, 2 

Hudson, Henry, Hudson's 
Strait, Ixx, ciii ; North-west 
Passage, 95 n. 

Hull, 205 
Huntingdon, 161 



JAMBS 

Income, 9 n. 

Ingram, Sir Arthur, i6i 

Inquiry, into case of Prince 
Royal before James I at 
Woolwich, 52-68 ; into 
abuses in the navy at Green- 
wich, 68-70. See also Com- 
missions of Inquiry 

Ipswich, 19, 178, 205 ; Angel 
Inn, 151 ; Greyhound Inn, 
162 ; shipwrights of, xxxvi 

Ireland, building ships in, 95 ; 
mentioned, 133, 136 

Ireland, George, 55 

Isackson, Paul, 207 

Isackson, Richard, ship-painter, 
142, 151 



Jackson, George. See Duckett 
Jackson, Sir Robert, 142 
James I, mentioned, Ixvi, 45, 
50, 72, 75. 99. 121. 125; 
proclamation of, 19 ; at 
Tower, 21 ; journey by 
water to Parliament, 25 ; 
visit to ships at Chatham, 
24, 29 ; model of great ship, 
32 ; story of the ravens at 
Lisbon, 32 ; Northampton's 
inquiry, 32 ; Nottingham 
delivers Phineas' letter, 42 ; 
orders investigation at Wool- 
wich, 42 ; report, 46 ; 
Northampton complains, 47 ; 
resolves on personal inquiry, 
at Woolwich, 47, 51 ; direc- 
tions to Phineas, 48 ; surveys 
Prince Royal and opens in- 
quiry, 52 ; conducts the 
inquiry, Ixxxi, 58, 61 ; 
speech at conclusion, 62 ; 
thanks Northampton, 61 ; 
censures the informers, 63'; 



228 



INDEX 



JAMES 

encourages Phineas, 63 ; 
clears and commends Not- 
tingham, 64 ; acknow- 
ledges Nottingham's ser- 
vices, 65 ; charges Phineas 
not to quarrel with the 
informers, 66 ; attitude to 
Phineas during inquiry, 67 ; 
launch of Red Lion, 68 ; 
inquiry at Greenwich into 
abuses in the navy, 68-70 ; 
launch of East India Co.'s 
ships, 75-6 ; feast and tour- 
nament at St. James's, 76 ; 
visit to Prince Royal at 
Woolwich, 77 ; launch of 
Prince Royal, 80-2 ; im- 
prisons Mansell in Marshal- 
sea, III ; concern at sick- 
ness of Phineas, 113 ; visits 
Woolwich, 114; commands 
Phineas to assist Commis- 
sioners (161 8), 119 ; gives 
Phineas blank patent for 
baronetcy, ciii, 121 ; names 
the Happy Entrance and 
Reformation, 121 ; Phineas 
takes leave of, 126 ; visits 
fleet at Portsmouth, 126 ; 
death of, 134 

James II, warrant to Ship- 
wrights Co., xxxix 

Jenkins, Thomas, 57, 85, 86, 

c- 183 

Jobson, Humfrey, 197 

Johnson, Thomas, 56 

Jones, WiUiam, 56 

Jordan, Edward, 56, 57 n. 

Jordon, Edmund, 183 



Kech, John, xvi 
Keling, Edward, xxxviii 
Kellie, Earl of, 127 



LIMEHOUSE 

Kelm, Wilham de, xvi 

Kent, 151 

Keymer, Mr., mediates be- 
tween Waymouth and 
Phineas, 72-3 

King, John, master attendant, 
master of Flemish ship, 9 ; 
Prince Royal inquiry, 56 ; 
captain of Mathew, 85, 86; 
master of Prince Royal, 86, 
104 ; master of Rainbow, 
130 ; mentioned, 89, 91, 93, 

97. 99, 115 
King, Wilham, assists Phineas, 

5 

King's Bench, Court of, xxxvi 
Kingston, 127 171, 172 



La Boderie, Sieur de, French 
Ambassador, visit to Prince 
Royal, 79 

Lambeth, 22, 127, 140 

Landguard Point, 152 

Launching, ceremony at, 81, 

83 

Lawrence, William, xc 

Legatt, John, clerk of the check 
at Chatham, the Commission 
of Inquiry, 34 ; inquiry into 
abuses at Greenwich, 69 ; 
Prince Henry stays at his 
house, 88 ; dinner at, 99 ; 
Nottingham stays at, 105, 
III ; mentioned, 89, 98 

Legatt, Mrs., 122 

Leigh, 91 

Lennox, Duke of, 167 

Levant, voyage to, 5 

Leveson, Sir Richard, Ix 

Lewes, 151 

Light horseman, 91 «. 

Limehouse, model built at, 
7 ; yard at, 7, 8, 24 ; house 



INDEX 



229 



LIMEHOUSE 

at, 9, 10, 13, 17, 19 ; men- 
tioned, 21, 27, 178 

Lindsey, Earl of, 143 

Lisbon, visit in Resistance, 
lix, 25 ; ravens of St. 
Vincent, 32 

Lizard, 25 

London, mentioned, 5, 91, 
93, loi, 102, 126, 127, 
136, 137, 139, 151. 161, 
171 ; Algiers committee of 
merchants, Ixxxiv, 122 ; All 
Hallows, Barking, 16 ; 
Birchin lane, 5 ; Bridge, 21 ; 
Compter in the Poultry, 
139 ; Dolphin, 16 ; Fleet 
prison, 139, 141 ; Friday 
Street, 76 ; Gresham College, 
59 ; Inns of Court, 103 ; 
King's Head, 31, 99, 112 ; 
Lord Mayor, 205 ; Marshal- 
sea, XXXV, Ivii, 1 1 1 ; Mincing 
lane, 144, 154 ; Paul's wharf, 
22 ; plague, 19 ; St. Dun- 
stan's church, Ixxxvii ; St. 
James's, 50 ; St. Mary 
Overy, 103 ; shipwrights, 
vide sub voce ; Somerset 
House, 114 ; Three Cranes, 
73 ; Tower, 35 ; Tower 
Street, Ixxxvii, 79 

Long Sand Head, 108 

Love, Captain Thomas, 125, 

133 

Lydiard, Hugh, clerk of the 
check at Woolwich, xci n. ; 
Joseph and Phineas lodge 
with, 9 ; the C ommission 
of Inquiry, 33 ; Joseph Lorn 
in his house, 34; sal te 
in his garden, 35, 36; 
banquet in parlour, 36 ; 
Phineas and friends dine 
in his parlour, 37 ; North- 



MANSELL 

ampton at his house during 
inquiry, 51 ; inquiry before 
James 55 ; Prince Henry 
at his house. 81 



Mainwaring, Sir Arthur, pur- 
chase of Resistance, 96, 

Mainwaring, Sir Henry, pur- 
chases Resistance, 96 ; pin- 
nace for Lord Zouch, 116, 
117 ; csLptSLinoi Prince Royal, 

131 

Malaga, Ixxxiv, 123 

Man-of-war, private, 4 n. 

Mansell, Lady, 37, 67 

Mansell, Sir Robert, xlii, lix, 
Ix, Ixi, Ixvi, xci ; treasurer 
- of the navy, 24 ; part ownsr 
of Resistance, 25 ; purchases 
trees, 27 ; the Commission 
of Inquiry, 34, 38 ; plot 
revealed to, 40 ; inquiry 
before James at Woolwich, 
49, 51, 57' 67; inquiry 
at Greenwich, 69 ; launch 
of Prince Royal, 80, 82, 83 ; 
sails to Chatham in, 86-7 ; 
Prince Henry's visit to 
Chatham, 88-90 ; sham sea- 
fight, 102 ; committed to 
Marshalsea, iii ; attends 
King of Denmark on visit 
to Woolwich and Chatham, 
114; entertains Archbishop 
of Canterbury, 115 ; visits 
Chatham with Buckingham, 
120 ; expedition against 
Algiers, Ixxxiv, 122 ; names 
the Leopard at Woolwich, 
157 ; launch and naming 
of the Sovereign of the Seas, 
166-7 ; mentioned, 27, 28, 
37» 68, 79 



230 



INDEX 



MAR 

Mar, Earl of, 89 

Margate, Lady Elizabeth at, 
108 ; road, 108 ; mentioned, 
92, 169 

Marie de Medicis, Queen Mother 
of France, 172 

Marsh, James, 183 

Marten, Sir Henry, judge of 
Admiralty, xxxv, xxxvii 

Mason, Captain, 140 

Masters attendant, 102, 119, 
145, 166 

Maurice, Prince of Orange, on 
board Prince Royal, 109 

May, John, 183 

Med way, Ixxix, 152 

Melcheburn, Thomas de, xvi 

Melcheburn, WilUam de, xvi 

Meriall, Michael, 56 

Meritt, Hugh, master attend- 
ant, the Commission of In- 
quiry, 33 ; inquiry at Wool- 
wich, 54 ; master of Anne 
Royal, 106 

Meritt, Richard, Uii ; report 
on Prince Royal, Ixxv ; pur- 
veyor in forest of Shotover, 
30 

Mer>'ett. See Meritt 

Middleburg, no 

Middleton, David, captain of 
Expedition, 91 

Middleton, Sir Henry, Prince 
Royal inquiry at Woolwich, 

54 

Milbourne, Rev. Dr., 99, 100 

Miller, Captain, 54 

Mins, Jarvis, 19 

Minster, church, 94 

Models, for Lord Treasurer, 7 ; 
for John Trevor, 14 ; for 
Prince Henry, 31 ; James in- 
tends to compare it with 
Prince Royal, 32 ; upon 



NICHOLLS 

wheels for Prince Charles, 
156 ; of Sovereign of the 
Seas, 157 

Mompesson, Sir Giles, waste of 
timber, 118 

Montgomery, Earl of, 127 

Moore, Captain, 54 

Moptye, John, xlvii n. 

Morgan, Captain, Ix, 25 

Morice, Roger, master attend- 
ant, 108 

Mould, 95 n. 

Moyle, Captain, 151 

Murray, Sir David, 31 



Navy (abuses in), inquiry 
moved by Mr. Wiggs, 10 ; 
Northampton's inquiry, 32 ; 
see also Commissions of 
Inquiry 
Navy Commissioners, xxxix, xl, 
Ixxx, Ixxxv, Ixxxix, xcviii, 
c, 136 ; their actions ques- 
tioned, 137 
Needles, The, 123 
Ne wark-upon-Tren t , 161 
Newcastle, carvel, 14 ; men- 
tioned, 158, 159, 180, 205 
New Forest, 118 
Newman, Rev. Mr., marries 

Rachel Pett, 2 
Newman, Richard, 186 
Newport, Captain Christopher, 
Prince Royal inquiry at 
Woolwich, 54 ; master of 
Centaur, 85 ; mentioned, 
56 n. 
Nicholas, Edward, Ixxxvii, 211 
Nicholls, Ann, Phineas meets, 
9 ; and marries, 10 ; sick- 
ness, 17 ; birth of John, 17 ; 
of Henry, 18 ; at Highwood 
Hill, 19; birth of Richard, 



INDEX 



231 



NICHOLLS 

28 ; of Joseph, 34 ; of 
Peter, 78 ; of Ann, 100 ; sick- 
ness and birth of Phineas, 
115 ; of Mary and Martha, 
117 ; sickness, 118 ; birth of 
Phineas, 120 ; birth of 
Christopher, 121 ; death, 
137 ; mentioned, 20, 77, 
85» 93. iii> 113. 123, 124, 
127, 132 

Nicholls, John, death, 76 

NichoUs, Katharine, 78 ; death 
of, 136 

Nicholls, Richard, father-in- 
law, 10; death of, 117 

Noise, band of musical instru- 
ments, 20, 21, 34 

Noman's Land, 132 

Nonsuch, 78 

Nore, 87, 150 ; head, 21, 91 

Norreys, Captain Thomas, the 
Commission of Inquiry, 33 ; 
Prince Royal inquiry at 
Woolwich, 54 ; inquiry into 
abuses at Greenwich, 70 ; 
Commissioner of Inquiry 
(161 8), Ixxxiii, 119 ; Phineas 
under him, 120 

Northallerton, 161 

North America, cii 

Northampton, Earl of, Ixx, 
Ixxvii ; inquiry into abuses 
in the navy, Ixi, 32 ; his 
book of reformation, Ixiii, 
37 ; combination against 
Phineas, 38, 43 ; result of 
inquiry reported, 46 ; com- 
plains to James, 47 ; in- 
quiry before James at Wool- 
wich, 51, 52, 57 ; James 
thanks him, 62 ; discontent 
at result of inquiry, 67 , 
inquiry at Greenwich, 69 ; 
attempts to reopen inquiry 



\ NOTTINGHAM 

into Prince Royal, 69 ; Way- 
mouth relates intrigue, 74 ; 
the Anne Royal, 107 ; im- 
prisonment of Mansell, 1 1 1 ; 
death, 114 

North Foreland, 71, 108, 116, 
126, 169 

Northumberland, Duke of, 
Lord High Admiral, xxxv ; 
Phineas and Peter visit, 
xcix, 172 

North - west Passage, Way- 
mouth, Ixx, ciii, 71 ; Button, 
95, 97. "2 

Nottingham, Earl of. Lord High 
Admiral, xlix, Ivi, lix ; com- 
mission of inquiry, Ixi ; 
house at Deptford, 7 ; ex- 
pedition to Cadiz, 7 ; 
Phineas becomes his ser- 
vant, 8 ; gives employment, 
10 ; gives appointment at 
Chatham, 15 ; order to build 
small vessel for Prince, 20 ; 
visits ship, 22 ; christens it 
as Disdain, 23 ; presents 
Phineas to Prince Henry, 23 ; 
grants Phineas reversion of 
master shipwright, 23 ; sup- 
ports Phineas against Baker 
and Bright, 24 ; journey to 
Spain, 25 ; makes Phineas 
master shipwright on death 
of Joseph, 27 ; model for 
Prince Henry, Ixvi, 31 ; 
the Commission of Inquiry, 
33 ; plot revealed to, 41 ; 
delivers Phineas' letter to 
James, 42 ; inquiry at Wool- 
wich, Ixxiv, 42 ; ordered to 
arrange for inquiry before 
James at Woolwich, 48 ; 
consults on course to be 
taken, 49 ; inquiry at Wool- 



232 



INDEX 



NOTTINGHAM 

wich, 51, 57 ; receives James 
there, 52 ; cleared and com- 
mended by James, 64 ; 
speech in reply, 64 ; brings 
Phineas to take leave of 
James, 66 ; returns to 
Whitehall, 67 ; appointment 
of master shipwrights to 
sur\ey the materials for 
Prince Royal, 68 ; orders for 
apprehension of Waymouth, 
72 ; pardons liim, 75 ; 
launch of Prince Royal, 81-3 ; 
survey at Chatham, 92 ; 
arrangements for transport 
of Lady EUzabeth, 10 1-3 ; 
sham fight, 102 ; commands 
fleet, 103 ; visits Chatham, 
104-5 ; favour to Phineas 
during voyage, 105 ; Anne 
Royal aground, 106 ; at 
Margate, 108 ; at Flushing, 
no; Middelburg, no; at 
Chatham, in ; deputation 
of shipwrights, 112 ; con- 
cern at sickness of Phineas, 
113; visits Woolwich and 
Chatham with King of Den- 
mark, 114; Phineas takes 
leave, 127 ; mentioned, 20, 
21, 28. 29, 32, 40, 50, 70, 73, 
103, 112, 116, 176 
Nunn, Rev. Thomas, xlviii ; 
marries mother of Phineas, 
2 ; sisters and brother left 
in his care, 11 ; manslaugh- 
ter of Abigail and trial, 1 1 ; 
conviction and pardon, 12 ; 
death, 12 



Oakham Ness, 150, 154 
Ooze edge, 94 
Orlop, 79 w. 



PERIN 

Ortegal, Cape, 128 
Osbom, Richard xxi 
Osborne, Sir John, 119 
Oxford, 142 



Paglesham, 8 

Palmer, Henry, jun., 151 

Palmer, Lady. 151 

Palmer, Sir Henry, comptroller 
of navy, mentioned, liv, 
Ivii, Ixiii, 15, 27 ; the Com- 
mission of Inquiry, 34 ; 
launch of Prince Royal, 80, 
83, 84 ; captain of Rainbow, 
130 ; journey to Portsmouth, 
151 ; brown paper stuff, 
Ixxxix, 153, 155 ; release 
of Phineas from arrest, 154 ; 
Phineas visits, 170 

Parker, George, 151 

Parkins, Sir Charles, Ixi w. 

Parry, Sir Thomas, Ixi n. 

Pay, Rev. Dr., 99 ; chaplain 
to Lord William Howard, 
105 

Peers, House of, xxxviii 

Pembroke, Earl of, lord 
chamberlain, 126 

Pennington, Sir John, dimen- 
sions of Royal Sovereign, xci ; 
appointment as Lord High 
Admiral, xcix ; captain of 
Vanguard, 135 ; Rochelle 
expedition, 138 ; release of 
Phineas from prison, 139 ; 
assists Phineas in prison, 
141 ; sells baronetcy for him, 
142 ; Admiral of fleet in 
Downs, 169, 170 

Pepys, Samuel, transcribes the 
MS., vii, ix, X, civ; men- 
tioned, xl, liii, xcvii 

Perin, Robert, 19 



INDEX 



233 



PETRE 

Petre, Lord, mentioned, 34 

Pett, early instances of the 
name, xliii ; family of, xlii ; 
genealogical tables, 1, li 

Pett, Abigail, killed by step- 
father, 12 

Pett, Ann (wife). See NichoUs 

Pett, Ann (daughter), birth of, 
100 

Pett, Ann (wife of Christopher), 
168 

Pett, Arthur, 56 

Pett, Christopher, xcvii ; birth 
of, 121 ; voyage to Harwich, 
15 1» 153 '> in- north of Eng- 
land, 161 

Pett, Elizabeth (mother). See 
Thornton j 

Pett, Elizabeth (sister), ill- I 
treatment by stepfather, 11; j 
at Limehouse, 13 ; death, 13 i 

Pett, EUzabeth (widow of 
Peter), arrest of Phineas for 
debt due to her, Ixxxvi, 

154 
Pett, Henry, birth, 18, 28; 

death, 112 
Pett, John (great-grandfather), j 

xliv, xlvi j 

Pett, John (son), birth, 17, 28 ; ! 

voyage to Spain, 125 ; re- ' 

turn, 132 ; goes to Ireland, 

133 ; married, 136, 138 ; 

captain of merchant ship, 

137 ; captain of Sixth Whelp, 

138 ; takes leave, 140 ; lost 
at sea, 140-1 

Pett, Joseph, master ship- 
wright, grant to, xxiv ; 
mentioned, xlvii, xlviii, liii ; 
succeeds his father, Peter, 
4 ; unldndness to Phineas 
and Noah, 4 ; loan to 
Phineas, 5 ; sheathes De- 



PETT 

fiance, 6 ; employs Phineas, 
6 ; rebuilds Trhimph, 6 ; 
yard at Limehouse, 7, 8 ; 
employs Phineas on Elizabeth 
Jonas, 9 ; lack of assist- 
ance from, 13, 15 ; reconcilia- 
tion, 15 ; reversion of post to 
Phineas, 23 ; wharf at Lime- 
house, 24 ; death, burial at 
Stepney, 27 ; mentioned, 174, 
178 

Pett, Joseph (son), birth, 34 ; 
death, 136 

Pett, Joseph (nephew), men- 
tioned, 151, 153 ; his wife 
mentioned, 158 

Pett, Katharine. See Cole 

Pett, Lydia, xlviii ; death, 
76 

Pett, Martha, birth of, 117; 
married to John Hodieme, 
164 

Pett, Mary (sister), ill-treat- 
ment by step-father, 12 ; 
at Limehouse, 13 ; sickness, 
14 ; death of husband, 117 ; 
death, 137 

Pett, Mary (daughter), birth 
of, 117 ; death, 118 

Pett, Mildred. See Byland 

Pett, Noah, xlviii ; emigrates 
to Ireland, 4 ; master in 
Popinjay, 5 ; drowned at 
Cork, 6 

Pett, Peter (of Harwich), xliv, 
xlvii 

Pett, Peter (of Deptford), 
master shipwright : grants to, 
xxi, xxii, xxiii, xxiv ; grant 
of arms, xliv, 218; father 
of Phineas, i ; lodging at 
Chatham, 2 ; death, 2 ; 
ships built by, xlvii, Ixx ; 
his children, Ixviii, 1 



234 



INDEX 



PETT 

Pett, Peter (of Wapping), xlii, 
xlv, xlviii, Ixix ; death, 
Ixxxvi ; assists his brother, 
4, 5 ; woods at Paglesham, 
8 ; purveyor in forest of 
AUce Holt, 30 ; mentioned, 
78, 113, 178, 183 

Pett, Peter (son of Peter of 
Wapping), voyage in Dis- 
dain, 93 ; builds the Sixth 
Whelp, 139 ; builds James, 
154 ; mentioned, 120, 145 n. 

Pett, Peter (the younger), 
xlviii ; service as tutor, 12 ; 
ill-treatment by father-in- 
law, 12 ; lives at Limehouse, 
13 ; clerk in Arches, 14 ; 
death, 16 

Pett, Peter (son), commissioner 
at Chatham, ix ; Shipwrights' 
Company, xxxvii, xxxix ; 
rebuilds Prince Royal, Ixxxi ; 
plan of Sovereign, cxvii ; 
portrait, ci ; birth of, 
78 ; builds Charles, 149 ; 
voyage in Henrietta, 151 ; 
arrangements for marriage, 
152 ; journey to Wood- 
bridge, 152 ; to build new 
ship, 153 ; married to Mr. 
Cole's daughter, 153 ; visit 
to father at Chatham, 156 ; 
builds Leopard at Wool- 
wich, 156-7 ; sets out for 
north of England. 158 ; 
timber for Sovereign, 160 ; 
return to Woolwich, 162 ; 
on board Sovereign, 169, 
accompanies father to King, 
171 ; and Lord Admiral, 
172 
Pett, Phineas, the manuscript, 
vii ; table of his relations, 
1 ; of his family, li ; birth. 



PETT 

I ; school at Rochester, i ; 
at Greenwich, 2 ; enters 
Emmanuel College, 2 ; mis- 
fortunes from his mother's 
second marriage, 2 ; appren- 
ticed as shipwright, 3 ; 
serves under Mathew Baker, 
3 ; ships as carpenter's mate 
in the Constance, 4 ; assisted 
by a stranger, 5 ; misery of 
voyage, 5 ; lands in Ireland 
and visits his uncle at Dublin 
5 ; returns to London and 
lodges with his brother Peter, 

j 5 ; assistance of brother 
Joseph, 5 ; employed on 

I Defiance and Triumph, 6 ; 

I employed by Baker on 
Repulse, 7 ; instruction 

I given by Baker, liii, 7 ; 

j makes model for Burghley, 

i 8 ; presented to Nottingham, 
Ivi, 8 ; employed by Joseph, 
8 ; courtship, 9 ; takes house 
at Limehouse, 9 ; married 
to Ann Nicholls, 10 ; un- 
employed, 10 ; purveyor of 
timber in Suffolk and Nor- 
folk, II ; trouble over the 
accounts, Ivi, 11 ; takes care 
of his brother and sisters, 
12 ; model made for Trevor, 
14 ; studies mathematics, 
14 ; appointed storekeeper 
at Chatham, 15 ; reconciUa- 
tion with Joseph, 15 ; takes 
house at Chatham, 16; 
nearly captured by Dun- 
kirker, 16 ; assistant master 
shipwright, 17 ; contractor 
for victualling, 17 ; sued at 
law for striking George 
ColUns, Ivii, 18 ; undertakes 
to fit out fleet, 18 ; voyage 



INDEX 



235 



PETT 

to Ipswich, 19 ; journey to 
Highwood Hill, 19 ; works 
on Answer, 20 ; his letter 
to Baker, liii ; builds Disdain 
for Prince Henry, 21 ; 
voyage up the Thames, 21 ; 
presented to Prince Henry, 
23 ; granted reversion of 
master shipwright's place, 
xxvi, 23 173 ; builds Resist- 
ance, 24 ; voyage to Spain 
in her, Iviii, 25 ; returns 
to Chatham, 26 ; journeys 
to East Bere, 26, 28 ; suc- 
ceeds Joseph as master ship- 
wright despite opposition of 
Stevens, xxv, 27 ; King of 
Denmark visits Chatham, 
29; works on Ark Royal 
and Victory, Ixiv, 30 ; 
journeys to Alice Holt and 
Shotover, 30 ; elected master 
of Shipwrights' Co., 30 ; 
makes model for Prince 
Henry, Ixvi, 31 ; interview 
with James I, 32 ; Com- 
mission of Inquiry (1608), 
Ixi, 32 ; entertainment of 
Prince Henry, 34 ; launch 
of Anne Royal, 37 ; lays keel 
of Prince Royal, 37 ; hostility 
of other shipwrights, 38 ; 
warned by Vicars, 38 ; 
frustrates Waymouth, 40 ; 
seeks help of Mansell and 
Trevor, 40 ; and of Notting- 
ham, 41 ; Nottingham visits 
James, 42 ; inquiry ordered, 
Ixxiv, 42 ; inquiry at Wool- 
wich, Ixxv, 44 ; anger of 
Northampton, 46 ; James 
decides on personal inquiry, 
47 ; support of Prince 
Henry, 50 ; proceedings of 



PETT 

inquiry before James, Ixxxi, 
51-66 ; James exonerates 
him, 63 ; favoured by 
James, 68 ; inquiry into 
abuses at Greenwich, 69 ; 
the case of the Resistance, 
Iviii, 70 ; Waymouth appeals 
to him, 73 ; displeasure of 
Prince Henry, 75 ; feast at 
St. James's, 76 ; Prince 
Henry visits him, 76 ; the 
Prince and James examine 
the Prince Royal, 77 ; 
visitors to the ship, 77 ; 
survey of the navy, 78 ; 
journey to Nonsuch, 78 ; 
preparations for launching, 
79 ; failure to launch, 81 ; 
disappointment of James, 

82 ; Prince Royal launched, 
and named by Prince Henry, 

83 ; removes from Woolwich 
to Chatham, 85 ; Resistance 
sails for the Straits, 85, 93 ; 
embarks in Prince Royal, 
and sails to Chatham, 86 ; 
journey to London, 87 ; 
visit of Prince Henry to 
Chatham, 88 ; takes leave 
at Gravesend, 90 ; search for 
Arabella Stuart, 91 ; on 
board Resistance in storm, 

91 ; reproved by Prince 
Henry for survey of navy, 

92 ; voyage in Disdain, 93 ; 
at Woolwich, 94 ; choice of, 
ship for N.W. Passage, 95 ; 
takes leave of Button, 96 ; 
builds Phoenix, 96 ; sells 
Resistance, 96 ; visit to 
Prince Henry, 97 ; visit of 
Prince's suite, 98 ; master 
of Shipwrights' Co., 99 ; 
portrait commenced, ci, 100 ; 



236 



INDEX 



PETT 

grief at death of Prince 1 
Henry, loi ; journey to ' 
London and preparations for 
marriage and transport of 
Lady Elizabeth, 102 ; takes 
lodging in Westminster, 102 ; 
sham sea fight, 103 ; pre- 
paration of fleet,' 104 ; em- 
barks in Prince Royal, 105 ; 
Prince Royal put aground, 
106 ; sails for Netherlands, 
109 ; visits Flushing and 
Middelburg, no; returns 
to England, in; takes over 
Merhonour on death of 
Baker, 112 ; falls from horse, 
112 ; taken ill on journey 
to Westminster, 112 ; re- 
turns to Woolwich, 113 ; 
fall in Merhonour, 114 ; 
royal visits to Woolwich and 
Chatham, 114; removes to 
Chatham, 115 ; builds 
Destiny for Raleigh, Ixxxviii, 
115, 117; purchases land 
at Chatham, 116 ; master 
of Shipwrights' Co., 116; 
builds pinnace for Lord 
Zouch and sails to Dover, 
116; employed in New 
Forest, 118; Commission of 
Inquiry, (1618), Ixxxiii, 119; 
placed under Norreys, 119; 
makes dock at Chatham, 
120 ; visit of Buckingham, 
120 ; James gives him patent 
for baronetcy, 121 ; builds 
pinnaces for Algiers Ex- 
pedition, Ixxxiii, 122 ; sails 
to Malaga, 123 ; returns 
to Chatham, 124 ; Prince 
Royal prepared for voyage 
to Spain, 125; letter to 
Buckingham 212 ; sails to 



PETT 

Santander, Ixxxviii, 126 ; 
Prince Charles at Santander, 
128 ; returns, 130 ; at Scilly 
Islands, 131 ; lands at Dover, 
132 ; presented with gold 
chain and attends Prince 
to the Parliament, 133 ; 
colhers fitted as men-of-war, 
133 ; storm in the Downs, 
133 ; visited by Charles I, 
134 ; sails to Boulogne to 
fetch Henrietta Maria, 135 ; 
plans for small ships, 136 ; 
appointed on Commission of 
Inquiry (1626), 137 ; death 
of wife, 137 ; married to 
Mrs. Yardley, 138 ; building 
of Lion's Whelps, 138 ; 
arrested for debt, Ixxxvi, 
139 ; Charles I gives him 
patent for baronetcy, 139 ; 
murder of Buckingham, 140 ; 
returns from Portsmouth to 
Chatham, 140 ; imprisoned 
in the Fleet, 141 ; repairs 
dock at Woolwich, 142 ; falls 
from horse, 142 ; surrenders 
house at Chatham, visits 
various forests, 142 ; ap- 
pointed assistant principal 
of&cer, 144 ; at Portsmouth, 

144 ; taken ill on journey 
home to Woolwich, 145 ; 
appointed a principal officer, 

145 ; Charles attends launch 
at Woolwich, 146 ; removes 
to Chatham, 147 ; Charles 
visits Chatham, 147 ; at 
Portsmouth, 148 ; returns 
to Chatham, 149 ; enter- 
tains Charles at Woolwich, 
149 ; returns to Chatham 
in Henrietta, 150 ; journeys 
to Portsmouth, 150 ; returns 



INDEX 



237 



PETT 

to Chatham, 151 ; sails to 
Harwich in Henrietta, 151 ; 
at Woodbridge, 152 ; re- 
turns to Chatham, 153 ; sale 
of brown paper stuff, Ixxxix, 
153, ^55 > at Harwich, 153 ; 
Woodbridge, 154 ; return 
to Chatham, 154 ; arrested 
at instance of sister-in-law, 
Ixxxvi, 154 ; model for 
Prince Charles, 156 ; Charles 
commissions him to build 
a great ship, xci, 156 ; model 
of the Sovereign, 157 ; re- 
ceives arrears of pension, 
157 ; voyage to Yorkshire, 
159 ; visits Foxe, 159 ; at 
Newcastle, 159 ; selects trees 
in Chopwell and Brancepeth, 
160 ; leaves Durham for 
London, 161 ; visits Cam- 
bridge, 161 ; returns to 
Chatham, 162 ; keel of 
Sovereign laid, 162 ; assists 
in salvage of Anne Royal, 
163 ; Charles visits Wool- 
wich, 162, 163 ; death of 
wife, Susan, 164 ; failure 
to launch Sovereign, 165 ; 
launched, 166 ; royal visit 
to ship, 167-8 ; embarks 
in Sovereign, 169 ; in the 
Downs, 169 ; disembarks 
at Deal and returns to 
Chatham, 170 ; death of 
wife, Mildred, 171 ; visits 
Charles, 171 ; visits North- 
umberland, 172 ; the last 
years, xcix ; his death, c ; 
character and abiUty, ci ; 
interest in arctic exploration, 
cii ; Virginia Co., ciii ; in- 
come, ciii ; motive in writing 
the autobiography, civ 



PORTSMOUTH 

Pett, Phineas (seventh child), 

birth of, 115; death, 118 
Pett, Phineas (tenth child), 

birth of, 120 
Pett, Phineas (son of John), 

birth of, 141 
Pett, Phineas (grandson), lends 
Pepys the MS., ix 
I Pett, Sir Phineas, ci 
i Pett, Rachel, marries Rev. Mr. 
Newman, 2 ; death, 3 . 
Pett, Richard (son of Peter), 
I xlviii 

i Pett, Richard (son), birth of, 
I 28 ; mentioned, 127, 140 ; 
i foreman at Chatham, 137 ; 
I accompanies father to prison, 
141 ; death, 143 
Pett, Thomas, of Skipton, xliv, 

xlv 
Pett, William, master ship- 
wright, xxiii, xlvii 
Pett, WiUiam, xUx n. 
Pett, William (nephew), 120 
Pette, William, xlvi 
Phillips, Sir Edward, Ixi n. 
Phineas, derivation of name, 

hi, I 
Pickasee, Mr., victualling at 

Chatham, 17 
Picks, Willidm, 183 
Pitt, William, 119 
Plague, 19 
Plats, 95 
Plumstead, 77 
Plymouth, 203 ; Sound, 128, 

214 
Popham, Sir John, lord chief 

justice, 13 
Pole, William de la, xvi 
Pope, Mr., Ivii 

Portsmouth, xxi, xlvi, 126, 
127, 132, 138, 140, 151 ; 
Dock, 144 ; examination of 



238 



INDEX 



PORTSMOUTH 

harbour, 144 ; worm at, 
145 ; Queen's Head, 148 ; 
King at, 148 ; survey at, 

150 
Pory, John, mediates between 
Waymouth and Phineas, 

72-3 
Price, Rev. Dr., loi - 
Prime, Thomas, 57, 178 
Principal Officers of the Navy, 
81, 99, 102, 119, 138-9, 142, 
145, 147, 148 ; Phineas, 
created assistant to, 143 ; 
meet in Mincing Lane, 144, 
146 
Privy Council, inquiry before 
James at Woolwich, 52 ; 
release of Phineas from 
prison, 139 ; mentioned, 
Ixxxiv, 29, 68, 72, 76, 81, 
122, 138 
Prytly, 108 

Puniett, Thomas, 85, 86, 123 
Pyham, Rev. John, 120, 136 



QUEENBOROUGH, 25, 88, 89, 

9I1 93, 105. 106, 126, 158 



Rabye, Nicholas, 178 

Radclyffe, Francis, 121 

Rainham, 16 

Ralegh, Sir Walter, Ixxxviii ; 
Phineas contracts to build 
Destiny, 115 ; launched, 116 ; 
mentioned, ii6, 139, 211 

Rammekcns, no 

Ratcliff, xxxiv, 20, 77, 91, 118, 
139, 178 ; Phineas lodges at, 
loi ; Mercury and Spy built 
at, 122 

Red riff (Rotherhithe), com- 

l^ pany of shipwrights, xxxii ; I 



ST. JOHN 

court of shipwrights, 40 ; 
common hall, 116; men- 
tioned, 178, 181, 182, 205 

Red Sand, 123 

Redwood, Thomas, 54 

Reynolds, Henry, appointed to 
survey materials for Prince 
Royal, 68 

Reynolds, John, master gunner 
of Prince Royal, 86, 90, 97, 
107 ; mentioned, 98 ; master 
gunner of England, 133 

Rich, Henry. See Holland 

Richmond, 31, 92, 97, 98 

Rickman, Robert, 54 

Rochelle, ships for expedition, 
138 ; mentioned, 140 

Rochester, Free School, 2 ; 
Boley Hill, 16, 20 ; pro- 
clamation at, 19 ; college of, 
116 ; St. Margaret's Church, 

^138 ; Crown Inn, 147 ; King 
at, 148 ; mentioned, 99, 
100, 115, 205 

Rock, Thomas, ship-painter, ci, 
19, 100 

Rogers, Thomas, xlvii n. 

Rotherhithe. See Redriff 

Rupert, Prince, 162 

Russell, James, 178 

Russell, Mrs., 120 

Rutland, Earl of. Admiral of 
fleet fetching Prince Charles 
from Spain, 127, 131 

Rye, 26 



Sackville, Edward. See Dor- 
set 

St. Helens, 132 

St. James's Palace, 23, 88, 100, 
loi, 132, 156 

St. John, Captain Sir William, 
88 



INDEX 



■2Z9 



ST. MARY 

St. Mary Creek, 87, 105, 125, 
126, 154, 171 

St. Vincent, ravens of, 32 

St. Vincent, Cape, 123 

Salisbury, Earl of, lord high 
treasurer, advises James not 
to discharge men working on 
Prince Royal, 48 ; the in- 
quiry before James at Wool- 
wich, 57 ; mediates on behalf 
of Waymouth, 72, 74 ; search 
for Arabella Stuart, 91 

Salmon, R., 216 

Sandis, Edwyn, xcix 

Sandwich, 135, 136 

San Lucar, lix, 26 

Santa Maria (Cape), 26 

Santander, 26, 125, 128, 130 

Scarborough, 159 

Scavelmen, 82 n. 

Scilly Islands, mentioned, 130 ; 
Prince Charles lands, 131 ; 
stays in Castle Hugh, 132 ; 
leaves, 132 

Scotland, xlvi 

Scotland Yard, 156 

Seames, The, 141 

Seaton, Colonel Sir John, xcix 

Seville, 26 

Sharpe, Robert, 57, 93 

Sheerness, 87, 94 

Sheldon, Francis, clerk of check 
at Woolwich, 153 

Sheppey, Isle, 94 

Ships, Shipwrights' Company 

|. to examine, xxxii ; arma- 
ment of, xxxii ; of Holland, 
Ixxiii, 130 ; Flemish, 9 ; 
Newcastle carvel, 14 ; Httle, 
for the Prince, 21 ; pinnace 
for the Prince, 96 ; for Lord 
Zouch, 116; general survey, 
119; ketch, 130; Dunkirk, 
130. See also Models 



SHIPS 

Ships, named, merchant : 
AUhea, 85 
Archangel, Ixx 
Centaur, 85 
Constance, 4 
Destiny, Ixxxvi, Ixxxviii, ciii, 

54 n., 117, 211, 217 
Discovery, Ixx, 95 w., 97 n. 
Dolphin, 133 
Expedition, 54 n., 91 n. 
Godspeed, Ixx 
Mathew, 85 

Mercury, Ixxxiv, ciii, 122, 217 
Peppercorn, 75, 76 
Resistance, Iviii, Ixiii, Ixviii, 

cii, 24-26, 70, 77, 78, 84, 

85, 91-3. 95. 96, 217 
Resolution, cii, 95 n., c^'j n. 
Spy, Ixxxiv, ciii, 122, 217 
jyade's Increase, 75, 76 
Ships named, royal : 
Achates, xlvii 
Advantage, xlvii 
Anne Royal {See also Ark 

Royal), Ixiv, 34, 35, 37, 

103, 105-7, 163 
Answer, liii, Ixviii, 20, 24, 217 
Antelope, 125, 133, 134, 213 
Ark Royal, 21, 29, 30, 37, 217 
Bear, Ixx, 25, 29 
Bonaventure, 95 
Britannia, ci 

Charles, 149, 150, 164 n., 217 
Convertive, Ixxxviii. See also 

Destiny 
Crane, Ivii 
Defiance, xlvii, 6, 94-5, 112, 

114, 115, 129, 217 
Disdain, 23, 93, 102, 217 
Dreadnought, 95 
Elizabeth Jonas, Ixxx, 9, 10, 

24, 29, 115 
Foresight, lix, Ix 
Fortune Pink, 156 



240 



INDEX 



SHIPS 

Ships, named, royal [cont.) : 

Garland, 170 

George, 213 

Golden Lion, 29, 56 n. 

Grace Dieu, xvii, xlvi 

Greyhound, xlvii, 163, 217 

Happy Enirafice, 121 

Henrietta, 137, 151, 153, 217 

Henrietta Maria, 149 

Henri Grace d Dieu, xvii 

James, 154 

Leader baige, xxii 

Leopard, 156, 157 

L:o«, 103, 147 

Lion barge, xxii 

Lion's Whelps, 17, 138, 149 

Maria, 137, 148, 217 

Mary Rose, 215 

Merhonour, Ixvii, 94, 95, 112, 
114, 115, 217 

Moon, xlvii, Ixviii, 17, 217 

Phoenix, 96, 104, 217 

Popinjay, 5 

Primrose, 19 

Prince Royal, Ixvi-lxxxii, 
Ixxxix, civ, 37-68, 77, 
79-87, 90, 99. 103-110, 
114, 115, 119, 124-7, 134, 
147, 207, 212, 214, 217 

Rainbow, xlvii, 130 

Red Lion {see also Golden 
Lion), 68 

Reformation, 121 

Regent, xvii, xlvi 

Repulse, Ivii, 6 

Roebuck, 163, 217 

5/. Denis, 146, 151 «. 

S^ Es^n/, 138 

5^. George, 125, 132 

Sovereign of the Seas, ix, 
xlii, Ixxix, xci-xcix, c, ci, 
156, 162, 164-171,214. 217 

Spy, 103 

Swiftsure, xlvii, 29 



SHORT 

Ships, named, royal {cont.) : 
Triumph, 6, 7, 115 
Unicorn, Ixxx, 154 
i Vanguard, 135, 142, 146 

Victory, Ixiv, Ixvi, 29, 146 
j Warspite, xxii 
i Shipwright, master, origin of, 
j XV ; rate of pay, xviii, 
xxvii ; two classes, xxviii ; 
mentioned, xxi, Ixiv, 95, 
102, 145, 119 
Shipwrights, early, xv ; scale 
of pay, xix ; petition for 
incorporation, xxix, 175 ; 
Waymouth's criticisms of, 
I Ixxi ; deputation to Lord 
I High Admiral concerning 
i arrears of pay, 112; Com- 
j mission of Inquiry (161 8), 
i 119 ; of Thames, 124 ; launch 
I of Sovereign, 164 
Shipwrights, Company of (in- 
corporated), origin of, xxix ; 
charter of 1605, xxix, 176 ; 
charter of 161 2, xxx, 179 ; its 
powers, xxxii ; opposition of 
rivals, xxxiii ; parUament- 
ary powers sought, xxxvii, 
xxxviii, xl ; in difficulties, 
xxxviii ; ceases to function, 
xxxix ; surrenders charter 
and attempts to obtain new 
one, xxxix ; Phineas elected 
master, 30, 99, 116; Court 
at Redriff, 40 
Shipwrights, Company of (Lon- 
don), origin, xxxiii ; disputes 
with incorporated company, 
xxxiv ; exempted from its 
jurisdiction, xxxv 
Shoreham, 72, 151, 171 
Shorn, xUii 

Short, John, clerk of check at 
Chatham, 171 



INDEX 



241 



SHORT 

Short, Mrs., 171 
Shorten, 109 n., 127 n. 
Shotover, 30, 142, 149, 153 
Shrewsbury, Earl of, 89 
Simonson, Martha, 20 
Simonson, Mrs., 20, 115 
Simonson, Nicholas, dock at 
Ratcliff, 77 ; launch of 
Prince Royal, 80 ; suicide, 
118 ; mentioned, 9, 57, 178, 

183 

Sion House, 172 

Skipton, xliv 

Sluis, 109 

Smith, Robert, messenger, 146 

Smith, Sir Thomas, 118, 122, 
126 

Smith, Thomas, en., ci 

Smyth, John, shipwright, xxi 

Southampton, xlvii, 178, 205 

South Sand Head, 169 

Southwark, 103 n. 

South wold, 10 

Spain, voyage to, lix, Ixxxi, 
Ixxxviii, 2, 125-32, 214 

Spencer, Lawrence, boatswain 
of Prince Royal, 86 

Spicke, Mrs., 113 

Spits, The, 108, 158 

Stamford, 161 

Starland, Mr., 147 

Start, The, 26 

Stephins, William, shipwright, 
xxii 

Stepney, 10, 27 

Stevens, Edward, master ship- 
wright, xxii ; grant to, xxv ; 
report on Prince Royal, Ixxv ; 
reversion of master ship- 
wright's place, 20, 23 ; fails 
to obtain it on death of 
Joseph, 27 ; the Commission 
of Inquiry, 33 ; combines 
against Phineas, 38, 43 ; evi- 



THORNTON 

dence before inquiry, 45 ; in- 
quiry before James at Wool- 
wich, 49, 55, 60 ; censured by 
James, 63 ; at Chatham with 
Phineas, survey of Prince, 
124 ; mentioned, 178, 183 

Stevens, Edward, junior, ship- 
wright, 149 

Steward, Sir Francis, voyage 
to Spain, 125, 132, 213 

Stockton, 159 

Stokes Bay, 126, 127 

Stonham Aspul, xliii 

Stowmarket, 161 

Stowood, 142, 149, 153 

Straits, The, 26, 91, 93 

Strood, 90, 147 

Stuart, Arabella, escape and 
search for, 91 

Stuart, James. See Lennox 

Suffolk, 151 

Suffolk, Earl of, lord high 
chamberlain, inquiry on 
Prince Royal, Ixxiv, 42 ; 
lord treasurer, 117 

Sunderland, 160 

Sunning Park, 143 

Surtis, Nicholas, 57, 93 

Sussex, 148 

Sutton, Sir Richard, 119 

Swatchway, 17 

Taylor, John, 145 w. 
Tayte, Lewis, Ixxxviii, 211 
Teme, Nathaniel, xc 
Terringham, Francis, 153 
Thames, River, mentioned, 49, 

53, 176 ; ice in, 123 
Theobalds Park, 8, 80, 125, 212 
Thetford, xliv 
Thornton, Elizabeth (mother 

of Phineas), wife of Peter 

Pett, xlviii, i ; marries Rev. 

T. Nunn, 2 ; death, 8 



242 



INDEX 



Thornton] 

Thornton, George, captain in 
navy ; assists his nephew, 
Noah, 4 ; visited at DubUn, 5 

Through head, 9 n. 

Tilbury, 21 

Tilbury Hope, 19, 87, 88, 93, 
123, 163 

Titchfield Haven, 148 

Together, 96 

Tonnage, measurement of, 96 

Tranckmore, Robert, the Com- 
mission of Inquiry, 33 ; in- 
quiry before James at Wool- 
wich, 55 

Treswell, Robert, 143 

Trevor, Lady, 37 

Trevor, Sir John, surveyor of 
the navy, Ivi, lix, Ix, Ixvi ; 
especial friend, 11 ; model 
for, 14, 15 ; sick, 18 ; part 
owner of Resistance, 25 ; 
purchases trees, 27 ; the 
Commission of Inquiry, 38 ; 
plot revealed to, 40 ; in- 
quiry before James at Wool- 
wich, 49, 51, 57, 67 ; in- 
quiry into abuses at Green- 
wich, 69 ; survey of navy, 
78 ; launch of Prince Royal, 
80, 83 ; transfers post of 
surveyor to Bingley, 92 ; 
mentioned, 23, 27, 28, 37, 
68, 138 

Trevor, Sir Sackville, 129 

Trinity House, report on Ship- 
wrights' Company, xxxix ; 
masters of, on inquiry of 
1618, 119; examination of 
Portsmouth Harbour, 145 ; 
masters of, 165, 166, 167 ; 
protest against building 
Royal Sovereign, xci, 314 

Tuck, 44 n. 

Taxford, 161 



WAYMOUTH 

Ungle, Robert, 11 

Upnor, Ixxix, 87, 89, 93, 104 «. 



Vale. See a Vale 

Valladolid, lix 

Vane, Sir Henry, c ; comp- 
troller of household, 155 

Vaughan. Rev, Mr., 164 

Vere, no 

Vicars, Sebastian, carver, warns 
Phineas of combination 
against him, 38, 39 ; death, 
112, mentioned, 207 

Virginia Company, ciii 



Waade, Sir William, Ixi n. 

Wales, 177, 179, 180 

Wales, Prince of. See Henry 
and Charles 

Walsham-le- Willows, xlv 

Wanstead, 157 

Wapping, xlviii, 5 

Warwick, Earl of. Lord High 
Admiral, xxxvii, xcix 

Waterford, 5 

Watford, Richard, 183 

Wathsfield, xliii, xlv 

Watts, Captain, Prince Royal 
inquiry at Woolwich, 54 

Waymouth, Captain George, 
arctic exploration, Ixx, ciii ; 
knowledge of shipbuilding, 
Ixx-lxxiv ; report on Prince 
Royal, Ixxv ; the Commission 
of Inquiry, 33 ; combine* 
against Phineas, 38 ; re 
veals plot to Burrell, 40 ; 
evidence before inquiry. 45 ; 
inquiry before James at 
Woolwich, 49, 51, 54, 55, 
60 ; failure in building small 
ship, 70 ; goes to Flushing 



INDEX 



243 



WAYMOUTH 

and Antwerp, 72 ; ordered 
to be apprehended as a 
pirate, 72 ; applies to Earl 
of Salisbury for protection, 
72 ; pension as master 
engineer, 72 ; advised to 
get Phineas to mediate with 
Lord Admiral, 73 ; Phineas 
invited to supper, 73 ; Mr. 
Pory attempts reconcilia- 
tion, 73 ; asks Phineas to 
pardon him, 74 ; explains 
how he was induced to act 
against him, 74 ; pardoned, 
75 ; death, 75 ; North-west 
Passage, 95 n. 

Webb, Mr., master of free 
school at Rochester, 2 

Wells, John, xci 

Wells, Thomas, 183 

Wentbridge, 161 

Westminster, mentioned, 19, 
33. 40, 88, 112, 143, 211 ; 
Abbey, loi ; St. Stephen's 
Al ey, 102 

Weston, 8, 11, 12 

Weston, Richard (Lord), com- 
missioner for the navy, 119 ; 
lord treasurer, 139, 141, 142, 
143, 146, 148 

Weymouth, 128 

Whitaker Spit, 126 

Whitby, 159 

Whitechapel, Ivii 

Whitehall, 22, 31, 32, 40, 46, 
50, 67, 89, 114, 149. 164, 165 ; 
sham sea-fight, 102 ; masque 
by water, 103 ; privy stairs, 
103 ; privy gallery, 157 

Whitehead, Esau, 178 

Whiting, Walter, master of 
Prince Royal, 131 

Wiggs, Thomas, 10 

Wight, Isle of, 148, 214 



WOOLWICH 

Wilkinson, Robert, 178 

Williams, Thomas, shipwright, 
136 

Wills, Mr., 85 

Wilson, George, boatswain of 
Lion, 21 ; master attendant, 
138, 142 

Wilson, Mr., Prince Henry's 
tailor, 97 

Windebank, Sir Francis, sec- 
retary of state, 155 

Windebank, Sir Thomas, 23, 
24 

Windsor, 112, 143 

Witham, 162 

Wolstenholme, Sir John, 119 

Wood, Gilbert, presents Phineas 
to Lord High Admiral, 8 

Wood, John, first servant, 6 

Woodbridge, The Crown, 152 ; 
church, 154 ; colUer of, 160 ; 
mentioned, 150, 156, 158, 
162, 178, 205 

Woodcott, James, 54 

Woodcott, John, 56 

Woodcott, Mathew, 54 

Woolwich, Defiance brought 
into dock, 6 ; Triumph at, 
7 ; Elizabeth Jonas brought 
into dock, 9 ; launched out, 
10 ; Ark Royal and Victory 
docked, 29, 30 ; new gates 
for dock, 34 ; church, 34 ; 
Ark Royal renamed, 37 ; 
investigation into state of 
Prince Royal, 42, 44 ; James 
resolves on personal in- 
quiry at, 47 ; Alerhonour 
and Defiance docked, 94 ; 
and rebuilt, 112 ; neglect 
at. 113 ; Phineas returns to, 
113, 143; visit of King of 
Denmark, 114; Merhonour 
and Defiance launched, 115; 



244 



INDEX 



WOOLWICH 

Elizabeth Jonas and Tri- 
umph docked, 115 ; Destiny 
built in galley dock, 116 ; 
Vanguard docked, 142 ; dock 
renewed, 142 ; Richard 
Pett buried at, 143 ; 
Phineas returns ill from 
Portsmouth, 145; launch 
of Vanguard and Victory, 
146 ; Charles built, 149 ; 
King visits, 149 ; Peter 
to build ship at. 153 ; Uni- 
corn launched, 154 ; Leopard 
built, 156 ; launched, 157 ; 
visit of Charles to, 156 ; 
Sovereign to be built at, 
158; limber for, 160; keel 
laid, 162 ; visit of Charles I, 

162 ; and Palsgrave, 162, 

163 ; launch of the Sovereign, 
166 ; docked, 167 ; men- 
tioned, passim 

Worcester, Earl of, master of 
the horse, visits ship, 22 ; 
mentioned, 27, 28 ; inquiry 
on Prince Royal, Ixxiv, 42 



ZOUCH 

Wotton, Lord, Ixi n. 
Wright, Robert, 56 



Yacht, 109 

Yardley, Catherine, married 
to John, 136; married to 
Edward Stevens, 149 

Yardley, Edward, 146, 151 

Yardley, Robert, 115, 136, 138 

Yardley, Susan, married to 
Phineas, 138 ; mentioned, 
142 ; journey to Chatham, 
146, 164 ; death, 164 

Yarmouth, 205 ; road, 158, 
178 

York, 161 

York, Duke of. See Charles I 



Zapata, Cardinal, 129 
Zouch, Lord, lord warden of 

cinque ports, Ixi, Ixxvii ; 

pinnace built for, ciii, 116, 

117 



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